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Title: The History of South Australia Volume II.
Author: Edwin Hodder.
* A Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook *
eBook No.: 1303951h.html
Language: English
Date first posted: July 2013
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Production Notes:

Some aspects of the punctuation have been modernised; a small number of misprints (except names) have been corrected. The text font size of the Appendices has not been reduced. The single map accompanying this volume has been included. (The other map mentioned on the title page accompanies Volume I.)

The various administrations have been added to the Chrological Summary chapter in the Table of Contents.

















St. Dunstan's House,

(All rights reserved.)




February 20th, 1868—February 16th, 1869.

Dissolution.—Reform and Protection.—Troublous Times.—The Northern Territory.—Public Finances.—Crisis-mongering.—The "St. George of the Land Reformers."—The "Battle of the Areas."—Review



February 16th, 1869—December, 1872.

Brilliant Career.—Second Visit of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh.—Arrival of New Governor.—Palmerston, the New Settlement in Northern Territory.—Mr. G.W. Goyder and his Survey Party.—Appeal to the Privy Council.—Parliamentary Procedure in Adelaide.—Elections.—A Land Bill.—Dissolution.—Education and Bible Reading.—A Question of Precedence.—Finances.—Public Debt of the Colony.—The Transcontinental Telegraph.—Mr. C. Todd.—A Gigantic Undertaking.—Horse Expresses.—Completion of Telegraph from Port Darwin to Port Augusta.—Bonuses and Banquets.—Honours.—Speeches. "Disintegration of the Empire."—Gold Mining in Northern Territory.—Explorations.—Mr. John Forrest.—Colonel Warburton.—Gosse.—Giles.—Higher Education.—Prince Alfred Sailors' Home.—Bushmen's Club.—New Industries.—Progress in Buildings.—Valedictory Address of Governor



June, 1873—January, 1877.

Sir Richard Hanson, Acting Governor.—Antecedents of Mr. A. Musgrave.—Policy with regard to Northern Territory.—Gold Companies.—Visit of Mr. Reynolds to Palmerston.—Coolie Labour.—Mr. G.B. Scott, Government Resident.—Port Darwin declared a Free Port.—Action of the North Australian Land Company.—Free and Assisted Immigration.—Condition of the Working Classes.—Free, Secular, and Compulsory Education.—Parliamentary "Standing Dishes."—Project of a Transcontinental Railway.—New Roads.—The Murray Railway Scheme.—New Industries.—Silk Culture.—Explorations of Mr. Gosse.—Colonel Warburton.—Mr. Ernest Giles.—Mr. John Forrest.—Bridging the Murray.—Wreck of the Gothenburg.—Opening of Adelaide University.—Union College.—Magnificent Gifts.—Governor's Farewell Address



October, 1877—January, 1883.

Mr. Justice Way, Acting Governor.—Arrival of Sir W.W. Cairns.—A Short Administration.—Mr. Justice Way again Acting Governor.—Arrival of Sir William Jervois.—Colonial Defence.—A Parliamentary Deadlock.—A Land and Property Tax Bill.—Financial Affairs—Sunday Opening of Institutes.—Intercolonial Conference.—Sir George Kingston.—Reform of the Upper House.—The Crown Lands Department. Law Reforms.—The Northern Territory and Chinese Immigration.—The Sugar Cultivation Act.—Indian Coolie Immigrants.—Explorations.—Mr. Favenc.—The Census.—Visit of Prince Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales.—A Day at Collingrove, Angaston.—The Adelaide Exhibition.—The Torrens Lake.—Drought and Agricultural Distress.—Charter of Adelaide University.—Governor's Farewell Speech.—South Australian Loans



February 17, 1883—March 5, 1889.

Antecedents of Sir William Robinson.—Formation of Old Colonists' Association.—The Bray Ministry. Colonial Federation.—New Electoral Act.—A Scheme of Taxation.—The Pastoral Land Act—The March of Progress.—Explorations.—Mr. A.N. Chambers.—Mr. Charles Winnecke.—Mr. W. Whitfield Mills.—Defence of the Colony.—Movements in the Northern Territory.—The Jubilee of the Colony.—State of the Times.—Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London.—Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of Foundation Day.—Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition.—A Silver Mining Boom.—Chinese Immigration.—Harvests.—Departure of Sir William Robinson.—Arrival of the Earl of Kintore.—Adelaide in 1889.—Railways.—The Playford Government.—Local Option.—Staple Trades and Industries.—Wheat—Wool.—Mining.—Wines.—Water Conservation and Irrigation.—Forest Culture.—Fruit Growing.—Other Industries.—Conclusion

Chronological Summary of Events from the Foundation of the Colony


Captain Hindmarsh, R.N.
Interim, Mr. G.M. Stephens.
Colonel Gawler.
Captain Grey.
Major Robe.
Sir Henry Young.
Interim, Mr. B.T. Finniss.
Sir R.G. Macdonnell.
Sir Dominick Daly.
Interim, Lieut.-Colonel Hamley.
Sir James Fergusson, Bart.
Interim, Sir Richard Hanson.
Sir Anthony Musgrave, K.C.M.Q.
Interim, Chief Justice Way. (I)
Sir W.W. Cairns, K.C.M.G.
Interim, Chief Justice Way. (II)
Sir Willlam Jervois, G.C.M.G.
Interim, Chief Justice Way. (III)
Sir William Robinson.
Interim, Chief Justice Way. (IV)
The Earl of Kintore.


A.The University of Adelaide
B.The Security for the Bonded Debt of the Colony
C.Changes of Government
D.Great Industries of South Australia
E.The Agricultural College, Roseworthy
F.The Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia


[MAP - at end]





{Page 1}



FEBRUARY 20TH, 1868—FEBRUARY 16TH, 1869.

Dissolution.—Reform and Protection.—Troublous Times.—The Northern Territory.—Public Finances.—Crisis-mongering.—The "St. George of the Land Reformers."—The "Battle of the Areas."—Review.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL Francis Gilbert Hamley, senior officer in command of her Majesty's forces (50th—Queen's Own—Regiment) in the colony at the time of Sir Dominick Daly's death, was sworn in as acting Governor on the 20th of February, 1868, and on the 20th of March he dissolved the House of Assembly by proclamation. Writs for the election of new members were issued immediately afterwards, and the elections were divided into four batches, extending from the 6th of April to the 7th of May, thus giving candidates defeated in one district ample time to seek the suffrages of another.

The two leading questions before the electors were Land Reform and Protection. As regarded the former there were so many schemes and theories afloat, and such diversity of interpretation of them, that it was extremely difficult for electors to form an opinion as to the relative merits of any particular one. Those in favour of deferred payments for land were believed to constitute the majority, although Dutch auction, tender, and other modes met with advocates, while a few were in favour of allowing the land question to remain in statu quo. The protection party, though not numerically strong, was very active and determined, but it only succeeded in returning one or two of its advocates.

The total number of candidates to fill the thirty-six places was fifty-six, twenty in excess of the number required.

The first session of the fifth Parliament was opened by the acting Governor on the 31st of July, 1868, and in his inaugural speech touching references were made to the late "good and impartial" Governor, and also to the attempt on the life of the Duke of Edinburgh at Sydney. Then followed a comprehensive sketch of the state of the colony and of the duties devolving upon the new Parliament.

The sketch included special reference to the temporary depression affecting so many of the sources of industry; to the excellent services rendered by the Committee appointed to inquire into the red rust in wheat, so disastrous to the last harvest; to Captain Cadell's roseate-hued reports of the Northern Territory, and the responsibility of Parliament in respect of the contracts entered into with the holders of land orders for the sale of land in that Territory. Of land reform he spoke but briefly, merely intimating that some modification of the existing system of disposing of waste lands would be submitted to Parliament, whereby greater facilities would be afforded to purchasers for bona-fide occupation. Then followed a long list of other measures of public utility.

In due course Mr. G.S. Kingston was again unanimously elected Speaker, the reply to the Address was carried in both Houses without a division, and, so far, everything promised well. But it soon became apparent that the session would not, like the previous one, pass without a change of Ministry. Within six days an attempt was made by Mr. Carr to carry a vote of censure against the Ministry on the state of affairs relating to laud in the Northern Territory, but it was unsuccessful.

A number of resolutions relating to the Northern Territory were introduced by the Treasurer a few days later, dealing with—

(1) Extension of time for selection of laud.

(2) An increased area of land (240 acres for 160) in compensation for the loss of time incurred.

(3) A still further increase of 320 acres instead of 160 in cases where land-order holders would survey land, not yet surveyed, at their own expense at any time within fifteen years.

(4) Land-order holders of 160 acres to be at liberty to purchase an additional 240 acres of surveyed country land at five shillings per acre, to be selected within five years, or 320 acres of unsurveyed country laud at three shillings and ninepence per acre, to be surveyed at their own cost within ten years.

(5) Repayment of the sum originally paid to any land-order holder unwilling to accept any of the foregoing offers.

The House of Assembly agreed to the extension of time, to an increased area being given, and that steps should be taken to survey the laud without any unnecessary delay.

On the 3rd of September the Treasurer in his budget speech drew rather a gloomy picture of the state of public finances, the deficiency in the revenue for the previous three years amounting to £500,000, which deficiency was ascribed mainly to the drought in the north, the red rust in wheat, and the consequent falling off in the sales of land and in the customs receipts.

A fortnight later Mr. Glyde, the Commissioner of Crown Lands, introduced the Government scheme for the reform of the land system generally.

"Land Reform", now in the fourth year of its existence, was a kind of reaction from the Squatting Agitation of 1864. It is not necessary to chronicle the details of the Government scheme as, the resolutions in which they were couched being rejected, the Ministry resigned. Mr. Alexander Hay and Mr. William Townsend both failing to form a Cabinet, the task was undertaken by Mr. John Hart, who succeeded. The new Ministry met on the 6th of October, and resigned on the 8th, when the Hon. H. Ayers had an innings. But it only lasted till the 23rd. Then the acting Governor was advised to prorogue Parliament with a view to an immediate dissolution of the House of Assembly. This catastrophe was, however, averted, and a new Ministry was formed by the Hon. H.B.T. Strangways, who attempted the task of reconciling the rival parties and stamping out the mass of confusion which would soon have overwhelmed not only land reform but all other legislation.

There had been six weeks of "crisis-mongering", and the real work of the country had again been trifled with by party strife. Each Ministry had propounded a Land Bill, no two of which were in any respect identical, and in each debate the difficulty of the situation had become more and more complicated. But on the 5th of November, Mr. Strangways—"the St. George of the Land Reformers", as the Register dubbed him—announced to the House of Assembly the Policy of the new Ministry. With regard to the Northern Territory, it was similar to that of its predecessors; it was their intention to raise £40,000 for the purpose of continuing the survey of that country, and for the carrying out of the provisions of the Northern Territory Act. On the land question he stated that the proposed plan was to sell land by auction as at present, but that the payment might be made in cash, or partly cash, and credit for the remainder. In the latter case, the deposit was to be twenty per cent., which was to be considered as four years' interest paid in advance, and four years more was to be allowed for the payment of the principal. The area taken up by any one person was not to exceed 640 acres, and the transfer of the land was not to be allowed except in cases of death or insolvency. Certain improvements were to be made upon the land, and provision was made as to its occupation. The price was not to be lower than £1 per acre, and land put up at a higher price would be reduced month by month until it came down to £1 per acre, and if not taken up at that price it would be sold by auction. Safeguards were to be adopted to prevent fraud in the auction-room, and means adopted to enable bona-fide purchasers to obtain the land. In the event of there being more than one applicant the matter was to be decided by lot. Agricultural areas were to be proclaimed from time to time after a plan of such areas had been laid before both Houses of Parliament for fourteen days.

The plan propounded met with fairly general approval in the House of Assembly, and a Committee was appointed to prepare a New Waste Lands Bill embodying the scheme.

This Bill occupied much attention, and "the Battle of the Areas" was warmly contested, but after the reassembling of Parliament on the 8th of January, 1869, the Bill was specially sent up to the Council. There, twenty-eight amendments were made and sent down to the House of Assembly. Two of them affected the vital principle of the Bill, and the Assembly, accepting the twenty-six, stood firm with regard to the other two. A deadlock again seemed inevitable, but it was averted by a conference appointed by both Houses.

The Land Bill was finally disposed of on the 29th of January, 1869, and on the 30th Parliament was prorogued, the session closing without the dissolution which more than once threatened the House of Assembly.

In less than a month after Parliament was prorogued, the new Governor, Sir James Fergusson, arrived, and relieved Colonel Hamley of his onerous duties.

Without aiming at anything beyond his sphere, Colonel Hamley did much in the colony by which he will be long remembered. His term of office was marked by many serious difficulties successfully overcome, and by grave dangers wisely averted.

In a review of his administration it was said, "The patient sincerity and ingenuousness of the man preserved him from the wiles and snares of statecraft. The independence and dignity of the soldier supplied the place of Colonial Office reputation. In spite of all the drawbacks at the outset of his administration. Colonel Hamley soon produced the impression that he desired to thoroughly understand and to faithfully discharge his functions. He showed that he wished to do his duty without overdoing it. His limited political experience was not, as it might have been in the case of less sterling men, cloaked by any false dignity. He honestly accepted the position his predecessor bequeathed to him. He frankly adopted the constitutional advice which circumstances had provided for him. Genuine and unpretending, his twelve months' yule can be commended without suspicion of flattery. Nor has it been an uneventful administration. It comprised all the most important vice-regal functions. It gave us a new parliament; it brought us safely through three ministerial crises; it opened and closed one of the most remarkable sessions in the annals of our legislation; it added to our statute-book some vital measures; it witnessed the commencement of a recovery from severe commercial depression; it maintained, without any ostentation or false pretence, a cheerful social tone in the community; it drew around its personal centre a circle of friends which will break up in sorrow, and be long held in grateful remembrance."

{Page 7}




Brilliant Career.—Second Visit of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh.—Arrival of New Governor.—Palmerston, the New Settlement in Northern Territory.—Mr. G.W. Goyder and his Survey Party.—Appeal to the Privy Council.—Parliamentary Procedure in Adelaide.—Elections.—A Land Bill.—Dissolution.—Education and Bible Reading.—A Question of Precedence.—Finances.—Public Debt of the Colony.—The Transcontinental Telegraph.—Mr. C. Todd.—A Gigantic Undertaking.—Horse Expresses.—Completion of Telegraph from Port Darwin to Port Augusta.—Bonuses and Banquets.—Honours.—Speeches. "Disintegration of the Empire."—Gold Mining in Northern Territory.—Explorations.—Mr. John Forrest.—Colonel Warburton.—Gosse.—Giles.—Higher Education.—Prince Alfred Sailors' Home.—Bushmen's Club.—New Industries.—Progress in Buildings.—Valedictory Address of Governor.

SIR JAMES FERGUSSON, Bart., of Kilkerran, in Ayrshire, son of Sir Charles Dalrymple Fergusson, was born in Edinburgh in 1832. His mother was a daughter of the Right Hon. David Boyle, Lord Justice General of Scotland.

Sir James was educated at Rugby and Oxford, and was destined for a military career. His first commission was lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards, and his first active service was in the Crimean War. He was present at the Battle of the Alma, and at Inkerman narrowly escaped with his life. Ordered in the thick of the fight to drive back some Russians who were trying to take the Grenadier Guards' sand-bag battery, he successfully carried out the order, but was shot in the wrist in the course of the engagement. The wound did not prevent him from continuing to perform his duties. When the news of the death at Inkerman of Colonel Hunter Blair, M.P. for Ayrshire, was received the Ayrshire friends of Sir James gave him a peculiar proof of their regard by returning him in his stead.

Next year he returned home a captain and M.P. Having decided for St. Stephen's, he sold out, and entered Parliament as a Conservative. He received the Crimean medal with three clasps, as well as the Turkish medal. After two years' experience, Lord Palmerston sent him back to his constituents on the famous Conspiracy Bill. The general election of 1857 was a decisive struggle between the new Conservatives and the new Liberals, between Derby and Palmerston. It took a Liberal turn in Ayrshire, and Sir James Fergusson lost his seat. He was already a deputy-lieutenant of the county, and when the Earl of Eglinton became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1858 he appointed Sir James one of the Special Commission of Lieutenancy for Ayrshire and lieutenant-colonel of the Ayrshire Militia. Towards the end of 1859 he had another chance of contesting his old seat, and won it. In 1866 Lord Derby recognized his talents by giving him the Under Secretaryship for India, and in the following year he was transferred to the Home Office, a good beginning on the official ladder for a comparatively young politician. He left the Home Office in 1868 to rule in South Australia.

Monday, the 15th of February, 1869, was one of the most notable days in the annals of the colony, as it witnessed the arrival of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh on a second visit, of Sir James Fergusson the now Governor, and of the English mail—the latter always an important event notwithstanding its frequent recurrence.

Early in the morning the West Terrace signal station announced the arrival of the Galatea, and, as if by magic, the streets were gay with flags and other decorations long before business men came into the city. It was a quiet and simple reception, though none the less hearty, that was given to the Prince, the emphatic injunctions of the Home Secretary that no public demonstration should take place, being strictly respected. At twelve o'clock the Prince, accompanied by the acting Governor, Colonel Hamley, drove up to Government House, an immense crowd, for South Australia, having assembled in the streets to give him welcome.

Only a few hours after the Prince had taken up his quarters at Government House, a steamer was signalled coming up the Gulf, which proved to be the English mail steamer, with Sir James and Lady Edith Fergusson on board. Again excitement burst forth; telegrams were flashed to all the suburbs, and towards evening thousands assembled to welcome the new Governor.

Next day a grand function was held in the Town Hall, when Colonel Hamley retired from the interim administration of the Government, the new Governor took the usual oaths, and the Duke of Edinburgh graced the proceedings with his presence. Never before had a swearing-in created so much excitement in South Australia. Thousands of citizens and hundreds of ladies were able to witness the whole of the proceedings without inconvenience, and the really splendid Town Hall in which the ceremony took place presented to the Governor one of the best evidences of civic progress. Enthusiasm reached its height when the Duke of Edinburgh and Sir James Fergusson entered in company, and were received by the Mayor, the acting Governor, and the "officers of state." The formalities were gone through amid much cheering.

The Prince only remained in the colony for five or six days, during which time he laid the foundation stone of the Prince Alfred Sailors' Home at Port Adelaide, and attended a ball, the races, and other diversions of royalty, and did not appear to enjoy himself any the less on account of state ceremonial being dispensed with. On the 20th of February the Galatea steamed down the Gulf on her way to Melbourne.

At the time when Sir James Fergusson entered upon his duties, many important events occupied the public mind.

After the recall of Mr. B.T. Finniss, Government Resident, from the Northern Territory * and the rosy-hued report of Captain Cadell as to sites for settlement in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Carpentaria, it became urgently necessary to take strong and active meaures to fix upon a site and to complete the surveys. Already the London "selectors" of land were in league together, and were making demands upon the South Australian Government for the return of their money.

[* See vol. i. p. 380.]

Early in 1869, therefore, Mr. G.W. Goyder, Surveyor-General of the province, was sent out by the Government with a strong and well-appointed party, to complete the survey with all possible despatch, and to select a site for the first township. His instructions were elastic, and absolute confidence was reposed in him. No better man could possibly have been selected for the task. Difficulties which had baffled his predecessors vanished before him; he and the whole of his staff worked together with hearty good will and without dissension of any kind, and it was generally acknowledged that "had Mr. Goyder been sent out in the first instance the colony would have been saved the shameful disasters which attended the first attempts to settle the Northern Territory, and the large sums of moneys which they cost, and which were extravagantly wasted in the most reckless way."

In November, 1869, Mr. Goyder returned to Adelaide after completing the survey of the required quantity of land within the stipulated time. He reporteil the discovery of a tract of country containing about a million acres of fair average quality, most of it suited to the growth of tropical products, and the whole well grassed and watered. He had surveyed 665,866 acres of land, being 165,000 acres more than the original quantity ordered. He reported the healthiness of the place, having lost only one of his party through sickness.

In addition to the principal township (Palmerston) at Port Darwin, containing 999 half-acre allotments, Mr. Goyder laid out three other towns, in sizes varying from 207 to 335 half-acre allotments.

When the land was surveyed a number of the English land-order holders declined to make their selections, and subsequently brought an action against the Government for the return of the purchase-money and interest thereon. They obtained a verdict in their favour in the Supreme Court of the colony on the plea that the Government had failed to fulfil the contract within the time specified in the regulations for the sale of the land. The Government considered that inasmuch as the delay had been mainly occasioned by the land-order holders themselves, who disapproved of the locality first selected, and at whose request another site had been selected to meet their wishes, the case should be submitted to the Privy Council. To the surprise of the colonists, when the case came on for hearing, upon appeal to this high tribunal, the judgment of the Supreme Court was upheld, and the colony sustained a serious loss in having to refund the purchase money with interest.**

[** See p. 51.]

In March, 1870, Captain Bloomfield Douglas, R.N., was appointed Government Resident in the Northern Territory, and in May of the same year the first ballot for land took place, although, of course, those who had decided to take legal proceedings for the return of the purchase-money did not exercise their right on this occasion.

The history of Parliamentary procedure during the administration of Sir James Fergusson is, to a large extent, a repetition of the same kind of scenes, incidents, crises, and changes of Ministry which had marked previous administrations. It will be well perhaps in this place to glance at the whole period covered, and to chronicle some of its leading characteristics.

On the 30th of July, 1869, the second session of the fifth Parliament met. In his opening speech the new Governor said—

"It is with deep interest and satisfaction that I meet you for the first time in Parliament since my assumption of the Government of this important province, to which her Majesty has been graciously pleased to appoint me. I desire to assure you that I shall cordially co-operate with you, the representatives of the people, in devising measures calculated to increase the prosperity of the colony, and to promote the welfare of all classes of the community."

He then proceeded to touch upon the main topics of the times—the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh in restored health; the opening for traffic of the Strathalbyn and Middleton Railway, and the state of the railway works in progress; the communication he had made to the Governor of India, pointing out the facilities afforded by the new settlement in the north for providing suitable horses for the Indian army; the reduction of tariff in telegraph charges; the discovery of gold in the North, etc. The address was well received, and the reply to it was carried in both Houses without a division, and strange to say, with scarcely any expressions of hostility to the Strangways Ministry. This augured well for the session, but the hopes thus created were short-lived. On the 21st of September the Treasurer's budget dealt with retrenchment and increased taxation, and after that ministerial crises and threatenings of crises came thick and fast. There was a strong feeling against additional taxation both in and out of Parliament, and, considering the depressed state of commerce in the colony at that time, it was highly inexpedient that the suggestion should have been made. The course the Government was prepared to adopt was to retrench as far as possible, and only to increase taxation if it became absolutely necessary to meet the public expenditure after this retrenchment hud taken place.

But the Ministry found it exceedingly difficult to carry their estimates; the Opposition insisting on repeated alterations, the greater part of the items had to be contested line by line, and in many instances the members of the Government found themselves in a minority. Such an unsatisfactory mode of conducting the business of the country, involving an inordinate waste of time, came at length to be regarded as a burlesque on responsible government.

It was in vain that all the members of the House of Assembly, except the Ministry and the Speaker, held meetings to discuss the situation. Nothing practical was done throughout the session, and on the 21st of December the House adjourned.

The reassembling of Parliament on the 4th of January, 1870, was signalized by a vote of censure on the Government, which was lost; but a renewed attempt was made to dislodge the Ministry on the 25th of January, and at length the Governor was informed by his Ministers that they "desired to appeal from the Parliament to the people", and begged that, so soon as the state of business would allow, his Excellency would dissolve Parliament for the purpose of remitting to the constituents the questions that had been at issue.

This announcement called forth some very strong expressions of disapprobation from two or three leading members of the Opposition, and especially from the Hon. T. Reynolds, who considered, with others, that a chance should have been given to members of the existing Parliament to form another Ministry before resorting to the extreme measure of dissolution. The members of the Legislative Council gave expression to their disapproval in a strong resolution, which was carried by a majority of eight.

But Sir James Fergusson was not to be moved, and he determined to dissolve the Parliament in accordance with the recommendation of his advisers. The whole session had been wasted in petty squabbling and place-hunting, and in proroguing Parliament on the 25th of February with a view to dissolution, he said he took this step "to enable the people to express in the mode presented by the Constitution their opinion upon the state of public affairs, a step rendered necessary by the difficulties experienced in carrying on the public business of the country, as indicated by the fact that within a period of less than a year and a half four successive administrations had failed to retain the confidence of the House of Assembly."

The financial policy of the Government had been of such an unsatisfactory character, that not only had the Ministry to go into their brief recess without an Appropriation Bill, but even a Supply Bill could not be obtained, which would carry them on beyond the end of March.

Shortly after the prorogation Sir James Fergusson left the colony on a visit to Victoria, but returned to Adelaide early in May, Colonel James Harwood Rocke, 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment, having been sworn in as Administrator of the Government during his absence.

At the elections about sixty candidates offered themselves, being twenty-four in excess of the number required. When the results were announced, lovers of change were gratified to know that a very material alteration had taken place in the personnel of the new Parliament, thus giving hope of a better state of things by breaking up the parties who had worked either with or against the Ministry. But to the horror of the constituencies, it was found that when the new Ministry was formed, it was so constituted that it could not stand for a week, much less for a session. It was thought by many that the wire-pullers had been guilty of a practical joke, so incongruous were the selections.

When the new Parliament met for business on the 27th of May, the Governor, in his opening speech, alluded to the most important topics engaging public attention; touched upon the serious falling off in the revenue, owing to bad harvests and slowness of the sale of waste lands; the prospect of telegraphic communication with Europe at an early date; the intelligence that certain holders of land orders in England had instituted proceedings in the courts of law for the recovery of sums of money paid by them in respect of land in the Northern Territory, which action the South Australian Government had taken steps to defend.

The programme for the session presented by the Ministry was by no means lacking in measures, but it was more than doubtful whether, in the late elections, the people had returned the right men to carry them out.

On the first day of the session it became evident that the Council was no more in favour of the new than of the old Ministry, while in the House of Assembly an emphatic vote settled the question.

This crushing defeat the Premier (Mr. Strangways) partly anticipated, and stated that he understood "that at a caucus meeting held the day before, twenty-four or twenty-five members had arranged to eject the Ministry without any knowledge of what measures they proposed to submit. A fixed determination was arrived at entirely irrespective of the public questions the Government intended submitting, and such a course of action was entirely without precedent."

So the Strangways Ministry resigned (May 28th), and on the 31st the new occupants of the Treasury Bench shadowed forth their policy.

The first decisive action of the Hart Ministry was with reference to the construction of the overland telegraph to Port Darwin—an action, as we shall see hereafter, fraught with far-reaching consequences, and which stands out in the history of the colony as among the most important in the proceedings of Parliament. But it must always be remembered that it was to their predecessors—the Strangways Ministry—that the honour of initiating the scheme is due.

The next large question was the amendment of the Land Laws—a rock upon which many Ministries had split. The Government put forth a series of propositions, upon which several amendments were moved in committee, but they were ultimately carried, and a Bill based upon them was in due course introduced, but after much discussion, many amendments, and about a hundred and fifty divisions, it was thrown out in the Assembly by the casting vote of the Speaker.

So soon as the fate of the Land Bill was finally sealed, a short Bill was introduced to amend Strangways' Act in two or three important particulars. The new Bill provided that ten per cent., instead of twenty per cent., should be payable at the time of making the purchase; at the end of three years a further payment of ten per cent., and these two payments together were to be deemed a complete compliance with the terms of the Act so far as regarded the payment of interest. Another clause dispensed with the laying of a description of agricultural areas before Parliament fourteen days prior to the proclamation of the said areas, and another clause provided that, in lieu of the periods of not less than one month nor more than three months during which the lands were to be open for selection, the periods should be seven days and one month respectively.

This Bill was passed through all its stages in the Assembly on the 12th of January, 1871, in less than an hour and a half, and on the next day the Council passed it, without any alteration, just prior to the prorogation.

No fewer than nineteen Bills were introduced during this fruitless session and not passed. Retrenchment in the expenses of Government occupied much of the time and attention of Parliament to little effect, but the consideration given to fiscal matters led to several alterations in the tariff. That an increase in the revenue was absolutely necessary may be inferred from the fact that Parliament reluctantly sanctioned a loan of £100,000 to meet current expenditure.

In February, 1871, the Hon. H.B.T. Strangways, who for several years had occupied a prominent place in the Legislature, and had been responsible for many of the changes in the Ministry, bade farewell to the colony.

When the second session of the sixth Parliament was opened by the Governor on the 28th of July, the Land Bill furnished material for animated discussion during several weeks.

Shortly after it was taken out of committee in the House of Assembly Mr. J.P. Boucaut moved "that this House is dissatisfied with the present Ministry." Whereupon Mr. Hart and his colleagues tendered their resignations, and Mr. Boucaut was sent for; but as he declined to accept the responsibility, Mr. H. Ayers, and afterwards Mr. A. Blyth, were communicated with. They found that it was impossible, with parties almost equally balanced, to form a strong Government, and the Governor was advised to dissolve the Parliament—advice which he accepted.

Again an appeal was made to him by both Houses not to dissolve Parliament, but to dismiss his advisers, and again the appeal was refused, and on the 23rd of November Parliament was prorogued with a view to dissolution.

Not only was the Land Bill again sacrificed, but the onward progress of an important Education Bill was stopped by the dissolution. It provided for a new board of nine members to be empowered to establish and support three classes of schools. Normal, National, and District; to provide sound secular instruction based on the Christian religion and morals, apart from all theological and controversial difficulties on discipline or doctrine. No denominational catechism was to be used, nor any attempt made to influence or disturb the tenets of any religious sect, but the school-houses might be used for religious instruction before or after the usual school hours.

The Bill had only passed through its preliminary stages in the House of Assembly, when an attempt was made to exclude the reading of the Bible in the Board schools, and, strange as it appeared to many, the movement was supported by a considerable number of ministers of religion. The great mass of the people, however, considered that the Bible was not to be banished by legislative enactment, and a monster meeting was held at White's Rooms to discuss the matter. Resolutions were passed in favour of retaining the reading of the Bible in the public schools, and petitions in accordance with the resolutions were signed by upwards of 25,000 persons, and presented to both Houses of the Legislature. The secular party, of course, organized a counter meeting, their petition for the exclusion of the Bible only being signed by the chairman on behalf of the meeting. It was in some respects fortunate for the Ministry that a dissolution was at hand, for at that time the religious difficulty would have taxed their utmost ingenuity to surmount.

A small matter in itself, but one that seemed to call for settlement, was under discussion about this time. A question of precedence arose in the days when Sir Richard MacDonnell was Governor, and when the people were still smarting from the effects of the great Church and State controversy. The matter was referred to the Duke of Newcastle, who replied that the Governor "ought to determine questions of precedence, and should proceed by analogy to the rules in the mother country." There the matter dropped, but it was revived again in 1871, during the administration of Sir James Fergusson, who gave the place to the Anglican Bishop prescribed by the regulations.

"The two Houses disapproved of such recognition of ecclesiastical functionaries, and passed a Bill 'to provide for the regulation of precedency in South Australia', which the Governor reserved. Lord Kimberley announced that it could not be allowed, inasmuch as it encroached upon prerogative, and that the Queen could not be advised to deprive individuals, such as the dignitaries excluded by the Bill, of any precedence to which they were entitled. An address prayed the Queen (1872) to remove the grievance felt by the inhabitants at the precedence over ministers of other denominations ascribed to the two bishops. Meantime, the bishop of the Church of England, Dr. Short, offered to give up the precedency to which he was entitled. The Secretary of State promised that in future no dignitary of any religious persuasion should have precedence assigned to him in the colony by the Crown, and directed the Governor to inform the bishop that her Majesty fully appreciated his disinterested conduct in offering to waive the precedency attributed to him." * It must not be supposed that because of obstruction in Parliament the progress of the colony was at a standstill. On the contrary there were many important movements brought to a successful issue. For example, in September, 1871, representatives were sent from South Australia to attend the Intercolonial Conference at Melbourne, at which the border duties and the ocean postal question were to form leading subjects for consideration. A satisfactory arrangement was made with regard to river-borne goods to New South Wales, and it was agreed that ocean steamers should call at Glenelg on their outward and inward passages to take and land the South Australian mails to and from Europe. This secured the long-sought-for right of having letters delivered at the door without extra cost; it provided means of sending duplicate despatches via San Francisco, and would thus in all probability anticipate the arrival of the following Suez mail by nearly, if not fully, a week; it kept the colony clear of complications with the Cape and Torres Straits routes, and all these advantages were gained for a sum considerably less than had been previously paid. As a matter of fact it ensured increased facilities for the transmission not only of news and letters, but of passengers and merchandise, and at the same time effected a saving of £6000 or £7000 a year.

[* Rusden's "History of Australia", vol. iii.]

At the time of the dissolution the financial position of the colony was in anything but a satisfactory state, the Treasurer, in his budget of the 17th of October, having reported that there was an estimated deficiency of from £70,000 to £80,000. It is true the year had commenced with a deficit of £100,000, but it was anticipated that not only would this be cleared off, but the annual expenditure kept within the revenue. The fact was becoming apparent that the evil effects of large loans were being felt—the amount of the bonded debt to be redeemed during the year being £34,000, and the year's interest on the debt no less than £113,958. But for this extra expenditure of about £148,000, which had yielded little to the revenue, though most of the loans were for professedly reproductive public works, the financial position of the colony would have been decidedly healthy.

The elections took place in December, and on the 19th of January, 1872, the seventh Parliament was opened by Sir James Fergusson, Sir G-. S. Kingston being for the fifth time appointed Speaker of the House of Assembly without opposition.

The session commenced stormily; each House expressed strong dissatisfaction at the recent unnecessary dissolution of the House of Assembly, which had greatly delayed the despatch of public business. The Ministry interpreting this as a direct censure on themselves, of course sent in their resignations forthwith (January 24).

A new Ministry was soon in office, and from the reception they met with in both Houses, it was patent that the arrangements made had not given satisfaction. They dragged on for a week or two in a half-hearted fashion, and then came the inevitable "want of confidence" motion, and so the "intolerable nonsense"—as a Minister of the day expressed it— went on.

On the 5th of March both Houses adjourned, and by this temporary respite from hostilities another series of crises, if not another dissolution, was averted.

Parliament reassembled on the 9th of April, apparently in better humour. Even the Treasurer's financial statement was well received, although he announced that the deficiency at the end of the year was estimated at over £94,000, and he proposed to issue £100,000 worth of exchequer bills, bearing four and a half per cent. interest, which he considered preferable to floating a loan for the amount.

A Land bill, a Scrub Lands Bill, and a Northern Territory Bill were introduced, and met with varying success until August, when both Houses adjourned until September, the Governor in the mean time paying a second visit to Melbourne.

A few days after the reassembling of Parliament, the Treasurer (Hon. J.H. Barrow) delivered his financial statement for the year 1873, which did not show a very satisfactory state of things. The total estimated income (including proceeds of land sales, £170,000) was only £749,150, and the total of expenditure (including the redemption of £3400 of bonds) was £752,827.

The Treasurer's speech was followed by a scheme for consolidating the public debt of the colony, and a Bill was introduced to raise £3,000,000 at four per cent., in addition to funding the £2,000,000 of bonds already issued, but as the assumed price of the new four per cent, bonds was £90, the actual indebtedness of the colony would be considerably in excess of the amount nominally borrowed. The matter was referred to a select committee, who recommended a postponement of its consideration.

The labours of another long and fruitless session came to a close on the 30th of November, when a curious incident occurred. When the Sergeant-at-Arms appeared at the Bar of the House of Assembly and intimated that the Governor was awaiting the attendance of the members of that House, the Speaker was not in receipt of certain Bills affecting the revenue which should have been sent in usual course, and which he considered it his duty to present, whereupon a discussion ensued, and lasted long after the Sergeant had given his call. After waiting some time in the Council Chamber the Governor withdrew, and in the mean time a very lively scene occurred in the Assembly. On the motion of one of the members the doors were locked to signify that the Sergeant-at-Arms was not to be received till the Assembly was ready to attend to his message. Some members then loudly asserted and insisted on the rights and privileges of Mr. Speaker being upheld, while others suggested that the matter should be dealt with when the House again met. Finding that the discussion was likely to be prolonged, some members proceeded to the Council Chamber before the Speaker, instead of accompanying him, and one or two, as if to complete the fiasco, returned and forced one of the doors that was locked, scattering the glass in fragments on the floor. They were understood to hold that the Speaker should have taken the sense of the House before ordering the doors to be locked in the face of the Governor's messenger. The whole matter was a question of privilege, but it was an awkward time to discuss it, as it presented the appearance of an act of discourtesy Although the Governor was kept waiting some considerable time, he delivered his prorogation speech with perfect equanimity, as though nothing unusual had happened.

During the long session thus brought to a close, no fewer than twenty-five Bills that were introduced were either not proceeded with or were rejected at various stages. The barrenness of the protracted session was solely due to the struggle for possession of the ministerial benches, the absence of a strong Government and a well-organized Opposition favouring the general scramble.

The most eventful circumstance connected with the administration of Sir James Fergusson was, undoubtedly, the construction of the telegraph across the Continent, which, in conjunction with the submarine cable, was the means of opening up direct telegraphic communication with Europe and nearly all parts of the world. From first to last Sir James took an absorbing interest in the matter, and it was greatly owing to his warm and ready support that the gigantic scheme was brought to a successful issue.

The first decisive action of the Legislature was taken in 1870, when a telegram, dated May 9th, was received from the Agent-General in England. It ran thus:—

"British Australian Telegraph Company will relinquish Burke Town line if South Australia guarantees to connect and maintain line between Torts Darwin and Augusta free of cost to Company, and to be open for traffic thirty-first December, seventy-one. Rates for cable message not exceeding average of Australian rates for time being. Your formal and binding acceptance of this offer must be sent by June mail for approval of shareholders. Pending negotiations with you, the Company will not conclude arrangements with other Australian Governments. Send me telegram in advance of June mail in reply."

A similar telegram to the foregoing was sent to Commander Noel Osborn, the agent for the Cable Company, who had been sent to the colony by the Company, and he at once addressed a letter to the Chief Secretary as follows:—

"York Hotel, Adelaide, June 14th, 1870.

"Sir,—I have the honour to inform you that I have this day received a telegram from Captain Sherard Osborn, C.B., managing director of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, in answer to the proposal made by the South Australian Government on the 28rd of April last, in a letter addressed to me. I am now in a position to state that the cable will be landed at Port Darwin, if the South Australian Government will pledge themselves to have a land line open for traffic by the 1st of January, 1872, connecting that port with the present system of colonial telegraphs. I must beg to represent that to carry out the proposed scheme by the above-mentioned date, no time should be lost If the work is commenced at once, it will be only by the most strenuous exertions that the enterprise can be accomplished within the given time; and a delay of a few weeks at the present moment, when we have such favourable news from the north, would probably necessitate the postponement of the undertaking for a whole season. I must further beg to remind you that the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company are bound by their contract with the British Australian Company to have the line complete by the 1st of January, 1872. I therefore should not be justified in advising them to accept the proposal of this Government, unless I feel fully satisfied that the present system of Australian telegraphs will be connected with Port Darwin by that date."

Under these circumstances the Ministry was bound to take immediate action if it was considered desirable to accept the offer of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. Mr. H.B.T. Strangways, then at the head of the Government, took the matter up with enthusiasm, and a Bill was accordingly introduced and speedily passed through all its stages in both Houses, only encountering some slight opposition during its passage.

The race between Queensland and South Australia for the honour of accomplishing this great undertaking was a close one, and nothing but the promptitude of the Government of the latter colony in accepting the terms of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company would have secured the desired priority. The honour, however, was purchased at a high price.

The estimated cost of the overland portion of this telegraph line from Port Augusta to Port Darwin was £80 per mile, or £120,000 for the entire distance, and it was to be completed by the 31st of December, 1871. The actual cost of this great undertaking was nearly three times the amount of the original estimate, and in consequence of various unlooked-for obstacles and difficulties, the time for opening the line was delayed for several months.

Steps were immediately taken by the Government to push on the work, and to procure the wire and other materials from England. The through line was to be divided into sections, and it was decided to call for tenders for a large portion of the southern and northern ends of the work, the Government undertaking the central portion. The entire supervision of the construction was entrusted, with almost unlimited powers, to Mr. C. Todd, the Postmaster-General and Superintendent of Telegraphs, who had from the first taken a warm interest in the scheme, and who at once devoted his best energies to the gigantic task. Even so early as 1857, Mr. Todd had entertained the idea of connecting Australia with the old world by wire, and immediately upon the return of Stuart in 1859, he brought the matter officially before the Governor, Sir R.G. MacDonnell. Then it rested for ten years, but was energetically revived in 1869.

On the 20th of August, 1870, the first expedition left Port Adelaide for the Northern Territory in the steamer Omeo, the party having been engaged by Messrs. Darwent and Dalwood, contractors for the northern portion of the line. The supervision of this part of the work was entrusted by the Government to Mr. W. McMinn, with power to take it out of the hands of the contractors in the event of the work not being carried out to his satisfaction. It was arranged that the central portion of the line should be constructed by the Government, and the expedition for the accomplishment of this, the most arduous and difficult task of all, left Adelaide for the interior on the 29th of August. The contract for the southern part of the line was undertaken by Mr. E.M. Bagot, and the contract for the northern portion by Messrs. Darwent and Dalwood, who at once took the necessary steps for pushing forward the work as quickly as possible. The first pole was planted in the Northern Territory by Miss Douglas on the 15th of September, 1870, the inhabitants of the little township of Port Darwin making the occasion one of great rejoicing.

The first great check to the work was that the section undertaken by Messrs. Darwent and Dalwood was not proceeding satisfactorily, and in consequence Mr. McMinn took it out of their hands, a step involving great delay and increase of cost.

The work was then placed in the hands of Mr. R.C. Patterson, who, with a staff of eighty persons, left Port Adelaide on the 27th of July, 1871. Two or three sailing vessels were also despatched about the same time with live stock and provisions. Port Darwin was selected as the port of debarkation, although there is little doubt that all stores should have been sent up the river Roper.

On arrival Mr. Patterson was long delayed by the flooded and swampy state of the country, and, on hearing this, Mr. Todd went to his aid with large reinforcements, choosing the Roper River route; but in vain—the floods stood in the way of the leader of the expedition as much as in that of his subordinates. This was irritating, and the irritation was enhanced by the intelligence that the ocean cable had been laid between Java and Port Darwin on the 20th of November. Moreover, the South Australian Government had agreed to pay five per cent. on the capital expended by the British and Australian Telegraph Construction Company in the event of the overland line not being completed by the 31st of December, 1871, and this naturally led the Government to urge on the completion of the work at all costs.

The next important stage in the work was the establishment of a horse-express between existing gaps, by which means the distance was gradually lessened until such time as the wire was stretched across from end to end. From the early part of 1872 good news of progress was received in Adelaide from the managers of the various sections of the work, and on the 20th of June the first telegram was received from Mr. Todd, despatched from Port Darwin on the 22nd of May. It took nearly a month in transmission across the continent by wire and horse-express. Further experiments were made as the work advanced.

On the 22nd of August, 1872, the first through message was received at Adelaide from Port Darwin. Merrily rang the Town Hall bells, flags were hoisted. Government offices were closed, the day was generally devoted to rejoicing, and hearty congratulations were sent to Mr. Todd, who was then at Central Mount Stuart, on the successful and satisfactory completion of his gigantic and important undertaking.

Strange to say, before the overland line was ready an interruption occurred in the submarine cable, which prevented messages being sent to Europe. But on the 20th of October the cable between Java and Port Darwin was repaired, and on the 22nd the first through message was sent from London to Adelaide, and this was speedily followed by congratulatory telegrams from all parts of the world.

On the 30th of October Mr. Todd arrived in Adelaide and reported that the overland line, which he had inspected the entire distance from Port Darwin to Port Augusta, was constructed in a substantial manner, and only required iron poles in places where timber was scarce, or where it was liable to be destroyed by white ants or bush-fires.

A great demonstration was given in his honour on November 15th in the Exhibition Buildings on the Park-lands. At the banquet the Governor, Sir James Fergusson, presided, and announced that her Majesty had conferred certain honours upon gentlemen connected with the Ministry and Civil Service.

In the course of his speech, in response to the toast of the evening, Mr. Todd gave some interesting particulars of the work which had been done in a little less than two years in constructing the two thousand miles of telegraph through an almost unknown country, and uninhabited except by aborigines. He said, "The first pole was planted at Port Darwin about the 20th of September, 1870, and at Port Augusta about the beginning of October in the same year. On the 22nd of August, 1872, notwithstanding all the serious delays and difficulties in the Northern Territory, the line was opened, so that in the interval of one year and eleven months, besides the explorations from sea to sea, we had to cut, prepare, and cart about 36,000 telegraph poles, weighing 5000 tons, carting them an average distance of eight or ten miles, and a maximum distance of 350 miles; a larger number of iron poles, imported from England, being carted an average distance of 400 miles, and a maximum distance of 560 miles. Besides this, we had to transport some 2000 tons of other materials to the interior, and drive several thousand sheep and cattle distances averaging 500 miles, and extending to 1300 miles north from Port Augusta; to cut and clear tracts fifty feet wide, through some 500 miles of forest and scrub; to cart building materials, instruments, batteries, and other stores for stations; to build a stone station of twenty-two rooms at Port Darwin, stone or wooden stations of seven or eight rooms at eight other places; to sink wells, establish depots, and a variety of other things involving great labour and thought. . . . In addition to what has thus been attained a fine but almost unknown river (the Roper) has been navigated by large ocean steamers like the Omeo and Tararua for ninety miles from its bar."

Bonuses to the amount of £7500 were granted by the Government to Mr. Todd and his party.

An action was brought by Messrs. Darwent and Dalwood against the Government for loss sustained through the suspension of their contract, and after pending for several years, it was finally compromised by the payment to them of £11,000.

On the 15th of November—the same day that the banquet was given in Adelaide—two other banquets were given in celebration of the same event, one at Sydney, and the other at the Cannon Street Hotel, London, organized by the Royal Colonial Institute, and presided over by the Earl of Kimberley, Secretary of State for the Colonies. Before sitting down to dinner,* he sent telegrams to the Governors of South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, and Tasmania, in these words: "The company at the Australian Telegraph dinner joins me in drinking prosperity to the colonies and in rejoicing at this fresh bond of union between the different members of the Empire." While the after-dinner speeches were being made, reply telegrams poured in from each of the Australian colonies, besides others of great interest from all parts of the world. To insure this, "the directors, managers, and secretaries of the Eastern Telegraph Company, of the British Indian Extension, and of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company gave their best assistance, as well as the Postmaster-General and the manager of the Telegraphic Department of the Post-office, Mr. Cyrus Field, and the American Embassy, Through their good services the lines were 'joined up' from Australia to England on the one hand, and from San Francisco to England on the other, and were brought into contact within the hall itself, so that an unbroken electric girdle was for the first time put round the world, from the Pacific on the west to the same ocean where it washes the eastern shores of Australia; and the Secretary for the Colonies was for the first time enabled, not only to speak instantaneously to the remotest possessions of the Crown, but to place the Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada in almost instantaneous communication with the Governors of the Australian colonies, their reciprocal messages being repeated in the hall in transit." **

[* The festivities in South Australia were being brought to a close just as those in London were commencing, owing to the difference of longitude, which makes Adelaide time about ten hours in advance of Greenwich time.]

[** From an admirable account of the "Proceedings at the Banquet", compiled by Mr. C.W. Eddy, at that time Honorary Secretary of the Royal Colonial Institute.]

In proposing the toast of the evening, "Telegraphic Enterprise", Lord Kimberley read a telegram from South Australia in these words: "The grand work of the completion of telegraphic communication between Adelaide and Europe has been celebrated by a national demonstration here to-day. There have been popular festivities during the day and a banquet in the Town Hall in the evening under the presidency of the Governor, Sir James Fergusson, who announced the honours which had been conferred by her Majesty. Weather extremely hot, but great joy manifested."

The honours referred to in the telegram were—be it said with all due loyalty and respect to the gracious Lady who conferred them—wretchedly meagre in comparison with the enormous value to the whole world of the services rendered. They were as follows:—To Mr. H. Ayers, Prime Minister of South Australia, the appointment of the second class of the Order of St. Michael and St. George; to Mr. F.S. Dutton, Agent-General for South Australia, the appointment of the third class of the same order; and to the gallant Charles Todd, Superintendent of Telegraphs in South Australia, who had carried the grand work to completion, the same third class order.*

[* "In Algiers there used to be a Foreign Legion sot apart and exclusive—not French, not Algerian; neither fish, flesh, nor fowl. Are we not making a Foreign Legation of the Order of St. Michael and St. George? Why should not an Australian who has obtained sufficient fame in his own country, a portion of our community, though not within fifty miles of London, he entitled to aspire to admission into a colonial division of the Order of the Bath, and, if he comes to England, find men wearing the same kind of Order here as a reward for good work done in this part of the community. It would in reality only be altering the colour of a ribbon, and yet tend to greater utility."—Lord Carrington, in a paper read at the Royal Colonial Institute, January 26th, 1891, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales in the chair.]

In a brilliant speech, received by the vast audience—representing every phase of colonial life—with great enthusiasm, Lord Kimberley said that it would be invidious in him to attempt to apportion the merit of those who had taken part in the undertaking, but he must first mention the South Australian Government. When he considered how small the population of that colony was, with not more than 200,000 inhabitants, how recently it had been settled—only thirty-seven years ago— and when he considered the enormous task of carrying the telegraph 2200 miles from north to south over a continent which was almost a pathless desert, he could not help saying that such an achievement was proof of the greatest energy, perseverance, and pluck of which he had ever heard, and there was no man in England who did not feel proud of being a fellow subject with those South Australians who had done so marvellous a work.

While Lord Kimberley was at the height of his eulogy, by a curious coincidence a reply telegram from Sir James Fergusson, to one despatched two and a half hours before dinner, was placed in his hands. He thereupon announced that he had the greatest satisfaction in mentioning that Sir James Fergusson had thoroughly assisted and co-operated in the undertaking, and it had given him the most sincere pleasure to promote him to—the Governorship of New Zealand!

Then Mr. F.S. Dutton took up his parable, and said that the page of history, which would outlive them all, would permanently record to generations yet unborn how South Australia undertook, single-handed and without assistance, to carry the wire through the continent, and how well she had succeeded. He then proceeded to explain how unexpected difficulties caused by tropical climatic influences had interposed vexatious delays in finishing the undertaking for a few months beyond the stipulated time. The science of making and laying submarine cables, he said, had been brought to such a state of perfection that one could calculate to a day when a cable could be laid between two points, let these points be one, two, or even three thousand miles away, and thus the submarine cable from Java to Port Darwin was laid with the most perfect success towards the end of 1871. But they were not ready with their land line to meet it. Unusually heavy and long-continued tropical rains in North Australia put an entire stop to all possibility of transport for three or four months, and, although everybody's patience was sorely tried, there was nothing that the working parties could do but to wait for the monsoon rains to cease. Then, when they had so far progressed with the land line as to be able to bridge over the unfinished gap by means of horse-expresses, another totally unlooked-for disappointment occurred. The Java-Darwin cable, which had up to that time worked splendidly, became suddenly afflicted with submarine influenza, and completely lost its voice. Meanwhile the land line was completed and in perfect order some weeks before the cable could be repaired, so that South Australia and the British Australian Telegraph Company were placed at that time, in regard to each other, much in the same position as the well-known epigram ascribes to Sir Richard Strachan and the Earl of Chatham. At length came one of the great red-letter days in the history of South Australia, October 21st, 1872, when, the cable again in working order, it flashed its first telegram to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. Mr. Dutton added that he was in a position to state that, having triumphantly finished the land line, South Australia would, for the future, maintain it in the most perfect working order, no matter what the cost might be.

Perhaps the most interesting moment in that memorable evening was when Mr. Dutton rose to propose the toast of "The officers and men engaged in erecting the Overland Line of Telegraph", coupling with it the name of Mr. Todd—a name received with vociferous cheering. It was one thing, he said in effect, for a country to plan great works, it was quite another to be certain of having sturdy and courageous men to carry them out, and intelligent brains to organize the thousand and one necessary details. In Mr. Todd they had a man of admirable judgment and great ability, under whose supervising care all difficulties were surmounted and success ensured. He was, as a matter of fact, the sole originator of the whole scheme—a scheme he had advocated ever since Stuart's first memorable exploration. To him alone belonged the credit of having convinced the Government of South Australia of the feasibility of this grand work, and to no man more than to himself was the credit due of having so thoroughly organized the details as to make ultimate success a certainty.

Many of the speakers on that memorable evening dwelt upon the wonders of this great undertaking, and the probabilities of what might in the near future he accomplished, and many old Australians, who well remembered the nine weary months it took for parents to communicate with children, and lovers with lovers, and friends with friends, contrasted it with the present, when, by a last triumph of science, that distance of time and space was bridged over by the electric wire, 80 that, as had been demonstrated in their presence that evening, friends could talk with friends in the space of two short hours.

At the time when this meeting was held, there had been much controversy in Parliament and in the public press upon the question of colonial independence leading to disintegration of the Empire. Lord Kimberley dissipated any fears that might have been entertained as to the policy of the Imperial Government in this matter, while Mr. F.S. Dutton, speaking on behalf of the colony of South Australia, said that, "although whispers and insinuations had been lately heard of politicians in England advocating the separation of the colonies from the mother country, he believed he was expressing the views of all Australians when he said they did not intend to allow themselves to be so separated, but that, on the contrary, they would stick to the grand old ship so long as two of her timbers stuck together!" This patriotic and hearty declaration was received with a furore of acclamation, which was renewed when, later in the evening, Mr. Knatchbull-Hugesson, in proposing "Prosperity to our colonies", said, "May that prosperity be evinced by the development of internal resources, the increase of colonial commerce, the extension of colonial trade, and the continual progressive improvement of the different races which own, and are proud to own, the British flag! And may it be accomplished by a steady and unswerving affection between colonies and mother country, so that they may remain one united and mighty empire, bound together by bonds of a texture too soft to gall, but too strong to be broken—an empire based upon the strong foundation of mutual sympathy, as well as mutual interest, and having for the main end and object of its policy—aye, and its very existence—the gradual development of the resources of the world, and the peaceful, progressive improvement of mankind!"

Towards the end of 1872 reports of the existence of rich gold reefs in the Northern Territory led to the formation of several prospecting and gold-mining companies in Adelaide and other towns in the southern part of the colony. The opening up of the overland line of telegraph to Port Darwin afforded facilities for the formation of any number of mushroom companies, which sprang into existence on the receipt of telegrams announcing that certain claims had been secured; but while many of those who took out the claims made large sums of money for their supposed valuable rights, the greater number of those who took shares and paid calls while the gold-fever was at its height sustained serious losses, as well as vexation and disappointment. This gold-mining mania attained its greatest height at a period some time subsequent to that of which we are now writing, and a further notice of it will be more appropriate in a later chapter.

The work of exploration in the interior of the colony made some progress during the administration of Sir James Fergusson, the establishment of permanent stations along the overland line of telegraph route affording great facilities for parties to make one or other of these a starting-point, a place of retreat, or a resting-place to recruit.

On the 30th of March, 1870, Mr. John Forrest, with a party consisting of his brother, Mr. Alexander Forrest, surveyor, as second in command, H. MacLarty, police-constable, W. Osborne, smith and farrier, and two aborigines, Tommy Windick and Billy Noongale, left Perth, in Western Australia, on an expedition to Adelaide, round the Great Bight and through the desolate territory known as No Man's Land, the route traversed with 80 much difficulty and danger by Mr. Eyre.

On the 11th of July they reached the boundary post between South and Western Australia, placed there by Lieutenant Douglas, and on the following day erected a flagstaff, on which they left the Union Jack flying. Leaving Eucla on the 14th, and carrying about thirty gallons of water, the party reached the head of the Bight on the 17th, where they found abundance of water by digging in the sandhills. On the 27th of July Fowler's Bay was reached, after passing many millions of acres of grassy country entirely destitute of permanent water, and on the 27th of August the gallant travellers, who in five months had accomplished the journey which took Mr. Eyre more than twelve months to make, arrived in Adelaide. Of course they had the advantage of his experiences to guide them, and they were able to confirm and supplement his observations.

On the 23rd of August, 1872, Mr. Ernest Giles, accompanied by Mr. Carmichael, a friendly volunteer, and an attendant named Alexander Robinson, set out from Chambers' Pillar in the hope of penetrating westward to the source of the river Murchison. They were sent from Victoria under the auspices of Baron von Mueller. The district through which they passed was almost identical in its main features to that met with by Stuart in the same latitude, but further towards the west "scrub and sandhills alternated with good feed and luxurious grassy flats; mulga and oak trees in abundance; ranges of hills, with here and there creeks of fresh water; wild ducks, pigeons, emus, kangaroos, and tribes of natives "—all these were encountered by Mr. Giles's expedition, as they had been previously by other explorers. Two important discoveries, however, were made, viz. the existence of a high mountain in about lat. 25° 30' S., long. 130° 10' E., and of a large salt lake about thirty miles north of it." Unfortunately, this salt lake was the occasion of the return of Mr. Giles and his party. It interposed an obstacle to their progress so great as to necessitate dispensing with the services of Robinson if they would pursue their journey to the end, as provisions would not hold out if all three remained. Mr. Carmichael objected, and, as Giles could not continue alone, the party returned to Adelaide without accomplishing the purpose of their journey.*

[* For full account of this expedition see "South Australia Twice Traversed", by Ernest Giles. (Sampson Low & Co., London.)]

A scheme that had for some time been under consideration was matured in October, for sending out parties to explore the country lying to the westward of the overland telegraph. For this important work two separate expeditions were organized: one, under the leadership of Colonel Warburton, and fitted out at the sole expense of the Hon. Thomas Elder and Mr. W.W. Hughes, was to make Central Mount Stuart the starting-place, and thence to proceed, in as direct a course as possible, to Fremantle. The second expedition, under the leadership of Mr. W.C. Gosse, son of Dr. Gosse, of Adelaide, was to make the river Finke, some hundreds of miles to the southward of the Central Mount, its starting-place, and to proceed in as straight a course as possible to Perth, in Western Australia. By this means a line of entirely different country to that traversed by Colonel Warburton would be explored. This second expedition, although equipped at the joint cost of Mr. Elder and of the State, was, to all intents and purposes, a Government one. The country to be explored was almost limitless, as there were to the southward of the parallel of Central Mount Stuart, and to the westward of the overland telegraph, scores of millions of acres of land the nature of which remained practically unknown.

The explorers in these latter expeditions did not fairly set out until after Sir James Fergusson had left the colony. How they fared and what they accomplished will be told in the next chapter.

One or two events of great importance to the future of South Australia marked the closing year of the administration of Sir James Fergusson.

Lack of means for the higher education of young men, especially those intended for the Christian ministry, had long been recognized by leading men as a distinct want in the colony. Young men had to journey to England to fit themselves for professional pursuits, and colonial pulpits had to be filled at great expense from the home country, because there were no facilities for training young ministers in the colony. Accordingly, a number of Protestant ministers, belonging to the non-Episcopalian denominations, founded a theological institution known as "Union College", in which students could be trained for the ministry. Among those who took a prominent part in this work were the Rev. James Jefferis, LLB. (Congregationalist), J. Davidson and J. Lyall (Presbyterians), and S. Mead, M.A., LL.B. (Baptist). Mr. W.W. Hughes was waited upon to ask for assistance in providing an endowment fund. He very favourably entertained the request, and subsequently expressed his willingness to give the munificent sum of £20,000. The Committee of Union College, with great patriotism, decided to ask Mr. Hughes to devote this gift to the establishment of a university. To this proposal Mr. Hughes gave his consent, and the project was warmly taken up by all who desired that the means for obtaining a liberal education in the colony should be provided.

A meeting was held in Adelaide on the 17th of September, 1872, to discuss the whole question, at which Bishop Short presided, and all the leading ministers and men of influence in the city were present. It was decided that Union College should be retained as a Theological Institution, and the Adelaide University Association was established for the purpose of taking all necessary steps to found a university. Some years were to elapse before the university could be opened, but Mr. Hughes signed a deed of gift of £20,000 in ten years, with interest at five per cent. till paid.

With the increasing prosperity of the colony, many admirable institutions of a philanthropic nature came into existence, in all of which the Governor took a strong personal interest and aided influentially. Among them was the Prince Alfred Sailors' Home at Port Adelaide, to improve the condition and add to the comfort of sailors.

Another admirable philanthropic institution, placed upon a permanent basis about this time, was the Bushmen's Club. A movement was set on foot in 1856 to supply to some extent the want of religious services to the scattered inhabitants of the remote country districts, by means of an association called the "South Australian Bush Mission." Contributions were raised, and the services of two agents were engaged to travel from station to station to deliver tracts, and conduct religious services wherever and whenever practicable.

In founding and sustaining this mission, which did most excellent work, both Mr. G.F. Angas and his son, Mr. J.H. Angas, took an active part. But their services were still more valuable in connection with the foundation of the Bushmen's Club.

It came about on this wise:—William M. Hugo, a connection of the celebrated Victor Hugo, was for many years a bush missionary, of whom nothing was known save that he was engaged in evangelical work, travelling from station to station all over the Australian colonies, depending for food entirely upon the hospitality of those he visited, declining all pecuniary aid, and doing many kindly acts of charity for the lonely shepherds with whom he came in contact. He called himself "William", and was known by no other name. In 1866, while in South Australia viewing with pain the debaucheries of bushmen when making their periodical visits to the city, it struck him that there was no class of the community more needing protection against themselves and friendly help, and he conceived the idea of establishing a retreat for them somewhat similar to Sailors' Homes. He accordingly named his project to Mr. J.H. Angas, who put the matter before his father, representing that the habits of bushmen made them, like sailors, victims to every adventurer to prey upon their weaknesses. Mr. Angas and several other friends took up the matter warmly, and became large contributors to a fund for establishing a Bushmen's Club. A house in Whitmore Square, Adelaide, formerly occupied by Sir Charles Cooper, one of the early judges of the colony, was secured, together with the ample grounds, and on the 20th of May, 1870, the Bushmen's Home, with "William" as honorary superintendent, was formally opened by Sir James Fergusson. The payment of a small entrance fee entitled the members to the freedom of the Home, where they could at once take up their residence and be much more comfortable, at only a fraction of the expense and with none of the temptation of a public-house. Since its foundation, the premises of the club have received extensive additions and alterations (Mr. J.H. Angas contributing £1000 to the building fund), and this interesting institution is one of the most deservedly popular in the city, and the first of its kind in the southern hemisphere.

Yet another excellent institution, in the foundation of which the Governor took a strong interest, was the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb Asylum. It was Mr. William Townsend, a man who, like many others, rose from humble rank to be one of the most influential and well-known men of the colony; a king of auctioneers, an inimitable lecturer, a large-hearted and open-handed mayor, and a judicious minister of the State—this Mr. Townsend originated the idea of the asylum, and for many years laboured hard to make it an accomplished fact, although it was not for a long time after Sir James Fergusson gave the scheme his support that the institution, which has been an inestimable boon, was formally opened at Brighton.

Towards the close of the administration of Sir James Fergusson there was, in addition to these philanthropic movements, a remarkable spirit of enterprise abroad. It manifested itself in a variety of ways, and not least in the origin of many new industries which rose rapidly into prominence, such, for example, as the manufacture of tobacco, advocated in the Chamber of Manufactures by Dr. Schomburgk, the leaf of which at that time was imported as a temporary expedient Another industry was the manufacture of cordials by Messrs. A.M. Bickford and Sons, who, in one month, sent out six hundred dozen of their produce, consisting of lime-juice cordial, raspberry vinegar, raspberry balm, and such like; while another firm took up the running and manufactured an excellent chow-chow and other pure condiments unaided by chemicals. At Lobethal the manufacture of flannels and blankets was commenced, and in many ways and places new sources of wealth were originated. Perhaps the most important was the meat-preserving industry. It had hitherto been carried on in a desultory manner since 1869, but now, under the auspices of the Adelaide Meat-preserving Company, it began to assume proper proportions. From September, 1870, to April, 1871, 55,427 sheep and 131 head of cattle were turned into tinned meats and tallow.

In nothing, however, was this spirit of enterprise more clearly shown than in building operations. With the exception of the time when Governor Gawler, in order to find work for the many unemployed who were dependent on Government aid, undertook the construction of public edifices, there had been no period in the history of the colony when the question of building improvements occupied so much public attention as in the years 1872-73. Unoccupied acres were filled up with handsome dwelling-houses, more particularly in the eastern, southern, and northern portions of the city, and in its main streets there arose the new Post-office, one of the finest buildings in the southern hemisphere, and the Police and Customs Offices. Alterations and additions were made to the new Law Courts and Government House, to prisons and to schools, while churches, chapels, institutes, and halls rose in all parts of the country, notable amongst them being St. Peter's Cathedral.

In the last session of Parliament under the rule of Sir James Fergusson an important matter was settled. The question of payment of members was decided in the House of Assembly by a majority of seventeen to eleven. The motion was brought forward by Mr. T. Play ford, who advocated a payment of twenty-one shillings per day for every day when the House met for business, limiting such payment, however, to a maximum of eighty guineas for each session, and deducting a guinea for each day a member was absent, except from illness. He further suggested a fee of one shilling per mile for the distance a member had to travel from his home, to be paid once for each session. In opposition to this, Mr. Townsend proposed the payment of a round sum of £200 per annum, and this eventually came into operation.

On the 30th of November, 1872, when proroguing Parliament, the Governor concluded his speech in these words:—

"Her Majesty has been pleased to appoint me to the Governorship of New Zealand, and my official connection with the colony will shortly terminate. It is a source of deep gratification to me to observe the prosperity which at the time of my departure attends all our main producing interests, and the general contentment and well-being of the people. I look back with much pleasure upon the cordial and harmonious relations which have subsisted between myself and the Parliament and the community at large. I shall ever retain a deep interest in this colony, in which I have resided for nearly four years, and earnestly hope that it may greatly flourish and prosper under the favour of Divine Providence."

A few days after the close of the session a banquet was given to the Governor prior to his leaving the colony. One hundred and eighty gentlemen attended. In responding to the toast of the evening he referred to the great calamity that had cast its deep shadow over his domestic life—the death of his wife. Lady Edith Christian, daughter of the Marquis of Dalhousie.

"In the four years to which my office has been limited," he said, "I have had times of Fore trial which have prevented me from mixing with you as much as was my desire, and from travelling into many districts which I hoped to have visited. But, gentlemen, I have still seen a great deal of the colony, and I think I have learned to know and appreciate many phases of your national character. I am not unaware of the struggles of those who take up new land and occupy the much-coveted position of owners of the soil. I know how hard is the life they have to lead before they attain that independence which is so honourable, and which they enjoy so greatly. I have watched with interest the vicissitudes of trade and the eminence to which many of your professional men have attained; in fact, gentlemen, while the institutions of Parliamentary government were early bestowed upon the colony, I believe, although many believed they came too soon, that they have tended to make you grow up to them. The idea I formed of the colony before I came to it was that it was like an English county which I had never seen before, but that it had to work without the natural leaders which in an English county give the tone to society. Well, I think thirty years have raised an upper class in the colony of which any county in the old country might be proud. . . ."

Whatever view may be taken of some phases of the career of Sir James Fergusson as Governor of South Australia, it is indisputable that he rendered most important service to the colony in innumerable ways, and notably in attempting to open up trade relations with India, in energetically promoting the establishment of telegraphic communication with Europe, and in the strong and practical interest he took in the formation of educational and philanthropical institutions.

On December the 4th Sir James Fergusson held a farewell levée, when valedictory addresses were presented. A subscription was set on foot for his portrait to be painted by a London artist with a view to placing it in the Legislative Council Chamber, and a duplicate in Sir James's family mansion at Kilkerran.

He left South Australia on the 5th of December for England before entering upon his new sphere of duty in New Zealand, bearing with him the good wishes of all classes of the community.*

[* Shortly before leaving the colony, Sir James engaged himself to marry a young colonial lady, Miss Olive Richman, daughter of the late John Richman, of Warbunga, sister-in-law of Sir Walter Hughes, the discoverer and promoter of some of tho great copper mines of South Australia. This lady, to whom Sir James was married in March, 1873, and who was possessed of great beauty and of a charming character, died of cholera during his subsequent administration of Bombay, tho niece of Lady Fergusson, Miss Alice Richman, falling a victim at the same time to that terrible disease.]

{Page 43}



JUNE, 1873— JANUARY, 1877.

Sir Richard Hanson Acting Governor.—Antecedents of Mr. A. Musgrave.—Policy with regard to Northern Territory.—Gold Companies.—Visit of Mr. Reynolds to Palmerston.—Coolie Labour.—Mr. G.B. Scott Government Resident.—Port Darwin declared a Free Port.—Action of the North Australian Land Company.—Free and Assisted Immigration.—Condition of the Working Classes.—Free, Secular, and Compulsory Education.—Parliamentary "Standing Dishes."—Project of a Trans-continental Railway.—New Roads.—The Murray Railway Scheme.—New Industries.—Silk Culture.—Explorations of Mr. Gosse.—Colonel Warburton.—Mr Ernest Giles.—Mr. John Forrest.—Bridging the Murray.—Wreck of the Gothenburg.—Opening of Adelaide University.—Union College.—Magnificent Gifts.—Governor's Farewell Address.

ON the 6th of December, 1872, the Rangatira steamed down the gulf, bearing Sir James Fergusson to other shores. On the following day Sir Richard Hanson, the Chief Justice, was sworn in as acting Governor, and South Australians were gratified that this honour had fallen to an old colonist who had long been prominent in local politics, and had in various ways proved his warm interest in the welfare and progress of the province.

During his brief administration of six months Sir Richard was not called upon to take any very prominent part beyond the ordinary routine duties of his office—duties he discharged with promptness and efficiency. In February an official telegram announced that the Colonial Office had chosen Mr. (afterwards Sir) Anthony Musgrave to the Governorship of the province.

Mr. Musgrave was in the prime of life, and well qualified by long experience for the high appointment now conferred upon him. He was familiar with the details of administration in Crown colonies, and also with the practical working of political institutions similar to those of South Australia. He entered the public service in 1850, and was for a short time private secretary to Mr. Mackintosh, Governor-in-Chief of the Leeward Islands. But we find him next year pursuing his studies at the Inner Temple. His second appointment, as Treasury Accountant in Antigua, was also relinquished for the further prosecution of his legal studies. These, however, were definitely abandoned on his appointment as Colonial Secretary at Antigua. He was promoted in 1860 to be Administrator of Nevis, and was thus provided with a small working model for the practical study of viceregal functions, for Nevis (now joined to St. Christopher) had then an Executive, a nominee Legislative Council, and a Representative Assembly to rule over its twenty square miles of territory and its ten thousand inhabitants. He was next transferred to St. "Vincent, which enjoyed a similar constitution. After governing this island for three quiet years, Mr. Musgrave succeeded Sir Alexander Bannerman as Governor of Newfoundland, where for five years he had the opportunity of studying a constitution very similar to that to which he was afterwards to be introduced in South Australia.

His next charge was British Columbia, where the local head of the State is entrusted with immense powers, and is expected to visit frequently the widely separated parts of his vast dominion. After brief service here Mr. Musgrave was sent to Natal, carrying with him a new charter, which, however, the inhabitants stoutly resisted, as they considered it sought to infringe their rights of local self-government In spite of the friction that arose on this point, Mr. Musgrave's wise policy, and the liberal and progressive character of his actions and speeches, appear to have secured for him the general approbation of the people of Natal.

From Natal he was sent early in 1873 to be the ninth Governor of South Australia. He arrived at Port Adelaide on Sunday, June 8th, about three days earlier than was thought possible, thus somewhat marring the formalities of the reception. The intended address was not presented, nor the intended salute fired, but the people cheered loyally as the representative of their Queen landed and proceeded to Government House, accompanied by Mrs. Musgrave (niece of the well-known Cyrus Field) and their children.

Next morning, after the usual swearing-in, an address was presented from the municipality of Adelaide, congratulating the Governor on his arrival at an opportune time in the history of the province, when the agriculturists had been blessed with an abundant harvest and the mineral and other resources were being greatly developed.

Two days later, six hundred of the leading colonists attended the Governor's first levée.

On the 25th of July his Excellency opened his first Parliament, for which the elections had taken place earlier in the year, but the Ministers who had held office at the close of his predecessor's rule were no longer in power. A week before Parliament opened, the Hon. Thomas Reynolds, who had just returned from a trip to the Northern Territory, resigned the office of Commissioner of Crown Lands. For twenty years he had opposed the expenditure of the State revenue for immigration, and knowing that the Cabinet were about to ask Parliament for a grant for this purpose, he felt compelled to retire. Sir Henry Ayers and his colleagues found it impossible to fill up this gap in their ranks, and the result was the formation of a new Ministry with the Hon. Arthur Blyth, M.P., as Chief Secretary.

After a short recess, Parliament met on the 12th of August to hear the statement of the new Ministry as to their policy with reference to the Northern Territory, immigration and other subjects demanding immediate attention. Their explanations were followed by long and remarkably outspoken debates in both Houses. Before referring to the new measures proposed by the Government in connection with the first of these questions, a little explanation is desirable as to the state of the Territory and its recent history.

The discovery of gold and the frequent favourable reports sent to Adelaide by those who were working claims had roused a large share of excited interest. Many ardent young colonists had left their situations and gone prospecting, while many more eagerly took shares in the numerous gold companies that were started.

Early in 1873 fifty or sixty companies were holding claims in the Northern Territory, and there was an expectation of a rush of adventurers from other colonies. Meanwhile the Government were doing what they could to facilitate the steady settlement of the fertile parts of the Territory. In January they had issued new waste land regulations as to the survey and sale of land on liberal terms. But in connection with the gold seekers difficulties were arising. In February Mr. Reynolds, Commissioner of Crown Lands, set out on a personal tour of observation. He first visited Ceylon and other colonies, to study the methods that had been found successful there in the employment of labour, and also to endeavour to attract capitalists to develop the resources of the Northern Territory. He also wished to study the coolie question, as it was evident that a large supply of labour of a character suited to a tropical climate would be needed.

Mr. Reynolds entered the capacious harbour of Port Darwin on May 17th, and proceeded to the line site that had been chosen for Palmerston, the metropolis of the Territory. He found matters in a shameful state of disorganization, and the rules and regulations as to mining claims and other matters very much disregarded. Nearly the whole of the official staff had been allowed to take up miners' rights, and on the strength of those rights to take up claims, and in some instances had been allowed leave of absence to look after their gold reefs. Mr. Reynolds spent two or three arduous weeks in restoring order, settling grievances, ordering surveys, and investigating financial mysteries. He made great changes in the staff, and was only precluded from doing more by his inability to fill up vacancies. He did not forget to note the mineral and other resources of the country, of which he reported very favourably.

Immediately after his return to Adelaide, Mr. Reynolds was waited on by an important deputation of chairman and directors of companies engaged in working the gold reefs. They strongly urged upon the Government the issue of improved regulations and ample protection for the retention and undisturbed working of claims. Mr. Reynolds fully concurred in their views, but three days afterwards he had resigned office, and the task of adjustment was left to his successors.

Accordingly, on the 12th of August the Ministry laid before Parliament the report of Mr. Reynolds, with its revelations of almost hopeless muddle, and stated their intentions as to the future government of the settlement and the appointment of competent officials. Mr. Commissioner Downer was to be judge of the Supreme Court to be established at Palmerston, and also for a few months to act as Government Resident, till that office could be permanently filled up. He was to rank as a Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court, but with extra emoluments, making his salary £1700, besides other allowances. Subordinate offices were filled up, and police reinforcements were ready to start at a moment's notice. Ministers intended to settle the mining question in a separate Bill, providing for twenty-one years' leases, establishing a local tribunal, and invalidating all acts performed by Government officers up to a certain date. A new code of regulations would be issued subject to amendment by the aforesaid tribunal. Another Bill was also promised defining the duties and powers of the Government Resident.

The Northern Territory Supreme Court Bill met with opposition so firm and uncompromising that Ministers were obliged to modify several of its provisions. As finally passed by the Assembly it enacted that the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory should be considered as entirely distinct from the same tribunal in Adelaide, and that it should only exist for twelve months, at which date all suits still pending should be transferred to Adelaide. The judge was in no way to be considered a member of the chief court bench. But even in this modified form the Legislative Council refused to pass the measure, notwithstanding the reports which continually arrived as to the deplorable condition of affairs in regard to the administration of justice.

The Ministry, defeated on the measure they had so carefully prepared to meet the exigencies of the case, saw that it was nevertheless needful to do something. They sent a reinforcement of police to Palmerston, and also an experienced special magistrate and clerk. They furthermore appointed as Government Resident Mr. George Byng Scott, who had resided for thirty years in the colony, and who for nearly twenty years had been acquiring administrative experience in various positions. Accompanied by the chief warden of the gold-fields and numerous private settlers, Mr. Scott readied Port Darwin on the 1st of November, Amongst those who had resolved to settle in the Territory and aid in the development of its resources was the Hon. Thomas Reynolds, who had resigned his sent in parliament in order to reside at Palmerston as a general commission agent. Another of the new settlers was Mr. K. Wells, J.P., who brought with him the requisite staff and plant for the establishment of a newspaper at Port Darwin.

The new Government Resident came armed with full powers for the restoration of order and public confidence. His instructions delegated to him the entire control of all the official establishments in the Territory, and he was advised that, subject to Parliamentary sanction, he would be entrusted with the administration of the Crown lands, the charge of the police, and the general promotion of peace, order, and good government.

Before the year 1873 reached its close, it had become evident that the Northern Territory was not to be, as some had imagined, "a nation born in a day", but, like most other colonies, would have to be gradually and laboriously developed.

The population was satisfactorily increasing, but the prospect of a great rush of immigrants had passed away. Many of the speculative companies were now finding that the gold claims they had purchased so eagerly had proved utterly worthless. At the same time other properties rich in precious metal were being advantageously worked, especially when, in December, some of the companies got machinery to the reefs and began crushing the quartz in a systematic manner. The excitement in Adelaide cooled down, a number of the rotten companies were wound up, and the eyes of the South Australian public became opened to the fact that the real riches of the vast territory they had elected to develop would depend upon wisely directed perseverance and steady industry. Of the three measures promised by the Government with reference to the Northern Territory, only the Gold Mining Bill became law. Of this Act it may be said (in brief) that it confirmed existing rights, provided means for adjudication on new or disputed claims, and enacted a code of regulations to be strictly enforced wherever gold-mining operations were carried on.

The affairs of the Northern Territory were the main subjects engaging public attention when Governor Musgrave arrived. They were not much improved when he left. Trouble was brewing there. One by one the bright dreams that had been indulged in for a time, faded away. In everything and everywhere there was mismanagement; on the one hand, the people of Adelaide had been cruelly deluded as to the value of the gold claims, and on the other the Northerners complained that the South Australian authorities had blundered in themselves and in their representatives. One of the aggrieved settlers wrote: "Nature has given a grand and safe harbour, but man has not made even a landing-place for a small boat; Nature has given a fair tropical climate where men can live fairly well if they adapt themselves to the country and climate, but South Australia and her rulers have decreed that her officials shall try and dwell in places where one would not put a horse; "and he proceeds to describe Government House, on which thousands had been spent, as "like a dirty barn with fowl-houses jutting out around it . . . and the Court House worse."

But the great drawback to prosperity was the lack of cheap and effective labour, and although in March, 1874, the leading residents forwarded a petition to Parliament praying for self-government and the introduction of coolie or Chinese labour, many a year was to elapse before a solution should be found to the difficult questions of what would be the best kind of labour, and how it was to be supplied.

As regarded the much-vaunted gold claims, the results of experiments in crushing were most disappointing, the yield being on an average only from 23 to 28 dwts. of gold to the ton—a result that at once caused a collapse in the share market so far as gold stock was concerned.

In August, 1874, the first importation of coolies was reported. In March, 1875, business was stagnant, the population decreasing, and the spirit of enterprise dead; the local Government was in debt, and the inhabitants were refusing to pay the necessary taxes. More cheerful accounts, however, arrived a little later. But still it was reported in January, 1870, that dilatoriness and red-tape officialism pervaded the land department, and the administration of justice was so unsatisfactory that men accused of criminal offences were kept as long as eight months in cells before being brought to trial. To reawaken commercial enterprise Parliament passed, in 1875, an Act abolishing all customs duties on goods entering the territory, and declared Port Darwin a free port. But of the effects of these and other reformative and amelioratory measures we shall have to speak in another chapter.

Before leaving for the present the subject of the Northern Territory it should be recorded that the important appeal from the Supreme Court of South Australia was heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, and on the 13th of November, 1873, Lord Penzance gave judgment The appeal was in respect of several judgments by which the colonial Government was held to be liable to the North Australian Land Company, Limited, for £33,818 12s. 3d., including £19,741 10s. for the purchase of land from the Government, for which the company held land orders.

His lordship, in giving judgment, said that the respondents, under the provisions of the Northern Territory Act, in 1864, paid large sums for land orders entitling them to a portion of the 500,000 acres annexed to the colony. Certain regulations were made and published, and were the conditions upon which the Company paid the money for the land. The statute provided that within five years the land was to be surveyed by the Government, and should be allotted to the holders of the land orders, and the holders were to make their selection. Within the prescribed five years no selection could be made, and the purchasers were not able to obtain the land. At the close of 1868, before the five years had expired, a second Act of Parliament on the subject of the Northern Territory was passed, under which fresh regulations were to be made, and of a different character as to the quantity of the land. The respondents alleged that they could not make a selection as they had stipulated under the first Act, and could not obtain the land which they had a right to expect. The substantial question then arose on the merits. Were the respondents bound to come in under the second Act? If not, their right to recover the money they had paid was clear. After dwelling on this question and also on the claim for interest, Lord Penzance said that the conclusion, at which their lordships had arrived was, that there was a positive contract that the land should be surveyed within five years, and that the selection could then be made. The committee would advise her Majesty that the judgment of the court below be affirmed with costs. The colonial Government would have to pay the £33,000 and costs, and the Company would of course surrender their land orders.

Immigration was a subject which, in 1873, again caused considerable discussion in the colony, and, after wrecking the Ayers Ministry, claimed some immediate notice from Parliament. The splendid harvest of 1872-73 had proved conclusively that there was an alarming deficiency in the supply of labour, and it was seen that if high-class farming was to be extended, this deficiency would be increasingly felt. Accordingly, on March 19, an influential meeting at the Chamber of Commerce appealed to the Government to bring in a Bill providing for a liberal and comprehensive scheme of immigration.

In the following month a very valuable handbook for emigrants proceeding to South Australia, by W. Harcus, J.P., and others, treating fully of the colony and its resources, was published in Adelaide, and afterwards republished in London, and extensively circulated.

Public sentiment in the colony was, however, greatly divided as to the respective values of free or assisted immigration, and whilst there were some who counselled that both these methods should be adopted, others declared that the assisted immigrant would hold himself to be a superior person to the free immigrant; the labour market would be tainted with caste or class feeling, and evils would arise of which free immigration was the only preventive.

Seeing the divided state of public feeling, Ministers moved cautiously, and when Parliament met in August they stated their intention of only spending on immigration during the current year the £9000 already voted, but would put down in the estimates the sum of £35,000 to be spent in 1874. A fortnight after, a public meeting, held in the Town Hall and presided over by the Mayor, recorded its uncompromising protest against free immigration in all its forms. It condemned as unconstitutional and improper the action of the Government in having already sent to England for two shiploads of labourers to supply the immediate needs of the labour market, and denounced free immigration as opposed to sound principles of political economy and injurious to all classes of the community. Finally, it declared that the only safe method of increasing the population was to liberalize the land laws and so induce voluntary immigration.

It was manifest that the supporters of free immigration were few in number in comparison with those who advocated the other system, and when, towards the close of the session, the estimates came on for consideration. Parliament voted £15,000 for assisted and £5000 for free immigration, to be expended during the first half of 1874 Although the plan was adopted as a compromise, great doubt was expressed as to the two methods being found to work harmoniously together, and after the first vote had been passed readily, the second was only obtained by a majority of one.

During the session of 1874, the Assembly refused, by a majority of three, to entirely discontinue free immigration, although large meetings at the Adelaide Town Hall and other places passed resolutions against the system. In July, 1874, Parliament voted £30,000 for assisted and £5000 for free immigration for twelve months, and a similar policy was maintained during the remainder of the period now under notice.

The neglected condition of the working classes in South Australia had for years been recognized as demanding Parliamentary action. At election after election candidates had been helped to win seats in Parliament by their promises to do something in the matter of free education. But so formidable had been the difficulties to be encountered, that hitherto nothing had been done to cure the acknowledged defects of the existing system. The new Ministry made a resolute attempt to solve the question, and on August 12 declared that nothing short of a complete system of free, secular, and compulsory education would suffice, and a Bill on that basis was, on August 14, read a first time. The question had been one of the test points at elections for nearly ten years past.

The new Education Bill defined elementary education to be reading, writing, and arithmetic for boys, and for girls the same subjects, with the addition of sewing and plain needlework. It proposed to create, in lieu of the old Board of Education, an Educational Department, consisting of a responsible Minister, a superintendent, inspectors, teachers, etc., all of whom were to be appointed or removed at the discretion of the Governor. By other provisions of the Bill all school property was vested in the Minister of Education; school districts were created, and all teachers were to qualify at the Adelaide Training School before appointment. Sections 11 to 14 were the radical points of the measure, for they directed that the four hours' daily attendance should be devoted to secular instruction only, attendance being voluntary at any Bible reading or religious instruction after school hours; that all fees should be abolished except for extra subjects after hours; that all children between the ages of seven and fifteen should attend at least sixty days in each half-year, unless efficiently instructed elsewhere, or already up to the required standard, or prevented by sickness, or by residing more than two miles from any school; and that failure in compliance would involve punishment in the shape of fines or imprisonment.

Other sections of the Bill provided for certificates of attainment to required standards; supply of school materials, school sites, the selling a part of "school lands" to provide funds for salaries and other expenditure; and the promulgation by the Executive of rules and regulations for the carrying out of all details.

In the debate the ground was contested inch by inch, until by a majority of four the Bill passed its third reading, and was sent up to the Legislative Council. There, on the 2nd of December, its second reading was moved, and the debate, again and again adjourned, resulted in the Bill being lost by a majority of three. There is no doubt that the most powerful motive underlying all the opposition to the Bill was the fear lest the £90,000 required for the first year's operations would prove too great a burden on the colony.

In the session of 1875, however, the Boucaut Ministry brought in an Education Bill, which skilfully embodied the views of the majority of the community. It substituted for the Central Board of Education a Council with a responsible Minister as President, a salaried Vice-President, a Secretary, and a full staff of Inspectors. Compulsion was to be exercised in districts proclaimed by the Governor, when sufficient school accommodation should be provided. Provision was made for Bible reading during the quarter of an hour preceding secular instruction; but the schoolrooms were to be closed against all denominational teaching at any time. Education was to be free to all unable to pay fees.

During its passage through the Lower House the salient features of this measure were affirmed by overwhelming majorities. An amendment was, however, carried against the Government for allowing the schoolrooms to be used for religious or denominational purposes after the classes were dismissed. It was also decided that the Minister of Education should be quite independent of the Council, which should have its own salaried President. Provision was also made for secondary schools, and for raising the stipends of teachers. The Bill was materially liberalized in another important point, namely, the land endowment for educational purposes. Government had proposed to set aside about 6000 acres annually, but the House decided that 100,000 acres should be at once reserved, and power taken to set aside an additional 20,000 acres every year.

Certain "standing dishes" came before Parliament session after session, and in 1873 several of them were vigorously cut at, or altogether demolished. The privilege question, to wit, which at the close of the previous session had assumed formidable proportions, was set at rest by the Chief Secretary submitting a motion, "That the privileges of this House in regard to the initiation, custody, and presentation for her Majesty's assent, of money Bills are identical with those held and enjoyed by the House of Commons, and that the Speaker be requested to make arrangements for the due observance on all occasions of such privileges." There was a brief and quiet debate on the subject, and then the motion was agreed to without further demur.

In like manner a Constitution Act Amendment Bill, almost identical with a measure introduced by the previous Government, was again brought forward. Its three chief points were that the Attorney-General should not necessarily be a member of Parliament; that provision should be made for the appointment of a Minister of Education; that the sums payable to members of the Cabinet should be altered. This Bill passed the Lower House easily, but encountered difficulties in the Legislative Council on the schedule of salaries to Ministers. Sir Henry Ayers proposed that Ministers should serve without salaries, but this proposal met with no support, as it would virtually exclude from office all but wealthy men. The Bill was ultimately passed, equalizing the salaries of the six Ministers at £1000.

The oft-mooted subject of a Trans-Continental Railway was brought before the Assembly on August 22nd by the Chief Secretary, and a Bill was brought in "for the formation of a railway to Port Darwin." It was proposed to grant a quantity of land in alternate blocks of not exceeding ten miles, laid out upon a chess-board system. The line would be open to tender, and the tenderer required to deposit £10,000, and the successful tenderer a further sum of £20,000. The line would have to be constructed in fourteen years, and at the rate of not less than one hundred miles a year; and a train would be required to start from each end of the line at least once a week.

Eloquent pictures were drawn on the one hand of the advantages that would result to the Australian colonies from the proposed railway, in the opening up of waste lands and the settlement of tens of thousands of "good, sound, healthy" workers upon them; while, on the other hand, the Bill was vigorously denounced by Messrs. Carr, Solomon, and Hughes, who condemned the introduction of "miserable Asiatics" and the "tender" system, and uttered gloomy prophecies of the disasters that would result from granting the fee simple of one hundred million acres to the constructors of the railway. The whole scheme was regarded as a trap for unwary capitalists, and an encouragement to swindling promoters of bubble companies.

The debate was resumed from time to time, but there was evidently no real desire to push the matter forward, and the session closed without the question having come to a vote on the second reading.

One other specimen of a Parliamentary "standing dish" will close the series for the present.

An agitation had, as we have seen, been going on for years with reference to the formation of new roads, the crucial point being, of course, who was to pay for them. Mr. Hannaford, the President of the District Chairmen's Association, and his supporters wanted practically to tax the squatters, and to leave the farmers to enjoy benefits to which they had not specially contributed. They proposed to construct roads out of the proceeds of the land sales, and to maintain them in good condition out of the general revenue. The apathy of legislators on this question was astonishing. For at least eight years it had been a "burning question" at the hustings, and yet nothing had been done. Again and again Bills had been brought in, debated upon, and then rejected. Many members had notoriously changed their advocacy of this or that method, according to whether they were in or out of office. The Bill now brought before the Assembly by the Blyth Ministry ordained that new main roads should be constructed out of the general revenue, but that the districts benefited should bear a special share of the burden of maintenance. Some half-hearted discussions took place on the measure, which was eventually shelved once more by its rejection on the second reading.

The month of October marked a new era in the history of the civil service in South Australia. Hitherto no test as to the capabilities of applicants for junior positions was demanded, the Ministers of the day selecting the candidates. From this date, however, examinations, not necessarily severe, but sufficient to test educational proficiency, had to be passed by each candidate before entering the service—a system which was found to be beneficial both to the service and the State.

The seventh Parliament of South Australia under the Constitution Act came to a close on the 18th of December, with the usual congratulatory speech from the Governor on the benefits to be expected from the "many important measures that had been enacted."

Having indicated some of the principal topics exercising the minds of leaders in the political world during the first year of the administration of Governor Musgrave, it will be well in this place to glance at Parliamentary matters generally until his term of office ceased.

The Blyth Ministry, having experienced many reverses and accomplished comparatively little, was thrown out by a vote of no confidence on the 29th of May, 1875, and was replaced by a cabinet led by Mr. J.P. Boucaut.

There had been great agitation throughout the colony for some time with reference to a proposed railway to connect the river Murray with Adelaide; in fact, the project had been more or less before the public for twenty years. In 1873-74 it took a foremost place as a political question, the object being, not only to prevent the Riverina trade from being entirely absorbed by the adjacent colonies, but also to form a grand trunk line, and thus place Adelaide in direct communication with the railway system of Victoria and New South Wales. The debatable point was the question of route—northern members strongly opposing a direct line eastward to the Victorian frontier. The result was the postponement of the measure, but the whole question of the railway system of South Australia soon came up as a matter of imperative importance, and Ministry after Ministry had to grapple with it as best they could.

On the 28th of September, 1875, the Chief Secretary expounded the public works policy of the new Government. They proposed a loan of three millions sterling, to be expended during the next three or four years in undertakings of a reproductive and national character. Of this amount, £2,290,000 were to be appropriated to the construction of 550 miles of railway, intended to open up the far north; tap the Murray river at the Northwest Bend; form the first section in a line connecting Adelaide and Sydney by way of the mineral country beyond the Burra and the pasture lands of the Barrier ranges; complete the means of communication with the seaboard required by residents in the rich agricultural areas under cultivation in the north, and furnish the people of Mount Gambier, in the south-eastern district, with proper facilities for reaching a port available in all weathers. The remainder of the loan was to be devoted to harbours, jetties, school-houses, and other necessary works.

But unfortunately, oil the very day that this comprehensive scheme was put before the House, the Legislative Council had thrown out a Stamp Duties Bill with which the Government had proposed to secure the means of paying the interest on the loan, and also of making up an estimated deficiency in the year's account. In this dilemma Ministers resolved to prorogue Parliament, in order that during a short recess the feeling of the public on the question might be ascertained.

Parliament reassembled on the 10th of November, the colony having in the mean time unmistakably shown its approval of the ministerial policy by resolutions and memorials. On the 12th of November the Government laid four Bills before the House—a Stamp Duties Bill, and three referring to railways and public works. The Stamp Bill passed the Assembly almost without a division, but in the Council was thrown out by a majority of one. Much popular indignation was expressed at eight men being thus able to defy the wish of the colony, and proposals were heard that the term of service of members of the Upper House should be shortened. Ministers at once abandoned their Railways and Public Works Bills, and on the 30th of November Parliament was prorogued.

During this prematurely closed session of 1875, the Education Bill (already referred to) and a few other useful measures were passed, including the Intercolonial Free Trade Bill, facilitating the interchange of products of the soil between the colonies; a Bill for the planting and conservancy of forests; a Bill to prevent lotteries and gaming; and a Rabbit Bill.

But Mr. Boucaut's Ministry could not carry out the main projects they had in view. As time went on, the Cabinet showed various signs of weakness, and in March, 1876, Mr. Boucaut formed a coalition Ministry, and a policy was announced of enlarged public works and extended immigration; but the alliance of former opponents was viewed with great distrust, and on the 1st of June, soon after the meeting of Parliament, a vote of no confidence was passed by the House of Assembly. On the 6th of June a new Ministry was formed, with Sir Henry Ayers, K.C.M.G., as Chief Secretary. The greater part of the public works policy of this Cabinet was borrowed from their predecessors, and by working on these lines a considerable amount of business was transacted. Five or six new railways and some other public works were authorized. The tariff was revised and duties abolished on about three hundred items, and two loans, amounting in the aggregate to nearly £3,000,000, were voted. To aid in supplying the required interest, the House agreed to the imposition of probate and succession duties.

Several useful additions were made to the statute book during this session. Amongst these were a valuable measure for consolidating and amending the criminal law of the colony; a District Councils Act; a Post-Office Act, harmonizing the postal system with that of other countries; a Trades Union Act; a Distillation Act, and several others. The Licensed Victuallers' Act was hailed with great satisfaction by the teetotallers, as they naturally regarded the legislative sanction of the permissive principle as the thin edge of the wedge and as the forerunner of more comprehensive legislation in the same direction.

We turn now from political questions to those of a more general, and perhaps more interesting character. In all the Australian colonies the subject that, above all others, commands the interest of every settler is the English mail service. Each has a personal interest in it, for it comes from the mother country, where friends and kindred dwell, and brings its great budget of tidings of good and ill. In South Australia this feeling was accentuated, for the people had a long and deep-seated grievance. For thirteen years the colony had received very shabby treatment from the British postal authorities, who persistently ignored her importance and geographical position, and refused to recognize her in connection with ocean mail contracts, all ocean steamers passing her by on their inward and outward journeys. As a standing protest against this attempt to force her into a subordinate position to the other colonies, South Australia, ever since 1860, had spent a sum of money, not less than £13,000 per annum, to keep up, by arrangement with the Australian Steam Navigation Company, a regular branch mail service between Adelaide and King George's Sound, from which place the English mails were received and despatched. From time to time strong protests were made against the inconvenience of this course, and when the transmission of mails between Great Britain and Australia by way of Suez was under discussion these protests were persistently renewed, and taking a firm stand on the ground of gross injustice done to her, South Australia gained not only the sympathy, but the practical help of the neighbouring colonies, with the result that when a new contract with the P. and O. Company was entered into it was a part of that contract that the ocean steamers should call at Glenelg. In January, 1874, the presence in Holdfast Bay of the Pera, the pioneer steamer of the new line, marked for South Australia the achievement of a national triumph which was duly celebrated by banquets and fêtes.

When Governor Musgrave arrived, the colony was passing through a period of unprecedented prosperity. Every branch of local industry was declared to be in a flourishing state; the chairman of the Adelaide Destitute Board publicly stated that there was not an able-bodied pauper in the colony; labour was finding ready and remunerative employment, and the public treasury was full to overflowing. Nor was this all; everything augured well for the future. Production, particularly as regarded the leading staples, wheat, wool, and copper, was being well maintained, and a steady stream of immigration had set in, giving hope that the partial paralysis of Government undertakings owing to the previous scarcity of labour would cease.

One of the most significant of the prosperous signs of the times was the energy and persistency with which colonial industries were either originated or developed, and the eagerness displayed in introducing now sources of wealth. For example, silk culture, although not made the subject of an Act of Parliament, was prominently before the public during the early days of Governor Musgrave's administration. About the beginning of September, 1873, Mr. S. Davenport, who had long shown an interest in the question, read, before the Adelaide Chamber of Manufactures, a paper entitled "Should Silk Culture be encouraged?" About the same time a number of gentlemen waited on the Chief Secretary to ask aid for a Silk Association which had already laid out a plantation with the best kind of mulberry trees. They asked for a State grant of £400 a year for the salary of an experienced sericulturist, and for other purposes. They also desired that bonuses might be given for samples of colonial silk. The result of a long correspondence between the Government and the Chamber of Manufactures on the topic was that the Parliament eventually voted £500 for the encouragement of silk culture. Governor Musgrave had the pleasure of seeing this, amongst many other efforts at commercial development, warmly taken up by some of the leading men in the colony, and some benefit resulted from the Government bonuses annually distributed by the Chamber of Commerce, but silk culture did not immediately become a prominent feature of South Australian industries.

About this time an enterprising firm had in little more than a year manufactured half a million of pure Havana cigars, two hundred thousand of which had been sold in Adelaide at a good price. Men of a scientific turn of mind were discussing the probabilities of finding petroleum or coal; borings had already been made about six miles from the Coorong, and a substance found from which very good kerosene was manufactured. In the district of Hindmarsh—where several extensive industries were in existence, which not only enabled many hundreds of families to secure comfortable livelihoods, but materially helped to promote the general prosperity of the province,—Messrs. Taylor Brothers started a new wool-washing machine at Thebarton, which went through the whole process of cleaning, scouring, and preparing the wool for exportation, thus carrying the wool through all its stages, and making it ready for shipment in less than two hours, at the rate of fifteen bales per day with one machine.

Another industry which promised to become remunerative was the introduction of the necessary appliances for practically testing the value of the iron ores which were known to exist in great abundance in the colony. To this end the South Australian Iron and Steel Company, Limited, was established for the purpose of smelting the rich magnetite and hematite iron ores in the neighbourhood of Mount Cone, about fifteen miles inland from Victor Harbour.

Perhaps there was no more striking instance of the prosperity of the colony during the administration of Governor Musgrave than was shown in the number of Institutes opened or projected, to all of which he lent his aid and co-operation. This was, no doubt, partly due to the action taken in Adelaide with regard to the parent Institute in that city. A Commission of Inquiry was appointed to investigate the actual working of that institution, and the Commissioners unanimously recommended that the scope and organization of the Institute should practically remain intact; that is to say, it should foster the objects of the Society of Arts, the Philosophical Society, and kindred institutions; and that it should act as the parent society to country Institutes. But in the report it was urged that scientific as well as more popular lectures should be extended; that the Museum space should be enlarged, and the formation of an Art Gallery commenced; further, that a Free Reference Library, similar in character to the Public Library in Melbourne, should be at once established. To carry out these arrangements a sum of £25,000 was required, and so favourably were these recommendations received that there appeared to be little doubt the large scheme would be carried out to a successful completion.

As regards exploration many important additions to geographical knowledge were made during the administration of Governor Musgrave. The first was an effort to track out a westerly overland route to Perth, the capital of Western Australia. On April 21, 1873, Mr. W.C. Gosse and an exploring party left the overland telegraph at a point within the tropics about fifty miles south of Central Mount Stuart. They traced the Reynolds Range for forty-five miles, and then, finding it impossible to proceed, took a southerly course, and came upon Lake Amadeus. Rounding this, they proceeded almost due south for a hundred and fifty miles, and discovered a huge mass of rock of honeycombed granite from six to seven miles in girth at the base, and about eleven hundred feet in height. To this huge mass they gave the name of Ayers' Rock, and after crossing a stream which flowed from the very centre of the vast monolith, continued journeying southward till they reached some well-watered land on the border of the Northern Territory. Hence they travelled towards the west, and, after penetrating two degrees beyond the boundary of West Australia, were, after enduring many privations, compelled to return, chiefly through lack of water.

An expedition under Colonel Warburton presented an entirely new feature in South Australian exploration. Hitherto the working bullock and the horse had formed an important part of the travelling cortege, but in this expedition a flock of camels, seventeen in all, belonging to Mr. Elder, were placed at the service of the Government. At Alice Springs, a journey of some eleven hundred miles, Colonel Warburton was detained for some time by tropical rains, and was not able to leave for the westward until the 15th of April, 1873. All went well until the party got clear of the MacDonnell ranges; then "the water failed, the grass turned into the detestable spinifex, and the soil changed to sand", Out of forty-nine desperate attempts to find water by sinking only one was successful. The camels had to be killed one by one to supply food until seven were destroyed; the route was through scorching deserts infested by countless billions of irritating ants. Then death stared them in the face, and nothing remained but to make a rush to the Oakover River, a hundred and seventy miles distant. This was successfully accomplished, but at a tremendous cost of heroic suffering; only three camels were left, and of these one was unfit for work. For the whole of the party to attempt to return together would have been the height of madness. Some, therefore, were left at Oakover River, perchance to be cruelly starved to death, while others pushed on to the nearest station. Right gallantly the little party acted; they obtained horses and provisions in abundance, returned to the river in time to succour their starving leader and his men, and after a while all reached Adelaide in safety, and received an enthusiastic reception. At a banquet given in their honour Colonel Warburton highly eulogized the public spirit of the Hon. T. Elder and Mr. W.W. Hughes, who had organized and sent out the expedition, and Sir Henry Ayers commented on the prominent position South Australia had taken in exploring the continent, and on the fact that some of the most important discoveries had been made, and some of the most difficult explorations undertaken, at the cost of enterprising private colonists. Parliament subsequently voted £1000 to Colonel Warburton and £500 to his companions.

In July, 1874, Mr. Ernest Giles, who had been exploring in the territory west of the overland telegraph, and had reached the Charlotte Waters, reported the discovery of some splendid country, but he was eventually driven back by the difficulties he encountered. Another expedition sent out about this time under the charge of Mr. John Ross, at the cost of the Hon. T. Elder, to explore the westerly parts of the continent, was also unsuccessful, chiefly on account of the scarcity of water.

In September, 1874, Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Forrest completed an arduous and adventurous journey from the west coast to the overland telegraph, passing through the heart of the only extensive region in Australia that still remained unexplored. The party travelled two thousand miles, keeping close to the twenty-sixth parallel of south latitude. For six hundred miles they traversed a desert very scantily supplied with water. A magnificent reception was accorded to the explorers at Adelaide and other towns on their return.

Equally successful in accomplishing the object in view was the expedition sent out by the South Australian Government to explore Lake Eyre. Mr. Lewis and party spent some months in examining and mapping a block of country, about two hundred miles by two hundred and fifty, between the overland telegraph line and Sturt's stony desert. The shores of Lake Eyre were now completely defined.

In May, 1875, the Hon. Thomas Elder sent out another exploring party under Mr. Ernest Giles, and they succeeded in journeying from the overland telegraph through barren country to Perth, in Western Australia.

The long-talked-of scheme of bridging the Murray River was definitely commenced on November 7th (1873) by the Governor laying the foundation-stone. Ever since 1864 the legislature had been discussing the question, and the bridge had actually been procured from England in 1867-68, but had been lying over four years at a railway station! It was now to be placed, as originally intended, at Edwards's Crossing, four miles above Swanport.

Five spans of 121 ft. 5 ins. each were to unite the river banks, and the 1017 tons of ironwork were, of course, to be supported by suitable foundations and abutments. As yet no road ran to the site of the bridge, but it was hoped that eventually there would be one, and that a railway connecting Adelaide and Victoria would cross it.

The Governor set out at five in the morning, and, accompanied by various Ministers and officials in coaches, drove through numerous townships under triumphal arches and past rows of singing schoolchildren, until they reached Edwards's Crossing at two in the afternoon.

In the midst of a grand display of bunting the Governor "well and truly laid" the corner-stone, a splendid block of granite weighing four tons. He also gave a reception to Queen Monart and about twenty of the Murray natives.

The regal representative of a vanishing race is reported to have said, "Well, Gubnur, what you gib me? My ole man dead. You take away this country and build bridge. My people want you give 'em boats and food." It was a brief but striking speech, and the trained and practised Governor parried it by saying, "I will consider about it, and consult with my advisers and see what can be done for you", a reply which gave less satisfaction than the "collection" which followed it.

On the 25th of February, 1875, an event occurred which in its intensity and mournfulness exceeded all other tragic incidents in the history of the colony. It was the wreck of the steamship Gothenburg, on her passage from Port Darwin to Adelaide. In populous countries such as England, a shipwreck, however terrible, makes but a passing impression, but in a colony like South Australia, where nearly every passenger was a South Australian, and many amongst them known and esteemed in their public capacity throughout the whole province, it is impossible to exaggerate the terrible excitement which was caused when the startling intelligence was received that ninety-nine of their fellow-colonists had perished in the wreck; and when the list was published it was found that there was scarcely a family in South Australia that had not a relation or friend on board. The Gothenburg left Port Darwin in stormy weather, but in charge of a thoroughly competent captain. During a cyclone on the eastern coast she ran on a reef at Flinders' Passage, and under the most distressing circumstances the whole of the passengers (99) and the crew (38) perished, save twenty-two who escaped in the boats. Never since the wreck of the Admella—the first terrible disaster of the kind that ever occurred in the colony—had such a blow fallen upon the people.

Among those who perished were the Hon. Thomas Reynolds and his wile, who were amongst the earliest, colonists. Mr. Reynolds came to the colony in 1840. At first an active Methodist worker and preacher, he left them on the "State aid" question, and joined the Congregationalists. He was an energetic man of business and a fervent temperance advocate; after brief service in municipal affairs he entered Parliament in 1854, and took a prominent part in the passage of the Constitution Act of 1855, He entered the Hanson Ministry as Commissioner of Public Works in 1857. Nine months afterwards he resigned, and went into opposition. He was returned for Adelaide City at the head of the poll in 1860. He overthrew the Government by a vote of no confidence, and formed a Ministry in which he took the part of Treasurer. He subsequently held office under Mr. Waterhouse, Mr. Dutton, and Sir Henry Ayers. The Ministry of Sir H. Ayers was broken up in 1873 through the sudden resignation by Mr. Reynolds of his position as Commissioner of Crown Lands just after a visit to the Northern Territory. He also resigned his seat in the House, where he had acquired a high reputation as a brilliant financier and a powerful debater, and settled in the Northern Territory. Here he met with reverses, and was returning to Adelaide a disappointed man when the calamity took place.

Another who perished was Judge Wearing, an excellent lawyer, a fluent speaker, a facile and effective writer, who was returning from the Northern Territory after presiding over the first Circuit Court at Palmerston. He succeeded Mr. Justice Boothby as third Judge of the Supreme Court.

Among other public men who lost their lives in the catastrophe were Mr. Lionel Pelham, Judge's Associate and Clerk of Arraigns; Mr. Joseph James Whitby, acting Crown solicitor; Mr. Richard Wells, a colonist of some twenty years' standing and a well-known journalist; Dr. Millner, also a colonist of twenty years; Mr. William Shoebridge, an active member of the North Adelaide Young Men's Society, Sunday School, and other philanthropic institutions; Mr. Otto Peters, a retired merchant.

For some days, owing to the stormy weather; apprehensions for the safety of the Gothenburg were felt; but, as she had weathered so many rough passages, hopes were entertained that she might be somewhere in safety, until the terrible tidings were announced.

A relief fund was at once initiated, and in the course of a few weeks a sum of nearly £10,000 was raised and distributed among the suffering relatives of the victims.

One of the most striking events of the last year of Governor Musgrave's official residence in South Australia was the opening of the Adelaide University on the 25th of April, 1876. Allusion has been made in a previous chapter to the origin of the University scheme and to the munificent gift of £20,000 made by Mr. W.W. Hughes.

The progress of the new scheme was very slow, and not until October, 1874, after various negotiations, was an Act of Parliament passed incorporating the new University, granting to the Council, to be nominated by the Governor, the power of conferring degrees in various faculties, and endowing the new institution with 50,000 acres of ground in fee simple, also a piece of land of five acres in extent as a site for building purposes, and guaranteeing a grant of five per cent. on funds invested by the Council. A few days after the Act was passed the Hon. Thomas Elder gave the splendid sum of £20,000 in furtherance of the project. A Council was appointed, and Sir H.D. Hanson was the first Chancellor.

In March, 1876, Mr. J.H. Angas gave a sum of money to found a scholarship of the value of £200 per annum, to assist students wishing to devote themselves to engineering after graduating at the University.* About this time the two professors appointed by Mr. W.W. Hughes arrived from England, and efforts were made to gut the University into something like working order. Rooms in the New Training School were obtained, and all the professors began regular courses of lectures. Although the number of students was as yet very small it was decided to hold an opening ceremony, which might serve to stamp the institution as one of national importance.

[* See Appendix.]

Accordingly, on the 25th of April, 1876, the Town Hall was crowded with an assembly of all the leading personages of the colony, under the presidency of the Governor, who reminded his audience that "as wealth increases the social necessity and the leisure arrive for cultivating the elegancies of literature and art, and for the pursuit of science for its own sake apart from utility," and warned them of the error of supposing "that education is valueless which does not immediately lead to money-making or earning a livelihood."

The Bishop of Adelaide (who had been elected Chancellor in place of the late Sir R.D. Hanson) then delivered the inaugural address. Of the University thus started it will be necessary to say more in connection with its further progress and the erection of suitable buildings during another Governor's tenure of office.

By the English mail reaching Adelaide in December, 1876, Sir Anthony Musgrave received official information of his appointment to the Governorship of Jamaica, and left for that island on the 37th of January, 1877. On the 23rd of January he attended a farewell Parliamentary dinner, and delivered a parting address to the colonists, in the course of which he spoke of the period of his sojourn amongst them as one of the pleasantest in his varied life. "On a recent occasion," he said, "I referred to the satisfaction which I felt that the period of my connection with the colony was marked by the development of railways and other public works. But it is also distinguished by other features not less marked and not less important. It has been a period of prosperity unexampled in the annals of the colony. Between 1872 and 1877 the expansion of all your staple industries has been most striking, the area of cultivation has been greatly extended, pastoral occupation has been pushed to the centre of the continent, and the steady stream of immigration which has been set going promises yet further development in the immediate future. This period, too, has seen for the first time the successful exploration of our borders westward to the sea, first by Warburton, and then by Forrest, and by Giles. Among Useful measures of legislation stands prominent what has been done for the cause of popular education, and the edifice has been crowned by the establishment of the University, the opening of which last year must form an epoch in the history of the colony. Though I can claim no personal merit on any of these scores, I shall feel proud of the fact that these things were done 'Consule Planco', Musgrave being Governor."

Sir Anthony took this opportunity to point out the evils resulting from frequent changes in the Ministry, which he characterized as "a great blemish in Australian political systems", and to express the hope that a wise public policy would discountenance these constant changes.* On other details of administration he offered advice, and especially urged the importance of opening out the navigation of the river Murray to the sea. He considered that "even two millions might be well spent in making Goolwa the New Orleans of Australia." He avowed himself a warm confederationist, and stated his belief that the confederation of the Australian colonies was only a question of time, the advantages likely to arise from it being facilities for defence, postal and telegraph communication, development of trade, and other matters. He thought, moreover, that it would give free traders the cheap products for the consumer which they desired, and it would give protectionists the favourable market for local industries which they needed. He concluded an admirable farewell speech by saying, "I have passed three years of happiness among you—happiness, indeed, not without the shadow of a deep grief; but even round this, tender recollections will cling of much kindly sympathy shown to Lady Musgrave and myself in our affliction, and the memory of these years will remain with us as green as were the plains of Adelaide when first we saw them in June, 1873."

[* In thirty-six years ending November, 1892, there had been forty-one Ministries, or less than an average duration of twelve months. See Appendix.]

It was the general opinion that Sir Anthony Musgrave during his tenure of office had shown great tact and judgment. He gave no occasion for censure by undue interference in public affairs, nor, on the other hand, could he be charged with showing a lack of interest in the social and national life of the colony. He cordially accepted invitations to public gatherings, and availed himself of these opportunities to give sound practical advice and evince his deep and intelligent interest in the welfare of the agriculturist and of the colonists generally. In connection with the Philadelphia Commission he rendered most valuable assistance, and was warmly interested in the efforts of the colony to be well represented at the Exhibition. Whilst Governor Musgrave won the good opinion of all by his frank and courteous demeanour, and inspired respect for his office and personal esteem for himself, the active part taken by Lady Musgrave in several philanthropic institutions is well worthy of record. In the welfare of the Servants' Home and Orphans' Home she showed the warmest interest, and also took an active part in the work of the Boarding-out Committee, and of the organization for establishing a children's hospital. She not merely extended her patronage to these and other objects, but regularly attended the meetings, and by her sound advice rendered valuable aid.

{Page 74}



OCTOBER, 1877— JANUARY, 1883.

Mr. Justice Way, Acting Governor.—Arrival of Sir W.W. Cairns.—A Short Administration.—Mr. Justice Way again Acting Governor.—Arrival of Sir William Jervois.—Colonial Defence.—A Parliamentary Deadlock.—A Land and Property Tax Bill.—Financial Affairs.—Sunday Opening of Institutes.—Intercolonial Conference.—Sir George Kingston.—Reform of the Upper House.—The Crown Lands Department.—Law Reforms.—The Northern Territory and Chinese Immigration.—The Sugar Cultivation Act.—Indian Coolie Immigrants.—Explorations.—Mr. Favenc.—The Census.—Visit of Prince Albeit Victor and Prince George of Wales.—A Day at Collingrove, Angaston.—The Adelaide Exhibition.—The Torrens Lake.—Drought and Agricultural Distress.—Charter of Adelaide University.—Governor's Farewell Speech.—South Australian Loans.

Interim Administration of Mr. Justice Way.

January 29, 1877—March 24, 1877.

ON the departure of Sir Anthony Musgrave, Mr. Samuel James Way, the Chief Justice, was sworn in as acting Governor. The son of the Rev. James Way, a highly respected Bible Christian minister, who arrived in Adelaide in 1850, Mr. S.J. Way came to the colony three years later, and soon made his mark. In 1861 he was called to the South Australian Bar, and in 1871 appointed Queen's Counsel. From that time forth he made rapid progress in public estimation, and among the offices to which he was promoted were the following:—Member of Education Board, Member of Council of Adelaide University, and afterwards Vice-Chancellor, Member of House of Assembly for district of Sturt, Attorney-General, Chief Justice.

The interim administration of Mr. Justice Way was not of long duration, but it was more than sufficient to prove his capacity for that post of honour.

Administration of Sir W.W. Cairns, K.C.M.G.

On the 24th of March the new Governor, Mr. W.W. Cairns, C.M.G., arrived in the colony, and on the following day he received a telegram from London informing him that he had been created a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. By the manner in which he at once identified himself with the interests of the community, and took a prominent part in promoting the welfare of various local institutions, the new Governor speedily became popular. But his stay in Australia was destined to be remarkably brief Within four weeks of his arrival at Adelaide it was publicly announced that, in consequence of ill health, he had found it necessary to telegraph to the Secretary of State for the Colonies resigning his office. Lord Carnarvon accepted the resignation "with much regret", and in that regret the people of South Australia cordially shared, for it was universally acknowledged that, short as his Excellency's residence in South Australia had been, he had amply proved his appreciation of its many national advantages, his warm interest in its institutions, and his capacity to discharge with zeal and intelligence the important duties devolving upon him. He inspected the principal Government and philanthropic institutions near Adelaide, and in his public addresses was careful to explain that ill health alone was the cause of his retirement. He left the colony on the 17th of May, and for a short time, namely, from the 17th of May to the 2nd of October, 1877, the Chief Justice, Mr. S.J. Way, again assumed the acting Governorship.

Administration of Sir William Jervois, G.C.M.G.

South Australia, in common with her sister colonies, had for many years lamented from time to time her utterly defenceless condition in case of invasion. When the news arrived from England, early in 1877, of fresh complications with regard to the Eastern Question, and that Russia and Turkey were at war, the subject of colonial defence was discussed with renewed fervour. A great meeting in Adelaide Town Hall, presided over by the Mayor, was followed by similar gatherings in most centres of population. Hundreds sent in their names to be enrolled in the infantry, cavalry, or artillery branches of a local corps; a supply of Martini-Henry rifles was applied for to be sent from England, and the Duke of Cambridge consented to select the required officers.

Meanwhile, the Imperial Government was considering the question of colonial defences, and Sir William Jervois and Colonel Scratchley had been appointed to investigate and report. Whilst engaged in this service, Sir William Jervois received the intelligence of his appointment to be Governor of South Australia. The news was received in Adelaide with great satisfaction, for the work in which he was already engaged was highly appreciated, and his antecedents Were such as to lead the colonists to believe that he was pre-eminently the kind of man they required at that juncture. Born in 1821, he had received from boyhood a military training, and had seen considerable active service amongst Boers and Kaffirs. In 1852 he began his long experience in fortification, and after proving his capacity in several minor appointments he became, in 1857, Secretary to the Permanent Committee on the Defence of the Empire. This office he retained till 1875, during which time he not only took a prominent part in designing and carrying on defence works in Great Britain, but also visited various colonies and dependencies for similar purposes. In 1875 he entered on a new field, as Governor of the Straits Settlements. At Singapore for two years he displayed conspicuous ability as an administrator, and by mingled firmness and conciliation restored order to a troubled district. His next appointment was to inspect and report on the requirements of the Australian colonies as to defences, and, as we have said, it was while so engaged that the message came to him from England to take up the position vacated by Sir W.W. Cairns.

After some necessary delay in order to complete his labours in New South Wales and Queensland, Sir W. Jervois reached his seat of government on October 2nd. He was sworn in at the Town Hall the same afternoon, in the midst of a larger crowd than had ever assembled on a similar occasion. Parliament was in session and a constitutional struggle was in progress. The Legislative Council had taken umbrage in consequence of works for new Parliament buildings having been begun without their having been consulted as to site or accommodation, although the project as a whole had previously been sanctioned by both Houses. The Council demanded the designation of the Chief Secretary, Sir Henry Ayers; but the Colton Cabinet declined to sacrifice him, and declared that they would stand or fall together. Whereupon for a few weeks the Upper House refused to transact any business, and government came practically to a deadlock. The Council sent a long address to the new Governor, setting forth the stages of the dispute, and praying him to take such steps as he might deem expedient. But while such action was pending, the Assembly, on October 10, brought matters to a crisis by passing a vote of censure on the Colton Ministry, who forthwith resigned office, and a new Cabinet was formed, with Mr. Boucaut as Premier and Treasurer.

In spite of a Parliamentary deadlock, a ministerial crisis, and other hindrances, several useful measures were passed during the session of 1877. Conspicuous among these was the Crown Lands Consolidation Bill, which comprehended much that was useful of thirty-three Acts previously passed on this subject; it also liberalized the previously existing laws, and gave valuable concessions to the farmers and to the pastoral and mineral tenants. In pursuance of the public works policy already referred to, various Bills pertaining to railways, water supply, breakwater, and similar matters were passed, and a loan of £1,036,600 to carry these works forward was authorized. The railways included in this Loan Bill were Hamley Bridge to Balaclava, Kadina to Wallaroo, and Barunga Extension. The breakwater was at Victor Harbour. The Parliament expired in the early part of the year, and a General Election took place in April.

It may be well in this place to glance at the whole Parliamentary history of the colony during the administration of Sir William Jervois.

In order to provide against an anticipated deficit, the Boucaut Ministry, in the early part of the session of 1878, proposed resolutions in the House of Assembly in favour of a property tax and an income tax. The latter was not agreed to, but a property tax of threepence in the pound, with £300 as a limit of exemption, was assented to by the Assembly, after much time had been spent in debate.

In consequence of the death of Mr. Justice Stow and the transfer of Mr. Boucaut to the vacant judgeship, a new Ministry was, on September 27th, formed under the Hon. W. Morgan, who became Premier and Chief Secretary; Mr. C. Mann, Treasurer; Mr. G.C. Hawker, Commissioner of Public Works; Mr. W.H. Bundey, Attorney-General; Mr. T. Playford, Commissioner of Crown Lands; and Mr. R. Rees, Minister of Education. Mr. Rees retired after a few days of office, and Mr. T. King was appointed to the vacant portfolio.

The new Ministry brought in a Land and Property Tax Bill in accordance with the resolutions of the House, already referred to, and in due course it was passed by the Assembly. Public opinion generally was in favour of this measure, as it was agreed it would relieve the tariff and prevent the incidence of taxation from falling so heavily on persons with small incomes. The numerous public works in process of being carried out were greatly enhancing the value of property, and therefore it was agreed owners of property should contribute a larger share of the cost. But the Council rejected the measure by ten to two.

The Legislative Council also brought upon itself considerable obloquy during this session, by throwing out two or three very useful Railway Bills and other measures generally desired. A Land Bill amending the Act of the previous year and a Real Property Act Amendment Bill were, however, with some difficulty, passed through both Houses. The Bill for the formation of a Permanent Military Force passed through the Assembly by a large majority, but was only carried in the Council by the casting vote of the President. A Loan Bill was passed for £2,058,000 for railways, jetties, bridges, military defences, and other public works; but a special amount of £290,180 for an Outer Harbour at Largs Bay to accommodate ocean steamers, was, through the opposition of the Council, struck out, and this greatly desired scheme was deferred.*

[* Other Acts passed in the session of 1878 provided for the simplification of the practice of the Supreme Court; for the drainage of Adelaide, for the destruction of rabbits, the eradication of diseases in vines, and for other useful purposes.]

The railways included in this Loan Bill were Adelaide to Nairne, Hallett to Terowie, Moonta to Moonta Bay, and Terowie to Pichirichi, with a branch to Jamestown. The amount authorized for the deep drainage of Adelaide was £200,000. Further amounts of £110,000 in 1884 and £100,800 were borrowed. Adelaide is the only city in Australia which has a deep drainage system. The cost has been very great, but from the health point of view the results justify the expenditure. Adelaide is the cleanest and healthiest city in Australia. In connection with the drainage a Sewage Farm has been established, which has been fairly successful financially.

The Morgan Ministry remained in office during the Parliamentary session of 1879, although they had repeatedly to face considerable opposition. An attempt was made to eject them as soon as the session opened, because they had realized for the four per cent. bonds of the new loan £9 less than in 1877. It was shown that the Government, by neglect and delay, were compelled to put out the loan at an unfavourable time; but they had a strong personal following, and delayed the printing of the papers connected with the loans, and the House by a large majority refused to censure them.

The financial affairs of the colony were now claiming serious attention. The budget showed a cash deficit of £61,383 to start with; the general expenditure was annually increasing; and large liabilities had been incurred for public works. A deficit of £234,722 was to be anticipated on June 30, 1880. The House set itself to the work of retrenchment, and in various ways reduced the estimates by £60,000. Ministers again, brought forward their Property and Income Tax Bill, but it was shelved after the second reading.

Great public interest was excited by the motion of Mr. Hugh Fraser, M.P., in favour of the opening of Institutes on Sundays. A section of the community earnestly protested against the proposal as an encroachment on the Day of Rest, but at the public meetings which were held the wisdom of the motion was generally affirmed. The Assembly decided that the museums and reading-rooms of the Adelaide and Port Adelaide Institutes should be opened from one to six on Sundays, and left the committees of other Institutes to decide for themselves. The Adelaide Institute, Museum, and Art Gallery were opened for the first time on Sunday, August 24th, and were visited by about six hundred persons. A motion to open the Post-office for an hour on Sundays, whenever the English mail arrived during the previous night, was defeated by a large, majority.

A determined effort was made to strike off the votes the £50,000 devoted to immigration, and the Government was compelled to reduce it to £25,000. As the result of pressure put upon them. Ministers also consented to insert a proviso in their contracts against the employment of Chinese on public works.

The Parliamentary session of 1880 was, for the most part, a time of political quietude, and a considerable amount of useful business was transacted. The colony was making steady progress, and year by year the population, products, exports, and revenues showed a marked increase. But it was seen with some apprehension that the national expenditure was growing at a still more rapid rate. The alarm excited on this question found its mouthpiece in Mr. J.C. Bray, who, on August 26th, moved an amendment to the formal motion for going into Committee of Supply, to the effect that the House declined to proceed with the estimates until the Government submitted proposals for an adjustment of the revenue to the expenditure. In the debate that ensued Ministers triumphantly defended their financial policy, and urged the necessity for the extensive public works which they were engaged in constructing, with the result that the contest terminated in the complete defeat of the Opposition.

Among the most noticeable of the measures passed during this session was the Act extending the jurisdiction of the Local Courts. These tribunals were now given jurisdiction in cases where the amount did not exceed £400, with a power of appeal on the law, but not on the facts. The Public Trustee Act was another very necessary enactment providing for the care and management of the estates of deceased persons, and the protection of the interests of their widows and children, whilst the Settled Estates Act afforded means for dealing with entailed land, which was found to be in many cases lying vacant and unproductive through inability to grant leases or to give good titles to purchasers. The latter Act was based upon the Imperial statute, which it closely follows. Another legal measure made provision for retiring allowances to such of the Judges of the Supreme Court as might become unfit for their duties after serving on the Bench for a period of twenty years. The objectionable system of appeals in individual cases was thus got rid of. Not the least important of these legal reforms was the Act which the Governor referred to in his speech as "an important and long-promised reform in the law with respect to insolvent debtors, abolishing imprisonment for debt, placing the management of estates in the hands of the creditors, protecting the honest, and providing for the punishment of fraudulent debtors."

It should be mentioned that during the session of 1880 the laws relating to licensed victuallers and to municipal corporations were amended and consolidated. The former subject was the occasion of considerable excitement and agitation in the colony, as the Total Abstinence party, led in Parliament by Mr. John Colton, endeavoured to close public-houses all day on Sunday, and to impose various other stringent restrictions on the trade. But the opposition to these views was equally strong, the result being of the nature of a compromise on the main points of the question.

A special session of Parliament was opened by the Governor on the 4th of January, 1881, in consequence of the International Conference that had recently been held in Melbourne, to consider the question of the trade between South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales, and other matters upon which united action was desirable. It was needful for the Government to obtain legislative sanction for the increased duties on various articles imposed in accordance with the decisions of the Convention. The increased duties were 2s, per gallon on spirits, 1s. 9d. per gallon on methylated spirits, 4s. per gallon on sparkling wines. 1s. per gallon on other wines, and 9d. per pound on unmanufactured tobacco. New South Wales, which had withdrawn from the previous River Murray Customs Convention, was willing to renew conditionally on the imposition of the duties referred to, and an annual payment of £47,500 from South Australia. Between the latter colony and Victoria the collection of border duties was waived, and trade was to be carried on by a system of permits.

The first duty of the House of Assembly was to elect a Speaker in place of the late lamented Sir George Kingston, who for many years had ably fulfilled the duties of that office. The choice of the Assembly fell upon Mr. R.D. Ross, a retired officer of the Imperial Commissariat Department, one of the members for Wallaroo, whose high qualifications were warmly acknowledged by speakers on both sides of the House. Several members also spoke of the valuable services rendered to the colony by Sir George Kingston, and especially the excellent tone which he gave to Parliamentary deliberations by his tact, impartiality, and dignity as Speaker. The House then proceeded to consider the special business for which it had been called together. The necessary Bill was speedily passed through both Houses, and on January 6th the Parliament was prorogued.

The ordinary session of 1881 was opened by the Governor on the 2nd of June, and his opening speech promised reform of the Legislative Council, curtailment of State expenditure, fair taxation of the propertied classes, amendment of the tariff, and many other beneficent measures. The Hon. W. Morgan was still Chief Secretary, though at the head of a new Ministry formed in the recess. But on June 21st private circumstances compelled Mr. Morgan to resign, and his colleagues consequently retired. The Hon. G.C. Hawker tried to form a Ministry, but was unsuccessful, and Mr. Colton was next appealed to, but ill health compelled him to decline. A Cabinet was then formed by Mr. J.C. Bray, who became Premier and Chief Secretary; the Hon. L. Glyde, Treasurer; Mr. J.W. Downer, Q.C., Attorney-General; the Hon. J.G. Ramsay, Commissioner of Public Works; Mr. A. Cust, Commissioner of Crown Lands; and Mr. J.L. Parsons, Minister of Education.

Among the chief measures passed in this session was one dealing with the oft-mooted question of the reform of the Legislative Council. By this Act the number of Councillors was increased to twenty-four. The maximum tenure of a seat in the Council was reduced from twelve to nine years, and the intervals between the general elections of a third of the members from four to three years. If a Bill were passed in two sessions by the Assembly, and each time rejected by the Council, a General Election having taken place between the two sessions, the Governor was to be at liberty to dissolve both Houses, or instead, he might issue writs for the election of two members for each district of the Legislative Council, Either both Houses might be sent to the country, or there might be a special appeal to the Upper House constituency. A Mining Companies Act was passed, which, by its "no liability" provisions, tended greatly to advance genuine mining industry. Parliament also sanctioned the expenditure of £250,000 in developing the country, by boring for water and minerals, and a Loan Bill was passed for raising the sum of £1,287,608 for the carrying on of various public works.

During the Parliamentary session of 1882 no change took place in the personnel of Mr. Bray's Ministry, and a considerable amount of business was satisfactorily transacted. Fifty-two Bills were passed, fourteen being private Bills chiefly concerning tramways. The Railway Bills passed were Nairne to the Victorian border and Gladstone to Laura. Another important Bill was for Port Augusta Wharves. It was decided to devote £100,000 to an Exhibition at Adelaide, in 1886, the year of the colony's jubilee, and to complete before that time a railway to the Victorian border. The purchase of a warship was also resolved upon, and some legislation took place for increasing the effectiveness of the volunteer forces.

It was in connection with the Crown Lands Department that the great work of the session was accomplished. After numerous protracted debates in both Houses, a measure was passed, which, though of course it did not meet the views of every one, was acknowledged to be advantageous to the selectors. It enabled those who had discovered, by bitter experience, that they had given too much for their holdings, and those who had found their selections to be ill suited for agriculture, to surrender their agreements with a view to selecting elsewhere. It also provided the granting of certain concessions to selectors who, during three successive seasons, had had the misfortune to reap poor crops. It introduced, moreover, a new system of sale on credit to persons who were prepared to take up land on the conditions of personal residence. All of this class were to pay annual instalments of five per cent. of the purchase-money for twenty years, when, if they had kept up their payments, the fee simple was to be handed to them. Brands for identifying the ownership of cattle, horses, and sheep, vermin destruction, ostrich forming, forest trees, and bush-fires, all connected with the agricultural interest, were the subjects of useful measures passed during the session.

The Attorney-General (Mr. Downer) energetically endeavoured to carry several law reforms, and was very successful. Although his Bill for amending the law relating to the property of married women was sacrificed, and his exertions in the direction of conferring greater privileges upon the press were nullified by the Council, still he succeeded in carrying Bills for allowing accused persons to give evidence upon oath; for the amendment of the Insolvency Act, and the Marriage Act; and a Life Assurance Companies Bill; all of which were valuable contributions to the legislation of the country.

The Treasurer (Mr. Glyde) lost his Bill for providing the additional taxation which was every year becoming more and more imperatively needful, but he carried measures for the more effective audit of the public accounts, and also one for the inscription of the Public Loans—an Act which was expected to raise the value of South Australian stocks in the London markets.

The acquisition of the Northern Territory as an appanage of South Australia had from the first, as we have seen, been regarded by a large portion of the community as a very doubtful boon, and as the years went on they had little reason to alter their opinion. It could not be otherwise than that this vast territory, situate to a great extent in a tropical climate, and at an immense distance from the seat of government, should be the source of much trouble and anxiety, and throughout the administration of Sir William Jervois important questions with regard to it were continually cropping up. One of these, in 1878 and onwards, was Chinese immigration. The matter was brought prominently forward when intelligence reached Adelaide of a large influx into the Northern Territory, and a majority of candidates were returned to the Assembly pledged to support a poll-tax on the obnoxious Celestials entering South Australia proper. But no poll-tax was ever levied on Chinese landing in the Northern Territory. Popular excitement was further aroused on the question by the news of the seamen's strike in Sydney, and on the 9th of December a large and enthusiastic meeting was held at the Town Hall, when resolutions were passed declaring it necessary to place stringent restrictions on the introduction of Chinese, and expressing sympathy "with our fellow-countrymen who have been supplanted by Chinese in Queensland and Sydney." A subscription was set on foot for the Seamen's Union, and a large amount contributed. But no active steps were at that time taken with regard to the poll-tax, and early in the following year, 1879, there arrived in the Northern Territory 555 Chinese from Hong Kong. During the year further importations of Asiatics placed the white population of the Territory in a still greater minority. For a time this circumstance was a cause of uneasiness, and special arrangements were made to prevent mischief. But in spite of prejudice the claims of humanity were not disregarded, when, in March, distress and sickness were prevalent among the Chinese. The Government were compelled to come to their help, and relief works were at once set on foot.

During the Parliamentary session of 1879, among Bills passed in relation to the Northern Territory, was a skeleton measure for the introduction and protection of Indian coolie immigrants, for extending the period during which land might be taken up for plantation purposes, and for encouraging settlement upon small blocks of ground on the gold-fields.

In this session the Territory was granted electoral representation in the South Australian Parliament by allowing registered electors to vote in the district of Flinders. This way of meeting a long-delayed right gave very little satisfaction. An Act was also paased with the special object of encouraging the cultivation of sugar and other tropical products in the Northern Territory, This Act was known as the Sugar Cultivation Act. It provided for the dedication of 100,000 acres of land in localities to be selected. The conditions were, that on each 10,000-acre block £10,000 was to be expended, 500 tons of merchantable sugar were to be produced within six years, certain cultivating and fencing conditions were to be complied with, whereupon the grantees would receive the fee simple. A memorandum of agreement was made a schedule to the Act. On the day fixed for opening the applications it was found that the whole area was applied for, 70,000 acres being on Douglas Peninsula, 20,000 acres on the Daly River, and 10,000 acres on the Adelaide River. The Adelaide Dedissa Ale Company and several others selected on Douglas Peninsula, where the land proved to be quite unsuitable for sugar growing. Messrs. Spence and Owston selected on the Daly River, and Messrs. Fisher and Lyons on the Adelaide River, where, though the land was suitable, planting was abandoned after tentative experiments, during which fine cane was grown.

In 1880 the hopes that were once entertained of rapid population and progress were far from being realized. Port Darwin as a free port had proved a failure, and the expected increase of shipping and commerce had not been realized as anticipated. Population was diminishing; scarcely anything was produced but gold; the Territory was burdened with debt, and adding year by year to its liabilities. It was now decided that its two thousand Chinese and four hundred white inhabitants should bear a share of the burdens of the State, and the easiest way of achieving this was by imposing Customs duties. A duty of twenty shillings per pound on opium headed the list; the other articles taxed were rice, salt fish, sugar, spirits, tobacco, cigars, snuff, wine, beer, and tea. All gold exported was to pay two and sixpence an ounce. A proposal from Mr. West-Erskine to tax all flour sent to the Territory, except from South Australia, was favoured by Ministers, but was so strongly opposed that the motion was withdrawn.

In the recess of 1882 a Parliamentary party, consisting of the Minister of Education (Mr. J.L. Parsons), Messrs. H.E. Bright, L.L. Furner, J.H. Bagster, M.P.'s, and accompanied by Professor Tate of the Adelaide University, visited the Northern Territory. They reached as far south as Pine Creek, and visited all the known gold and mineral fields, and obtained much useful information concerning the soil and resources of the Northern Territory. A valuable report by Professor Tate was laid before Parliament. About the same time Major Fergusson, R.E., was despatched to India to settle with the Governor-General and Council the terms of an Act for the introduction of Indian coolies for plantations and other works.

Following upon these visits, a Northern Territory Lands Consolidation Act, in which the price of land was raised to twelve shillings and sixpence per acre, and with liberal provisions to encourage pastoral, mineral, and agricultural development, was prepared and passed the following session. An Indian Immigration Act, based upon the Act in force in British Guiana, was also placed upon the statute book.

The Government also decided to recommend Parliament to construct a jetty and line of railway from Port Darwin to Pine Creek. But before entering upon these works Ministers forwarded a memorandum to the Governor, for transmission to the Secretary of State for the Colonies (Lord Derby), directing attention to the efforts made by South Australia for the development of the Territory; to the terms upon which it was held by the Letters Patent, and requesting that the Territory might be formally and fully annexed to South Australia, Lord Derby replied warmly eulogizing the public spirit displayed by South Australia, stated there was no probability of the existing tenure being disturbed, but considered it expedient that if in the future it should be desired by both South Australia and the Northern Territory that a separation upon equitable financial grounds should take place, the means by which this could be accomplished should exist, and the Letters Patent had better remain unaltered.

How subsequent affairs in the Territory, which towards the close of Sir William Jervois' administration seemed to be converging towards a crisis, were dealt with will be shown in a future chapter. Meanwhile, it will be pleasant to turn to some of the progressive movements stirring the life of Adelaide at this time.

Important steps were taken during the year 1878 for the more efficient defence of the province. The volunteer force was organized and steadily drilled, and forts were built at the Semaphore. Heavy guns, rifles, and ammunition were brought from England, and the Southern Fort (for which Mr. John Robb's tender of £15,893 had been accepted) was vigorously proceeded with upon the plans of Colonel Scratchley. The Permanent Defence Force Bill (though strongly opposed by some members of the Legislature) authorized a permanent force of men to work the fort guns, while the formation of rifle companies to act as auxiliary forces was encouraged by the Rifle Companies Act, which ordered the gratuitous supply of arms and ammunition to the various companies.

There were two or three exploring expeditions during the year 1879. One, organized by the Queenslander newspaper to explore the country between Queensland and the Northern Territory, finished their labours early in the year, and reported the discovery of some excellent country, but large tracts over which they passed were badly watered. Mr. Favenc, a Queensland explorer, on returning to Brisbane, reported that the proposed route for a Queensland railway to the Gulf of Carpentaria was easy for construction purposes. In the course of his explorations he discovered a considerable area of fine pastoral country. Later in the year Mr. Alexander Forrest, leader of the Western Australia exploring expedition, arrived safely at a point fifty miles north-east of the Katherine Telegraph Station. To the westward of that station his party discovered some magnificent country with an abundance of water.

On the night of Sunday, April 3rd, 1881, the official census of South Australia was taken. The total population was found to be 279,865, thus exceeding the estimate of the Registrar-General by about 8000; and the rate of increase during the previous ten years had been from 185,626 in 1871 to 279,865 in 1881. The rate of increase in New South Wales was 48 per cent., and that of the adjoining colony of Victoria 17 per cent. This growth of the population was rightly regarded as a convincing proof that South Australia was in a generally prosperous condition. The large public works which had been started, and the more favourable character of her tariff, had tended to draw population from across the border, whilst at the same time the general prosperity and advancement of the colony had attracted many men of capital.

South Australians have always been conspicuous for their loyalty, and have gladly availed themselves of any suitable opportunity to give it expression. Such an occasion arose in June, 1881, when their Royal Highnesses Prince Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales, in the course of their educational cruise on board the Bacchante, paid a visit of some days' duration to Adelaide. They were duly fêted, and appeared to highly enjoy their reception and to appreciate the efforts made for their entertainment. One of the special red-letter days of their visit was the 16th of June, when, accompanied by the Governor, the Rev. J.N. Dalton, their tutor, and Mr. S.C. Snow, A.D.C., they left town by special train for Freeling, en route to Mr. J.H. Angas' residence at Collingrove, near Angaston. They were met at Freeling by Mr. Angas, and were driven under triumphal arches and amid floral decorations through Angaston to Collingrove. On arriving there they joined a shooting party over the estate, and were entertained at dinner in the evening. The following morning was spent in riding and driving, the station and the stud farm at Hatton Vale being visited. After lunch they returned to the city to attend a dinner by the Speaker, and the Mayor's ball, given in their honour. On leaving Adelaide, the Princes journeyed overland to Melbourne, being entertained on the way by Mr. T.R. Bowman at Campbell House, his beautiful estate on the shore of Lake Albert, where they enjoyed a kangaroo hunt and a native corrobboree.

A month later Adelaide was gay with a new excitement, at which it was hoped the Princes might have been present, namely, the opening of the Adelaide Exhibition, a speculation of two gentlemen, Mr. J. Joubert and Mr. R.E.N. Twopenny, unassisted by Government subsidy. The Exhibition was opened by the Governor on the 21st of July, and was visited the same day by 17,254 persons. The enterprise was in every respect a success, and gave unqualified satisfaction to all who visited it.

On the day that the Exhibition was opened Sir William Jervois officially dedicated to public use the Torrens Lake. This great work, accomplished during the mayoralty of Mr. E.T. Smith, was a most beneficial improvement to the metropolis. Year after year the city had been growing more beautiful; but the one thing it lacked was a sheet of water, and that was now supplied. Only two months before the bed of the Torrens had been an eyesore, but now the grand stretch of water, from near Thebarton eastward beyond the metropolitan limits, was a thing of beauty, pleasant for the eye to dwell upon. The opening ceremony was one of the most attractive and brilliant spectacles ever witnessed in Adelaide. Upwards of 40,000 people lined the banks of the Torrens as the procession of boats passed from the Weir up to the landing-stage near the Exhibition grounds, and back to the starting-place. His Excellency, in an appropriate speech, declared the name of the waters to be the Torrens Lake; and, on the invitation of the Mayor, a large company assembled in a marquee erected in the reserve, to drink toasts and make speeches suitable to the occasion.

Early in 1882 there was great distress amongst the agriculturists of the Northern district, in consequence of an extraordinarily dry season. The drought was 80 severe that the land for a time was too hard to plough, and Government was compelled to ship water for human consumption from Port Adelaide to some townships. At the end of March South Australia was being vigorously canvassed for subscriptions to supply the distressed farmers with seed wheat. Government declined to ask Parliament for aid, but agreed to carry the wheat free of cost on all their lines of railway. In Adelaide, and in the various towns of the colony, many well-known merchants and leading public men subscribed liberally, and the Farmers' Association, by means of its local branches, carried out the work of distribution. Welcome rains fell throughout the colony at the end of March, but there was another anxious fortnight before the drought fairly broke up. Meanwhile, the harvest reports were very discouraging. The average yield of wheat per acre was only four bushels thirty-six pounds, or two and a half bushels less than had been expected only three months before, so that the surplus of wheat for exportation had fallen short by 120,000 tons, worth, in round figures, £1,200,000.

The year 1882 saw Adelaide University settled in the handsome building erected for its accommodation at a cost of £31,000, and on April 5th, in the presence of a large representative gathering of about 400 persons, the building was formally opened by Sir William Jervois, who, in a stirring speech, eulogized the benevolent men who had so liberally aided in the growth and development of the University, and congratulated South Australia upon having received from her Majesty the Queen a charter "willing and ordaining that Degrees in Arts, Medicine, Law, Science, and Music conferred by the University of Adelaide upon any person, male or female, should be recognized as academical distinctions and rewards of merit, and be entitled to rank, precedence, and consideration in her Majesty's United Kingdom and her Colonies and Possessions throughout the world, as fully as if the said Degrees had been granted by any University of her United Kingdom." The Vice-chancellor (Chief Justice S.J. Way), in the course of an eloquent speech, also alluded to the fact that "Adelaide University had received privileges unknown to the Universities of Melbourne and Sydney, in being permitted to grant Degrees in Science and Degrees to women." *

[* See Appendix.]

Towards the end of 1882 it became known that Sir William Jervois was about to close his term of office in South Australia, and that he had been appointed to the Governorship of New Zealand. The prospect of losing his valued services in the colony was universally regretted. The Adelaide Observer wrote with reference to the coming change: "We shall be sorry to lose Sir William Jervois. He has been a successful Governor in every sense of the word. The colony has made great progress during his régime, and not a little of it is due to his enterprising spirit, which quickened our laggard energies, and led us to push on works of progress and development more expeditiously than we otherwise should have thought of doing."

There was a large attendance on January 5th, 1883, at the farewell luncheon to Sir William Jervois, who took the opportunity to deliver an able speech on the public questions specially affecting the colony. In reviewing the progress made during his term of office he pointed out that population had increased rapidly, especially in Adelaide and its suburbs; that tramways (of which he laid the first rail in 1877) had been largely extended, while railways had increased from 321 miles in 1876 to 946 miles, and 276 miles in addition were about to be constructed. Exports had increased considerably, although, on the other hand, imports were £600,000 in excess. Revenue had gone on increasing, but the public debt had risen from £5,217,000 to £11,369,300. Forty new primary schools had been opened since his first South Australian public speech at the opening of Willunga school in 1877, and several model schools had also come into being. The Institute had developed from its primitive state into something of national importance, and was located in a handsome new building that had cost £40,000, with an Art Gallery, a Public Library, a Museum and School of Art and Design. The University had received its charter, and had entered upon its career of usefulness in a fitting building and under the most favourable circumstances. The defence of the colony from invasion was in a more satisfactory state than it had ever been before; and the patriotic offer of three hundred volunteers to serve in South Africa with the Imperial forces after the disaster at Majuba Hill, had met with grateful recognition from the Queen through Lord Kimberley.

In concluding his speech the Governor made some excellent critical remarks on the financial policy of the colony. £556,812 to be paid on loans for works that were producing a net return of less than £180,000 required to be looked at seriously. If the colony borrowed at the same rate for another seven years, their annual payment for interest would be about £800,000. "I still advocate progress," he said; "I still advocate railways, and I think the colony is thoroughly well able to pay for them; but I do not advocate such a system of finance as will not enable you to pay the interest on the money you borrow." * Payment would not be possible unless measures were taken to develop the pastoral, agricultural, and mineral resources of the country to the utmost, and so increase the exports and the revenue. Immigration on a large scale should be encouraged, and some increased taxation was absolutely needful for paying the interest on the debt. New industries, such as ostrich-farming and jam-making, should be developed. Dairy produce was imported to the value of £60,000, all which should be raised in the colony, and facilities should also be given for large capitalists to develop stock-farming in South Australia on the same scale as in the adjoining colonies.

[* See Appendix. "The Security for the Bonded Debt of the Colony."]

On the 9th of January his Excellency (having held a farewell levée on the previous day) embarked at Glenelg on board the Clyde, with his family and suite, for New Zealand, and Chief Justice Way was sworn in as Administrator of the Government pending the arrival of the new Governor.

{Page 96}



FEBRUARY 17, 1883— MARCH 5, 1889.

Antecedents of Sir William Robinson.—Formation of Old Colonists' Association.—The Bray Ministry.—Colonial Federation.—New Electoral Act.—A Scheme of Taxation.—The Pastoral Land Act. —The March of Progress.—Explorations.—Mr. A.N. Chambers.—Mr. Charles Winnecke.—Mr. W. Whitfield Mills.—Defence of the Colony.—Movements in the Northern Territory.—The Jubilee of the Colony—State of the Times.—Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London.—Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of Foundation Day.—Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition.—A Silver Mining Boom.—Chinese Immigration.—Harvests.—Departure of Sir William Robinson.—Arrival of the Earl of Kintore.—Adelaide in 1889.—Railways.—The Playford Government.—Local Option.—Staple Trades and Industries.—Wheat—Wool.—Mining.—Wines.—Water Conservation and Irrigation.—Forest Culture.—Fruit Growing.—Other Industries.—Conclusion.

THE appointment of Sir W.C.F. Robinson, K.C.M.G., the Governor of Western Australia, as successor to Sir William Jervois, gave great satisfaction to the colonists, who were well aware of the new Governor's record as a successful and able administrator. His varied attainments and extensive experience had gained him the high esteem of the residents in the Crown colony of Western Australia. A brother of Sir Hercules Robinson, the late popular Governor of New South Wales, he began his official career in 1855 as Secretary to Sir Hercules, first in the Government of St. Kitts, and afterwards in that of Hong Kong; in 1862 he was appointed President of Montserrat, and three years afterwards he administered the Government of Dominica. In the next year he was Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Falkland Islands. From 1870 to 1873 he was administering the affairs of Prince Edward Island, and a year later saw him for a few mouths Governor of the Leeward Islands. The scene of his next Governorship was Western Australia, which province he left to succeed Sir William Jervois in the control of the Straits Settlements. Whilst there he went to Bangkok on a special mission for the purpose of investing the King of Siam with the insignia of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. The ceremony was duly performed, and in acknowledgment his Majesty conferred upon Sir William the Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Siam. He returned to Western Australia in 1880, where he remained till his appointment to the Governorship of South Australia. Whilst at Perth he had discharged his duties with ability and success, and had done much for the development of the country. Railways and other public works had been constructed under his auspices, millions of acres of land had been taken up, and the financial condition of the colony had been brought to a more prosperous condition than ever before. With such antecedents in his favour it was no marvel that South Australia gladly welcomed him as Governor. He arrived in the colony by the steamship Nizam on the 17th of February, 1883.

As soon as the formalities of taking office were over. Sir William Robinson at once began his career of active work by visiting numerous public institutions. On the 1st of March he opened the autumn show of the Gawler Agricultural and Horticultural Society, and declared himself favourably impressed by his first fortnight's experience of the country and the signs of prosperity he had seen. It was not long before the Governor was making longer excursions in various directions, and winning for himself general esteem by his keen interest in all that appertained to the welfare of the colony and the development of its resources.

Shortly after his arrival the Old Colonists' Association was formed, the Chief Justice presiding at the inaugural meeting on the 20th of February. Its objects were declared to be to establish homes for, and to assist necessitous "pioneers" and "old colonists" and their descendants by loan or otherwise; to promulgate facts relative to the early history of the colony; to promote the advancement of native-born South Australians, and to encourage a friendly recognition between the members. All colonists were eligible for membership, and were to be divided into three grades: "pioneers", or those who came out before the 28th of December, 1846; "old colonists", or those who arrived during the next ten years; and simply "colonists" who came to South Australia since 1856.

On the 31st of May Sir William Robinson opened the session of Parliament. The debate on the Governor's speech was interrupted by an amendment from Mr. Coles, expressing dissatisfaction with the land administration, and charging the Government with having exercised no discretion as to permission to surrender land. They had, he alleged, allowed any (often wealthy persons) to surrender at pleasure and re-select land at less than its real value. A no-confidence debate ensued, but the amendment was negatived without a division. The Government then brought in a new Land Bill, allowing all persona holding land under conditions of personal residence to surrender.

Mr. Glyde's budget of June, 1883, showed a probable deficit of £254,000 at the close of the financial year 1883-84. To meet this deficiency he proposed a duty of one penny in the pound on the actual value of all real and personal property in the colony, excepting all below £500. The proposal was severely criticised by Mr. Rounsevell, Mr. J. Colton, and others, and it was agreed that the tax should be a halfpenny in the pound instead of a penny. But the arrangement was upset at a subsequent stage, and then Government brought in a Bill for a new taxation scheme of a halfpenny in the pound, sixpence in the pound on incomes derived from invested capital, and threepence in the pound from trade and professional incomes.

Failure attended some of the efforts of the long-lived Bray Ministry during the last year of its existence. They essayed a New Education Bill, doubling fees in the case of scholars who had passed the compulsory standard, and granting to private schools one pound for every child that passed the compulsory standard on being examined by a State School Inspector. They also tried a Pastoral Leases Bill, offering all unoccupied lands on twenty-eight year leases, with a re-valuation every seven years; the lessees to put on the land a certain amount of stock. Both these measures were lost, but they succeeded in passing a Jubilee Exhibition Bill; the expenditure on this projected scheme being estimated at £212,000, of which £140,000 was to be spent on the building.

The proceedings of Parliament were temporarily suspended for three months to allow the Chief Secretary and Attorney-General to attend the Convention at Sydney, at which representatives from the different colonies were to discuss the subjects of annexation and federation—subjects that had now come prominently to the front in Australian politics. On the 22nd of November the Houses were adjourned till the 5th of February.

When Parliament reassembled the Legislative Council (in the interests of the richer class) threw out the Income and Property Taxation Bill, and in the same spirit added an amendment to the Land Bill giving to substituted residence-selectors, land speculators, or rich capitalists in Adelaide the same concessions as to bona-fide personal residence-selectors. This amendment the Assembly would not accept, and the Bill was accordingly abandoned.

The subject of Colonial Federation occupied some time in both Houses towards the end of the session. The proposal of the Government was "That an address be presented to her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, praying that her Majesty may be pleased to cause a measure to be submitted to the Imperial Parliament for the purpose of constituting a Federal Council of Australia, upon the basis of the draft Bill adopted at the Intercolonial Convention held at Sydney in November and December, 1883." The Legislative Council affirmed the proposal after a long debate, in which the almost unanimous tendency was approval. In the Assembly the majority seemed anxious that the Federal Council should be constituted upon the basis of resolutions to be approved of only by the Legislatures of the colonies of Australia possessing representative governments. The debate was again and again adjourned, and ultimately ended in a count out. A resolution of similar purport was, however, adopted in a subsequent Parliament. The tenth Parliament of South Australia was shortly afterwards prorogued and dissolved.

The next Parliament was the first under the new Electoral Act, so that the Assembly numbered fifty-two members. The Ministry (still under the leadership of Mr. Bray) had been reconstructed, and about twenty new members had been elected to the Assembly. On the second day of the session the Hon. John Colton proposed to add to the address the words, "We desire to express to your Excellency our distrust of your present advisers, and our want of confidence in them." The result was that, after a smart debate, the Bray Ministry, which, with some modifications, had been in office close upon three years, was defeated by a majority of six.

The new Cabinet, formed with Mr. Colton as Premier, Mr. W.B. Rounsevell Treasurer, Mr. C.C. Kingston Attorney-General, Mr. J. Coles Commissioner of Crown Lands, Mr. T. Playford Commissioner of Public Works, and the Hon. K.C. Baker Minister of Justice and Education, found itself called upon to face a deficit of £436,658. They at once announced a Land and Income Tax Bill; amendment of the land laws; and a comprehensive scheme of public works jealously guarding against extravagant or unproductive outlay. They also proposed to repeal the Jubilee Exhibition Bill on account of the low financial condition of the colony, and promised a number of other measures. A good session's work was accomplished, and one of the measures carried was the Agricultural Crown Laud Act, allowing further concessions to selectors, and providing, amongst other things, that all payments of interest should go as part of the purchase-money. The Public Health Act was a useful measure providing means for dealing with cholera, small-pox, and other epidemic or contagious diseases.

The ministerial scheme of taxation, as being a new departure in the financial history of the colony, was perhaps the most important measure of the session. Early in September the Treasurer moved that the House resolve that a tax of one halfpenny in the pound be levied on all land in the colony, not including the value of the improvements upon it; threepence in the pound on all trade or professional incomes, and sixpence in the pound on incomes derived from any other source. In supporting his proposal the Treasurer gave some interesting statistics as to the value of land in the capital. The total estimated value of Adelaide was £14,000,000, out of the £65,000,000 for all the land in the colony not in the hands of Government. Frontages in King William Street were set down at £325 a foot; in Hindley Street. £125; in Grenfell, Currie, and Waymouth Streets, £100; in Gouger Street, £50; and in Gillies and Gilbert Streets, £15. The resolutions above named were agreed to, and a Bill embodying the proposals was subsequently introduced and passed. It was resolved, however, to exempt from the operation of the land-tax all land used for religious, charitable, and institute purposes, and the income of friendly societies from the operation of the income tax.

A Bill for repealing the Exhibition Act was, after warm debate, passed through both Houses, but much to the regret of a large number of colonists, who felt that the abandonment of the project would not redound to the honour of the colony. A movement (to which we shall refer presently) was, however, set on foot to carry out the scheme privately.

The Pastoral Land Act—another of the successes of the Colton Ministry during this session—divided all the pastoral lands into three great classes. The first class embraced land held under leases expiring in 1888, This was to be put up in blocks of convenient size, with the view of establishing upon the margin of agricultural settlements a number of lessees holding some five hundred square miles or less. The Commissioner, assisted in his labours by a Board of practical men, was to finally decide on the size and shape of these blocks. The leases were to be for twenty-one years, and the annual upset rent was to be fixed by valuation, without any provision for revaluation at stated intervals. So that the holder (unless resumption supervened by the State giving three years' notice) would retain the land for twenty-one years at the rent he first undertook to pay. The second class embraced land held upon leases not expiring in 1888. To these a term of twenty-one years was granted by the new Act, at an annual rental to be determined at auction, the upset rate being fixed by valuation. The third class comprehended all the unleased pastoral country, respecting which it was enacted that the term of lease should be for thirty-five years. The payment for the first fourteen years was to be at the rate of two and sixpence per square mile, and thereafter at a rate to be fixed by valuation to be made every seven years. There were also clauses relating to stocking and to improvements in lieu of stocking. As regards all these classes the principle of paying the full value of the improvements upon the expiration of the leases was recognized, whilst in the event of the resumption by the State in Classes II. and III. compensation for loss consequent upon the resumption was to be granted. It was considered that this measure was by far the most liberal one that had ever been passed upon the subject in South Australia, and it was expected to have a marked effect in promoting pastoral settlements.

Another effort to free the colony from the pest of rabbits and other vermin was made in the Vermin Destruction Act of this session. When supporting it the Commissioners of Crown Lands stated that since June, 1879, the destruction of vermin (including rabbits) had cost the colony over £139,000.*

[* There were numerous other Bills passed during the same session; amongst them were measures referring to coroners, bills of exchange, dog registry, distillation, general tramways, employers' liabilities, and roads.]

When Parliament met on the 4th of June, 1885, Mr. Downer, Q.C., in the course of the usual debate on the address, attacked the Government on several points, including their offer to send troops to the Soudan without consulting Parliament. After three days' debate a hostile vote was passed; the Colton Ministry resigned, and a new Cabinet was formed by Mr. Downer. The Downer Ministry consisted of Mr. Downer, Premier and Attorney-General; Mr. J.B. Spence, Chief Secretary; Mr. S. Newland, Treasurer; Mr. J. Darling, Commissioner of Public Works; Mr. J.H. Howe, Commissioner of Crown Lands; and Dr. J.A. Cockburn, Minister of Education.

The session that ensued lasted until December, and was generally regarded as one of the most unsatisfactory on record. It is true that much time was occupied with financial matters, the discussion on the new tariff extending over several weeks, and that thirty-five Bills were passed, although few were of special importance. There was of course a Customs Act to give the force of law to the new tariff; and this was significant, inasmuch as it was the first deliberate advance of South Australia towards a policy of Protection. The Crown Lands Bill was an amending and composite measure, chiefly noticeable for providing small holdings for the working classes. The Exhibition Bill gave Parliamentary sanction for the Jubilee Exhibition project, which under private management was bidding fair to be a success. Government was only to dedicate land and provide a permanent building estimated to cost £32,000. A Loan Bill for Public Purposes of £1,332,400 was passed, which included £537,400 for Railways, and £530,000 for Waterworks. It included also amounts for Defence, Telegraph, and Telephone Extension, and Harbour Improvements.

In the following year (1886) Mr. Downer's Cabinet may be said to have struggled through its session by permitting the House to shape its policy for it. When Parliament was opened on the 27th of May a vote of no confidence, moved by Mr. Jenkin Coles, was, after a three days' debate, defeated; but, nevertheless, Mr. Downer's Cabinet was completely reconstructed a few days afterwards. There was an unprecedented amount of financial discussion, but the only practical outcome was the Stamps Act. Concerning general matters, about thirty Bills were passed, amongst which were a Land Bill, a Real Property Act, and Bills dealing with the Destitute Department, with Water Conservation, and with Gold Mining. A Loan Bill for £850,000 was passed, making a provision of £120,000 for the Beetaloo Waterworks, £200,000 for Water Conservation, and £450,000 for payment for Improvements on Pastoral Leases under Crown Lands Acts. In this year one of the greatest financial calamities that has ever befallen South Australia occurred. The Commercial Bank, the shareholders of which were for the most part South Australians, closed its doors. Widespread distress and ruin were occasioned. The manager, Mr. Crooks, and the accountant, Mr. Wilson, were prosecuted, and sentenced to long terms of penal servitude.

During the administration of Sir William Robinson, South Australia made very considerable advances in general prosperity. Year by year, as the various institutions of national life became more settled, and the natural development of every branch of enterprise spread in all quarters, the gulf which at one time had separated the colonists from the great centres of thought and action in the world had become bridged over, and Adelaide had assumed the position and taken on the responsibilities of a large capital. Let us turn now to notice some of the steps in the march of progress that marked the régime of Sir William Robinson, and then to glance at the main characteristics of the fifty years of the colony's history brought to a close during his administration.

Some important additions were made to geographical knowledge during the period of which we now write. About the 18th of March, 1883, Mr. A.N. Chambers, of the Survey Department, with Mr. E. Coates, left Denial Bay with a party to select a travelling route to the Warburton ranges and the country beyond. They found a very fair track to the ranges and lake Phillipson, but had to depend for water on the rock-holes and clay-pans. The exploration was continued to the Everard ranges across country abounding in bush, but very suitable for pastoral purposes. The Ferdinand River was traced, and Mr. Bell's report of its termination in some large sandhills confirmed. Mr. Chambers was away four months, and reported favourably as to the probability of water being found in many places by sinking. The blacks met with were friendly, dwelling in twos and threes by the larger rock-holes (which often supply water for two or three months), whilst they hunted kangaroos and wallabies in the vicinity.

In December an exploring party, with camels and horses, under Mr. Charles Winnecke, completed a successful journey through a large portion of the interior. They started from Cowrie Station on the Warburton River in latitude 28°, traversed the country to the north as far as latitude 22°, and reached Mr. Winnecke's previous explorations near Goyder's Pillars. A few days after leaving Cowrie Station they covered between two and three hundred miles of the highest sand-ridges in Australia before water could be obtained. Several other stages of from one to two hundred miles without water were accomplished. Two large rivers and an extensive range were discovered near the Queensland boundary, and altogether Mr. Winnecke succeeded in mapping about 40,000 square miles of hitherto unexplored country.

In the same year (1883) Mr. W. Whitfield Mills journeyed across the centre of the Australian continent from Beltana to Northampton in Western Australia. The party suffered great hardships, and places reported by preceding explorers as furnishing good supplies of water were now quite dry. They travelled 1600 miles, and all along the route there were only three sources of water to be relied upon in a dry season as affording a permanent supply. Mr. Mills found some fine grass country and a desert of spinifex between the Warburton Range and the Blyth watershed, which (if the spinifex were burnt) would form "one of the most magnificent pastoral districts in the world." But the lack of water spoilt everything. The camels had but one drink in twenty-one days, and staggered along too thirsty to eat. Had the expedition been attempted with horses instead of camels the bones of Mr. Mills and his company would no doubt, like the bones of many other brave explorers, have been left to bleach on some desolate sand-ridge or in some nameless gully.

Towards the end of 1884 Mr. C. Winnecke again conducted an exploring party, which started from Parakylia Station. He was accompanied by four other Europeans, an Afghan, and a number of camels. The explorers spent several weeks in wandering over a large extent of country, and suffered occasional hardships. But the journey was devoid of incident, and little was seen but vast tracts of scrub. Now and then the party made their way to outlying stations, and then sot out again on their surveys. They travelled over three thousand miles of country, most of which was reported as good for pastoral pursuits.

In the matter of the defence of the colony, the gunboat Protector, 1000 tons (the nucleus of the South Australian navy), purchased and manned in England, arrived on September 30th (1884). The Union Jack was, of course, run up at the Semaphore, and Forts Glanville and Largs also showed the orthodox bunting. Her comparatively small size caused much disappointment, but a nearer inspection of her formidable battery was reassuring. On October 3rd she steamed up to Port Adelaide, and was inspected by members of the Ministry, the Mayor, and Corporation.

The early part of the year 1885 found the colony considerably agitated on the question of its defences, in consequence of the war news from Europe. The Chief Secretary returned from an extended tour, during which he had consulted with the Prime Ministers of other colonies on this and cognate topics, and the Government at once entered with vigour into the question of defence. It was decided to push forward the military road between the Semaphore and Glenelg; to erect a fort at Glenelg, armed with long-range Whitworth guns; and to patrol the Gulf of St. Vincent. These preparations did much to allay public anxiety. The colony had now two thousand disciplined men under arms, and three thousand auxiliaries could be armed in case of an emergency. An experimental call to arms one night in April resulted in the assembly of a considerable portion of this force in a very short time.

Throughout the period under review, the Northern Territory was alternately the cause of hope and of disappointment. The difficulties common to the planting of all new settlements were experienced there in a more than ordinary degree—climate, a mixed population, financial troubles, and dependence upon a Government so far away, were inherent drawbacks to prosperity. Nevertheless, progress was made, and every year gave fresh hope of future possibilities. In the year 1884 the Hon. J.L. Parsons was appointed Government Resident, and Mr. T.K. Pater Judge of the Northern Territory. Tin, copper, and galena had been discovered, and promised, in conjunction with gold mining, to make the Northern Territory one of the greatest mineral-producing countries in the world. Towards the close of 1883, large deposits of pearl-shell were found in Port Darwin Harbour, and a considerable fleet of vessels came from Thursday Island to try the newly discovered shell-grounds. The tides, however, were so strong, and the waters in consequence so muddy, that, after some months' diving for pearl-shell, it was abandoned. One thing that retarded the advancement of the Territory was the delay in commencing the railway. The Act for its construction was passed in 1883, the money was borrowed in 1884, but the railway was not begun until 1886. The disastrous result of the bad selection of land for the De Lissaville Plantation, and the squandering of about £30,000 in consequence, inflicted a heavy blow upon the prospects of tropical agriculture. Another subject that about this time gave cause for considerable anxiety in Adelaide was the treatment of the natives in the Northern Territory. In September, 1884, the blacks attacked and killed a number of whites on the Daly River, and made hostile demonstrations at Rum Jungle, where two of them were shot. Parties were sent out to capture the murderers, one composed of the police and commanded by Corporal Montague. The police report of the matter, ordered by the House, did not make its appearance till the end of 1885. This report gave ground for a suspicion that there had been outrageous and indiscriminate slaughter of the blacks without due regard to innocence or guilt. The public demanded an official investigation, and a board of inquiry was appointed. Corporal Montague declared that his first report was an exaggeration, and the result of the inquiry was that the police were exonerated from the charge of undue severity.

In many respects the year 1886 was among the most important in the annals of the colony. It began with great depression. There was drought throughout the country, and financial troubles, public and private; besides which, confidence was shaken by the discovery of a series of frauds and breaches of trust. On the other hand, much benefit resulted from the rise in the price of wool, and the last quarter of the year brought bountiful rains, followed by a fair harvest. At the same time came the new gold discoveries at Teetulpa, and for a time it was a byword that "Teetulpa had saved the colony."

Alluding to this period in particular, and in general to the financial state of the country during the earlier years of Sir William Robinson's administration, a local historian wrote—

"Our colony's troubles thickened. The deficit in the State accounts was beginning to increase, owing chiefly to the temporary depreciation in our staples. Wool went down almost beneath paying price, and the wheat yield was scanty, while the rates were very low. Copper quotations receded so much that the mineral, though so abundant and so easily raised, was hardly worth mining for. In 1883 and the year immediately following, there was an alarming frequency of incendiary fires, causing a public loss directly and indirectly of hundreds of thousands of pounds. So serious was the danger that panic seized scores of property owners. The reputed incendiary was after a while arrested, and then the scourge ceased. During most of this time insolvency courts were beset with work. The papers were full of assignments, and it seemed as though our commerce were utterly unstable. Quarter by quarter the revenue returns were decreasing, and the public deficit was growing with equal rapidity. But, as we all know now, these ominous clouds, which quite bedimmed the sun of our prosperity, were big with blessings. The land mania taught wholesome lessons of caution and prudence. Some of the farmers learnt out of their distress, where that distress was avoidable, the necessity of better methods of cultivation. The accumulated indebtedness forced upon the wealthy classes a direct taxation which had hitherto been successfully resisted. . . . Across the darkest time in our history the discovery of Silverton flashed with a ray of hope. An unexpected rise in wool made life more tolerable to the squatter; accumulating proofs of the existence of gold in quantity in many parts of South Australia, and the more recent disclosure of golden treasure at Teetulpa, heartened every one, and the general hopefulness grew as the reaper garnered for the farmers a fair harvest where an absolute dearth was dolefully predicted. Is it too much to say, then, that our fiftieth year comes with every reason for believing that, with prudence and courage amongst the people and intelligence in the Parliament, we shall all soon exchange sad forebodings for assured prosperity, and realize the happy time when the voice of the croaker shall no more be heard in the land."

While these things were going on in the colony, South Australia was being represented in the mother country in a manner it had never been before. It was the year of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London, and a description of the South Australian Court, admitted on all hands to have been one of the great successes of the Exhibition, will not be considered out of place here, as it furnishes an illustration of the progress and capabilities of the colony. It was no mere assemblage of show cases, but, as was acknowledged at the time, "the ideal of an exhibition of the country, its natural products and its manufactures, its whole fascination lying in its perfect taste and harmony, not one thing derogating from the attractiveness of another." Sir Samuel Davenport deservedly won high praise by his efficient management. The entrance to the Court was by an archway of rustic but beautifully carpentered unbarked wood, except where at the extreme side two large pieces of varnished Northern Territory timber had been let in beneath open spaces, filled respectively by an emu and a kangaroo. The hollow pillars of the arch were filled with ferns and grass-trees, while their bases were flanked with fodder, plants, and grasses on one side, and on the other with specimens of stone. Above the arch were numerous flags, and bright birds were displayed in natural positions here and there on the rough timber. The coup d'œil of the upper court was very impressive. At the further end was the celebrated natural history scene, one of the triumphs of the Colonial Exhibition, occupying nearly one-third of the space. The view was delicately broken by a high and shapely combination of polished specimens of wood, and a little further on a barrier of turned timber. Upon the side walls of the court hung photographs, and also a number of original water-colour drawings, showing the Burra-Burra, Kapunda, Moonta, Wallaroo, and other mines, and various early scenes of South Australia. The two printed engravings of "Adelaide as it was" and "Adelaide as it is" attracted much attention. Along the right-hand side of the court were cases of fossils, rocks, stones, and minerals, and other geological specimens, moulded weights of Wallaroo copper arching a side way. On the left of the court a beautiful exhibit gave a vivid idea of South Australia's wealth of fruits. This was a display of wax models of fruit grouped according to tropical growth and colour. Massive silver jewellery, rich furs and skins, South Australian saddlery and leather work, specimens of carved hard wood. Dr. Schomburgk's herbarium, and Mr. G.C. Hawker's collection of seaweeds were other objects of interest in this court, while in side cases made of Northern Territory wood were silk cocoons, goatskins, wool, skulls, bones, emu and ostrich eggs, the paintings on the walls by South Australian artists serving to contrast the culture of the new dwellers in the land with the manners of the half-naked aborigines shown in effigy close by.

Upon a table of polished red gum lay the large pictorial work on the colony written and illustrated by the late Mr. George French Angas, and near by, upon a pedestal, a bust of Sir Charles Sturt. The "Murray scene" was an effective and elaborate production. In the centre was seen the wurley with its native inhabitants. On the left the black fellow floated in his canoe on a sheet of water; the sandy margin was fringed with flags, and populated with aquatic birds, as well as with iguanas and other crawling things. Among the bushes and trees were bright-winged parroquets and cockatoos, and the more soberly clad wattle-bird. Opossums with their young; a laughing jackass darting after a falling snake; an eagle with a young wallaby in its talons; and emus with their young, wombats, wallabies, kangaroos, and so forth were all appropriately grouped. Seals and sea-birds were prominent in the side painting of coast scenery.

Standing on the steps beside the stream of running water that fell by a rocky way to the lower courts, the visitor saw below him other varied aspects of colonial life. For instance, the pioneer hut was there, of bark and rough wood, with saddle rest outside for the boundary rider. Not far off two old men kangaroos were seen engaged in a desperate fight. Beyond the hut a number of hurdles enclosed a small flock of stuffed sheep. The interest of the lower courts was mostly pastoral and agricultural. Here were samples of wheat and other cereals; Professor Custance's herbarium of grasses; cordials, essences, and olive oils; a selection of fresh fruit from the supply kept on sale at the Exhibition market; the wine trophy and numerous other exhibits representative of the produce or manufactures of South Australia. Among the most important were six parallel rows of cases containing wool exhibits, all the chief wool-growers being represented. Sir Thomas Elder sent specimens from his extensive stations in the northern and dry interior; Mr. J.H. Angas not only exhibited a tine collection of fleeces, but also a pen of stuffed sheep of the merino and Lincoln breeds from his Hill River and Collingrove properties. Mr. Anderson, of Port Lincoln, worthily represented the western districts; while from still further west Messrs. Smith and Swan, of Fowler's Bay, sent two magnificent merino fleeces. Mr. Edmund Bowman and Messrs. E. and C. Bowman from the northern districts, and Mr. A. Crozier from the Murray; Messrs. Hogarth and Warren from the neighbourhood of Strangways Spring; S. Saunders, James and Company from Canowie; Mr. Riddoch from Mount Gambier, and Mr. G.C. Hawker are some of the representative names.

The business interests of the colony were well looked after at the Exhibition. Sir S. Davenport and his coadjutors made evident to all comers that with labour, time, capital, and skill, there was a boundless future before the colony in all fruit resources and wine-producing capacities; that it had already a large wool trade; that its agricultural resources had made it a land of golden grain; and that a host of trades might spring up, enriching the inhabitants, if the whole of the laud were only properly utilized.

It is a noteworthy fact that Mr. Jacob Montefiore, one of the eleven Commissioners appointed by King William IV. in 1834 for the colonization of South Australia, and the only surviving member of that Board of which Colonel Torrens was chairman, was also, on behalf of South Australia, an honorary Commissioner of the Colonial Exhibition. His portrait adorns the Adelaide Art Gallery. He was at this time residing in Hyde Park Square, and was in his eighty-eighth year.

Although it had been decided to commemorate the Jubilee of the Colony by an International Exhibition at Adelaide in 1887, yet (as might be supposed) it was with special rejoicings that the colony celebrated on December 28, 1886, the fiftieth anniversary of its proclamation. The colonists remembered with pride that in 1836 Adelaide was a finely grassed and tree-covered plain, Glenelg all waste land, swamps, and sandhills, whilst Port Adelaide bore the suggestive name of Port Misery. The pioneers dwelt in structures of mud, reeds, or canvas, and food was scarce. Now Adelaide, one of the most beautiful cities in the world, was linked by 1200 miles of railway with other parts of the colony, and 3,000,000 acres of land produced annually hundreds of thousands of tons of the best wheat in the world. "This is England with marked improvements", was now the frequent verdict of men who came to criticise but remained to applaud.

Glenelg, on the shore of Holdfast Bay, was of course the centre of the popular rejoicings, which, however, were enthusiastically kept up all through the colony. But to Glenelg, steamers, boats, trains, and vehicles brought a vast concourse of people. Old pioneers were there who had heard the first proclamation read beneath the historic gum tree, but scarce a feature of the scene could they recognize save those two venerable, rusty, wide-throated Buffalo guns enjoying a dignified and borrowed repose on the Colley Reserve.

The Old Colonists' celebration took place on the 27th of December, Arrangements had been made for bringing together as many as possible of the surviving pioneers of the colony. They were received in the afternoon at the Governor's "At Home", and men who had shaken hands with Governor Hindmarsh in 1837 shook hands with Governor Robinson in 1887. Strange were the stories told of the early days when, if a man wore a blue serge shirt, a decent pair of moleskin trousers, a good pair of boots, and a pair of spurs he might consider himself well dressed. In those days six men had come to a Governor's levée with one dress coat between them, each slipping it on in turn to step into the big wattle-and-daub-hut, and pay his respects to the representative of royalty.

In the evening there was a crowded meeting of pioneers and old colonists at the Town Hall, when speeches were delivered by Sir Henry Ayers, the Governor, and others, and the chief events in the colony's history were depicted in a series of tableaux. Meanwhile in the banqueting-room an interesting exhibition of colonist relics was on view. Most of these consisted of old newspapers, books, and sketches. Colonel Light's sword was shown; a piece of the tree under which Burke and Wills died; Stuart's original diary, and various other curiosities. But the original sketches representing various spots as the earliest settlers saw them, formed the most interesting feature of the collection.

The year 1887 was on the whole an encouraging one. A favourable season, a rise in prices, the increased production of gold, and the development of the mineral resources of the Barrier ranges, all contributed to the benefit of the colony.

This year marked one of the most notable events in the history of the colony, namely, the opening of the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition. After the repeal of the Act for the Adelaide Exhibition by the Colton Government, a number of gentlemen determined that the jubilee of the colony's existence should not pass without an attempt to carry out the scheme for holding an Exhibition. Mr. E.T. Smith, M.P., took the most prominent part in this great national enterprise. A meeting was held in the Town Hall on July 31st, 1885, when a committee was appointed "to formulate a scheme for holding, in the year 1887, an Exhibition of Arts, Agriculture, and Manufactures, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the province." * A memorial embodying the proposals of the committee providing for the erection of buildings, and the laying out of grounds on North Terrace, was submitted to the Government. The Government were requested to grant the necessary area of ground, and to place on the estimates an amount not exceeding £32,000 during two years.**

[* The committee was composed as follows:—Mr. E.T. Smith, Sir S. Davenport, K.C.M.G., Hon. J.H. Angas, A.M. Simpson, J.C. Bray, Messrs. W. Bundey, A. Adamson, F. Rymill, T. Hardy, C. Sabine, T. Hack, and J. Duncan.]

[** The South Australian Royal Commission consisted of His Excellency Sir W.C.F. Robinson, G.C.M.G.; Sir S. Davenport, K.C.M.G.; the Hon. Sir R.D. Ross, Kt., M.P., Speaker of the House of Assembly; Sir J.W. Downer, K.C.M.G., Q.C., M.P., Attorney-General; the Hon. D. Murray, M.L.C., Chief Secretary; the Hon. J.G. Ramsay, M.L.C.; A. Catt, Esq., M.P.; Hon. J.H. Angas, M.L.C.; H.C.E. Muecke, Esq., J.P. The London Commission consisted of nineteen, the chairman being the Duke of Manchester, K.P. There were fifty-seven promoters, the chairman being E.T. Smith, Esq., M.P. They were also guarantors for amounts ranging from £100 to £5000 respectively. Mr. E.T. Smith guaranteed £5000; Sir T. Elder, G.C.M.G., and J.H. Angas, Esq., £1000 each. Among the guarantors for £250 was Lord Brassey, who visited the colony in the Jubilee year. The patrons were their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales, K.G., Prince Albert Victor, K.G., and Prince George, K.G., of Wales. The vice-patrons were the Governors of the Australasian Colonies and his highness tho Sultan of Johore, G.C.M.G., K.C.S.L. The trustees were Sir S. Davenport, Hon. J.C. Bray, Mr. K.T. Smith, Hon. J. H. Angas, F. Rymill, Esq. Sixteen sectional committees were appointed, composed of leading colonists. Mr. J.F. Conigrave, J.P., acted as general secretary. Thirty-five juries were appointed.]

The Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition opened on June 21, 1887, and closed on January 7, 1888. It was visited by over three-quarters of a million persons. It stood on 18½ acres of ground, and the permanent building had a floor space of 85,600 feet, to which were attached various annexes. It was a grand success as an Exhibition, containing as it did valuable exhibits from the colonies and other parts of the world. It was opened by the Governor with all due ceremony and military display, and in his speech Sir William Robinson paid a high compliment to Mr. E.T. Smith, M.P., the Mayor of Adelaide, to whose energy and perseverance was due, "not only the inception, but also the success of this great undertaking." Sir Samuel Davenport shared with Mr. Smith the chief honours of the day, and amidst a scene of great enthusiasm handed to the Governor the costly golden master key of all the locks in the building. From the platform a message was sent off direct to the Queen of England. It left Adelaide about one o'clock p.m., and she received it at sunrise!

The Jubilee celebrations were the chief feature of the year, especially so as falling concurrently with the Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The Jubilee week was a time of unusual rejoicings. The large gathering of 13,000 school children on the North Park-lands was witnessed by about 30,000 spectators, and was a sight not soon to be forgotten. A unique feature of the festival was the presence of the Chinese Commissioners who were making a tour of the Australian colonies. Special religious services were held in the Anglican Cathedral, in the Pirie Street Wesleyan Church, and in other places. Meetings of the intercolonial council of the Young Men's Christian Association were held in the Exhibition buildings in July. The Intercolonial Chess Congress was opened in August, and the championship was gained by Mr. H. Charlick, a South Australian well known amongst chess-players. The Intercolonial Medical Congress was held in the same month, under the presidency of Dr. Verco, a native-born South Australian. An international Temperance Convention was held in September, and in the following month the first Intercolonial Conference of the Australasian Chambers of Manufactures was opened in Adelaide. The year was also one of unusual activity among some of the religious bodies. Perhaps most noticeable were the jubilee celebrations of the Congregationalists, which were attended by Dr. Dale as one of the special representatives of English Congregationalism. The Roman Catholics held special services in connection with the investiture of Archbishop Reynolds with the pallium, attended by Cardinal Moran and the bishops of most of the Australian colonies. The Church of England, Baptists, and other denominations also held successful jubilee demonstrations.

Early in 1887 the first Colonial Conference was held in London. The representatives of South Australia were the Premier, Mr. J.W. Downer, and Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C.M.G., the Agent-General. Much dissatisfaction was expressed at the absence of the Premier at the time of the General Election.

The political history of the year was of an exceptional character. On the hustings there was a strong expression of opinion in favour of taking measures to place the finances on a sound basis, and in spite of the Ministerial programme, which approved a property tax, there was an overwhelming demand for increasing the revenue by a modification of the existing land and income taxes. A large majority of the successful candidates were also in favour of Protection. When the House met the Ministry were defeated, and Mr. Playford became Premier. The Playford Ministry consisted of Mr. Playford, Premier and Treasurer; Attorney-General, Mr. C.C. Kingston; Chief Secretary, the Hon. J.G. Ramsay; Mr. J. Coles, Commissioner of Crown Lands; Mr. A. Catt, Commissioner of Public Works; and Mr. J.C.F. Johnson, Minister of Education. Mr. Bray, the acting-Premier, had been in favour of referring the question of Protection to a Commission, but the new Ministry intimated their intention of dealing with it at once. One of the first acts of the new Parliament was to give the needful legislative ratification to the agreement into which the late Ministry had entered with Messrs. Chaffey Brothers for establishing an Irrigation Colony on the banks of the Murray. It was confidently anticipated that this undertaking would give a wonderful impetus to the production of fruits and crops by means of irrigation, and thus add both to the resources and the population of the colony.

The tariff was next taken in hand, and, after long and animated discussions, a list of heavily protective duties was passed by both Houses. Payment of members at the rate of £200 per annum was carried, and ordered to come into operation at the end of May, 1888. The long-debated subject of the amount to be paid for improvements in connection with the 1888 leases was disposed of by a Bill setting out the bases upon which the valuation was to be made. For the third time a measure for handing over the management of the railways to a non-political board of three Commissioners was discussed, and this year it was carried. The question of local government as regards the country districts was settled by the passing of the District Councils Act, which provided for a complete system of local government, and threw upon the local bodies many duties and liabilities hitherto undertaken by the State. The Legislature passed the necessary measure for securing from South Australia her share of the cost of the Naval Defence scheme proposed by the Colonial Conference, namely, an auxiliary squadron, to the maintenance of which each colony agreed to contribute. A bill for authorizing the issue of Treasury bills for £1,000,000 was also carried. The proceeds of these bills were to go to pay off the deficit, and when matured, they were to be met by the sale of land. No new loan was authorized, so that this was the first session for many years that had not witnessed an addition to the permanent national debt of South Australia.

The task we set ourselves of tracing the history of South Australia from its foundation to the year of its Jubilee has now been accomplished, but it would be unsatisfactory to break off abruptly in the narrative at this fixed point, and we propose, therefore, to glance at some of the events that marked the later years of the administration of Sir William Robinson, to record the appointment of his successor, and then to call attention to the general resources of the colony, and the steps that are being taken to develop them.

The year 1888 opened with a great silver mining boom consequent upon discoveries in the Barrier Ranges district, within the boundary of New South Wales, especially at Broken Hill. Expectations ran so high that almost everybody had some investment. Unfortunately many of the shares bought at a few pounds, were sold for so many shillings, if at all, and many companies that held out brilliant promises were only heard of again at the wind-up. The phenomenal wealth of the Broken Hill mines is now a matter of history. A systematic inquiry into the whole question of the mineral wealth of South Australia, and how to deal with it, led to the successful establishment of a School of Mines, and the appointment of an Inspector of Mines, while the passing of the "Mining on Private Property Act, 1888", gave the right to mine on private property, and furnished an impetus to discovery, especially on auriferous lands.

The harvest was not a good one, although not such a complete failure as many imagined it would be, owing to the prolonged droughts, nor, from the same cause, was the yield of wool up to the average; nevertheless, although these reverses seriously affected the staple trades, business generally continued in a fairly sound and satisfactory state.

In the early part of the year public opinion was divided on the discussion of the rabbit pest and the theories of M. Pasteur and other doctrinaire professors on the eradication of rabbits by disease, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, of Chinese immigration in the Northern Territory—which threatened to be another prolific pest—and whether, as a poll-tax was imposed on all Chinese coming into South Australia Proper, the payment of a similar tax should not be required from all Celestials landing at Port Darwin. The difficulty was that if the tax were levied it would be impossible for many of the Chinese to pay it, and if it were not levied, instead of staying in the Northern Territory, where their services could be utilized, they would make off to other parts of South Australia, or to Queensland. Eventually (March 1, 1888) the poll-tax was proclaimed, £10 upon every Chinaman arriving in the Territory after a given date, and a similar amount on every Chinaman then in the Territory and leaving for any part of the colony more than two hundred miles south of Port Darwin. The threat of this poll-tax stopped Chinese immigration, and subsequently it was made illegal under heavy penalties for any steamer to carry more than one Chinese passenger for every 500 tons register.

In Parliament the death of Sir R.D. Ross caused a vacancy in the Speakership of the House of Assembly, to which the Hon. J.C. Bray was elected on the 31st of May—the first native-born Australian to hold that office. The principal measures passed in the Legislature were the Chinese Immigration Act and the Federal Council Adopting Act—both of an intercolonial character—and the Consolidating Crown Lands Act, a measure of more distinctive local interest. The financial year closed with a substantial surplus.

A Centennial Exhibition and great public rejoicings in Melbourne, commemorating the first colonization of "New Holland", drew many South Australians to the sister colony. The cordial welcome afforded them, the fact that the South Australian Parliament had decided to take part, subject to certain reservations, in the Federal Council, and the completion, save for a small gap soon to be bridged over, of the railway chain binding all the capitals in the Australasian colonies together, were significant signs of advancement towards Federation.

As the harvest again drew near continued drought gave rise to a renewal of great anxiety, and unhappily the fears were not groundless, and the failure of the crops caused much distress. One of the leading topics, therefore, under discussion in the early part of 1889, was an attempt to induce the Government to make advances of seed wheat to distressed farmers. But the Ministry stood firm and would not yield to this, whereupon private funds were raised, which was, perhaps, a better course, and relief was given, in greater or lesser degree, to almost every deserving case. Fortunately, during the year the rainfall was greater than in any previous year since the register had been kept, and a good harvest was the result, as well as a replenishment of all tanks and reservoirs, so that in starting the new year, 1890, the colonists aroused themselves from the settled gloom into which the drought of successive years had thrown them.

Another threatened source of trouble in 1889 was the partial collapse of the copper market, causing the mining industry to fall back very considerably from its previous records. The seriousness of this would have been much more severely felt—as operations were materially restricted at the mines, and few new ventures were started—had it not been that the Proprietary Mines in the Barrier district brought a very large amount of traffic and new trade to the colony.

One matter that created a good deal of soreness, inasmuch as it appeared to many to reflect upon the credit of the colony, was in relation to a proposed Loan. On the 29th of January, 1889, a prospectus was issued for a new South Australian Loan for £1,317,880, authorized by an Act passed in the previous session of Parliament, for expenditure upon railways, waterworks, drainage, telegraph and telephone extension, buildings, harbours, improvements, construction of roads and defences. Interest was fixed at 3½ per cent., and the minimum at £98 per £100. The last loan (£850,000, May, 1887) was also the last of the 4 per cents., and quotations had represented a satisfactory advance; the proposed new loan was the first of the colony's practical dealings with 3½ per cent. stock, and it was argued that "it was better for a borrowing Government to get 3½ per cent., even at a small discount, than 4 per cent. with a good premium." But financial brokers on 'Change were not at first very favourably disposed to this new loan, and it was somewhat humiliating to the colony that when the £1,317,880 was offered, only £541,000 was in the first instance tendered for, and that the scheme resulted in a partial failure.

Notwithstanding losses and fears of losses, the year 1889 was one of quiet, steady progress, and the Savings Bank Department—an unfailing barometer of the rise and fall in the incomes of the wage-earning classes—showed an exceptionally large increase in the amount of its deposits.

Towards the end of 1888, as the time for the administration of Sir William Robinson to cease drew near, many rumours were afloat as to who would be his successor, and at least half a dozen well-known and improbable names were mentioned, none of which turned out to be right. On the 5th of March, 1889, after six years' invaluable service as Governor, Sir William Robinson left South Australia to administer the Government of Victoria during the absence in England of Sir Henry Loch. As the Government of Victoria is recognized as one of the plums of the viceregal service, a transfer there, even as locum tenens, was regarded as promotion of a very gratifying character; it was, at least, a recognition of his capacity as a Governor. Before leaving Adelaide Sir William Robinson received many cordial addresses, thanking him for his hospitality and for the lively interest he had taken in the progress of the colony, and for his public conduct generally. He greatly helped in the establishment of a Chair of Music in the University; took a deep interest in all literary societies, unions, and educational institutions; was indefatigable in furthering the Jubilee Exhibition, and entertained more people at Government House than any previous Governor. He was an excellent speaker, a good all-round man, and hearty regret was expressed at his departure.

Intelligence of the appointment of the Earl of Kintore as Governor of South Australia, in succession to Sir William Robinson, was received in the colony on the 24th of December, 1888, at a time when there was considerable irritation felt throughout Australia on the general question of these appointments, the colonists contending that they should not be kept in ignorance of who was to be head of their society and the representative of Majesty among them, and that some intimation should be made to the Prime Minister of each colony before the appointment of a Governor was actually made, in the event of any one being selected who might be distasteful to the majority. There was no fear of this in the present selection, which gave universal Satisfaction, and the only anxiety expressed in any quarter was whether, as Lord Kintore had never taken a prominent place in the House of Lords, nor had held any office in a Conservative Administration, except that of a lord-in-waiting, and had no experience whatever of the colonial service, he would be the right man to stand at the head of a rising young colony—apprehensions which were soon proved to be utterly groundless.

Algernon Hawkins Thomond Keith-Falconer, ninth Earl of Kintore, was born in 1852, and married in 1873 Lady Sydney Charlotte Montagu, second daughter of the sixth Duke of Manchester, by whom he had two sons and two daughters. Lord Kintore, who succeeded to the title (which dates back to the year 1677) on the death of his father in 1880, is G.C.M.G., an M.A. of Cambridge, was Captain of her Majesty's Bodyguard in 1886, and in the same year was sworn in as a Privy Councillor, J.P., and Deputy-Lieutenant for Aberdeen and Kincardineshire. He is also Lord Falconer of Halkerton (1647) and Lord Keith of Inverurie (1677) in the Scottish peerage.

When Lord Kintore arrived in the colony on the 11th of April, 1889, he was welcomed with demonstrations of an unprecedented kind, and with a display which must have greatly astonished some of the old pioneers, still hale and hearty, who witnessed the arrival of the first Governor, Captain Hindmarsh, and heard the proclamation read under the historic gum-tree. Everything combined to make the enthusiastic reception a success, and it was accepted as an augury of good to cover the whole period of his administration.

Lord Kintore found in Adelaide a model city, beautiful for situation, and marvellously developed. Its cathedrals and churches, handsome public buildings, palatial banks, colossal warehouses, noble structures in stone, brick, and even marble; its network of tramways running through all the main streets of the city, and to all the outlying townships, as well as from one township to another; its streets equal in width to any in Europe; some of its terraces, streets, and roads planted with the beautiful evergreen Moreton Bay fig-trees, plane, and other ornamental trees; its suburbs with houses surrounded by verandahs, and standing in the midst of luxuriant vegetation;—all these were startling when it was remembered that a little more than fifty years before the site was a nameless wilderness.

He found not only everything stimulating to national prosperity, but everything adapted to minister to good taste and to the intellectual life of the people. The Botanical Gardens in the Park-lands close to the city, beautifully laid out and kept in admirable order, displayed every variety of Australian tree and plant, while in the Zoological Gardens specimens of all the native and a large number of foreign animals, reptiles, and birds were to be found. In the Museum—a noble building, and, unlike many museums, much frequented—was a fine collection of native weapons and implements, of natural history, and of geological specimens. The city boasted a Public Art Gallery, with good specimens from the studios of English and Continental artists and sculptors, a Free Public Library, and, above till, a University which could hold its own in comparison with any other in the colonies.

As regarded the intellectual life of the community, there was in miniature a reproduction of all the best institutions of the mother country, literary, scientific, social, and philanthropic, from the Royal Society to the City Mission; and to record the doings of these, no less than to tell day by day of the great world beyond, there were two ably conducted morning and two evening penny newspapers, besides one fourpenny and one sixpenny weekly paper, as well as a threepenny comic paper, illustrated.

In the matter of railways the system was found to be exceptionally good. There were, in 1891, 1666 miles open, the net revenue of which was £606,820. Among the railways, one crosses the Mount Lofty Range by a well-devised series of curves of varying gradients, an excellent example of engineering. In the lovely valleys and forest-clad slopes of the range are many charming villas, whither in the hot weather many citizens of Adelaide resort in preference to the seaside. But what had been accomplished was as nothing to that which the State proposed, namely, that of bridging the continent with a line of railway, a scheme so vast that politicians in other colonies had gravely questioned its wisdom. But South Australia holds that "the railway forms an integral part of the scheme of public works which must be carried on to open up the central districts of Australia, the trade of which belongs geographically to either Port Augusta or Port Darwin." From this trunk railway it was proposed that branch lines should in course of time be pushed out to Queensland, New South Wales, and Western Australia, and thus be the means of bringing into occupation vast tracts of grazing territory which must otherwise remain unutilized.

In the political world the Playford Government was in power, although in a very few months it was to be defeated by Dr. Cockburn and advanced Protectionists. "The Playford Government had been attacked upon almost every conceivable question; upon the property tax; for pretended injudicious representation of the colony by the Prime Minister and the Attorney-General at the Federal Council; for arbitrary treatment of selectors, and also for illiberal dealing with squatters by the Commissioner of Crown Lands; for Mr. Playford's refusal to grant seed wheat; for wasteful expenditure in water conservation works, and, on the other hand, for insufficient energy in the prosecution of the public works property; for charging income tax on money invested in other colonies and paying taxes there; and for other matters without number."

There was also to be found, what was not in any way peculiar, however, to South Australia, a good deal of place-seeking and a strong feeling of opposition to the intrusion of outsiders, a kind of Australia for the Australians policy, very perceptibly developing. One question that had for some years caused considerable difficulty between the two Houses had been satisfactorily settled, namely, the question of payment of members. For three years in succession (1884-86) the Assembly had passed a measure on this subject, which had been rejected in each year by the Council; but in 1887 the Bill became law, and a salary of £200 per annum was fixed for all members of the Legislature, both in the Upper and Lower Houses.

In the matter of crime there was less in proportion to the population than in any of the other colonies, and the largo majority of cases dealt with had their origin in drunkenness. There was at that time considerable discussion on the question of Local Option. Already a law was in force that no licence could be granted if two-thirds of the inhabitants of a neighbourhood memorialized against the grant; but in 1889 the Cockburn Ministry endeavoured to bring in a much more stringent measure, and was unsuccessful. One peculiarity of the existing law is that "no liquor can be supplied to any person whose relatives declare before a magistrate that he is wasting his means or interfering with the happiness of his family by drinking. This extraordinary provision, which exists also, although in slightly varied form, in Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Tasmania, and New Zealand, as well as in some parts of the United States, would undoubtedly be made use of in England for purposes of annoyance, but, by general admission, it is not so used in South Australia."

More important in many respects, and especially as affecting the future of South Australia, than any of the other subjects which claimed the attention of Lord Kintore on his arrival in the colony, was the revival that had taken place in trade and business generally, and the spirit of enterprise and alertness that was manifested in every quarter. Industries that had been practically left to take care of themselves were being looked after with eager carefulness; new sources of wealth were being discovered, and new public works for their development were being originated.

It will be well for us to take a glance at some of the principal industries and staple sources of revenue then in a well-established state, and also at some which, although in their infancy, showed promise of large and important growth.

The quantity of wheat exported in 1890 was 7,775,805 bushels; of flour, 66,632 tons. In 1888 the wheat exported reached 8,630,760 bushels; and flour, 74,091 tons.

The prospects of wool production were more favourable than in many previous years, and the hearts of the pastoralists were made glad. It was true that drought had played sad havoc with the flocks, thinning their ranks enormously, on some of the stations as many as 40,000 sheep perishing in a few weeks for want of water and food; and it was also true that a long-threatened source of danger was more nearly approaching, namely, the rabbit pest, which had spread to such an extent that on one run that had hitherto produced some thousands of bales of wool, only 700 bales were forthcoming, the rabbits preventing the run from carrying the usual number of sheep; nevertheless, the general outlook was better than for many years. The opening rates at the London wool sales were of a most cheering character; and these prices, as is well known, fix the standard of value for wool in all parts of the world. But the pastoralists believed that an important change was at hand, and that in a short time the business centre of the wool industry would be, not the British capital, but the place where the bulk of the wool is grown, and that this revolution in the system of disposing of the produce of the sheep station would have the hearty approval of large English and foreign buyers. It was a noteworthy fact that in 1888 and 1889 one-half of the yield of Australian wool was disposed of locally. The advantages of this were recognized alike by buyers and sellers. By going direct to the source of supply instead of depending upon middlemen, buyers found that, besides saving commission, the condition of the wool as delivered to them was better, and that they gained also in the matter of weight, and the opinion was generally expressed that it would be a recognized tiling for local sales to increase and for London sales to decrease—to the gain of the colony, but to the discomfiture of the salesmen of the mother country.

Moreover, it was a fact that many countries hitherto exporters of wool were now becoming importers, and that America, the great rival of Australia, appeared to have reached its maximum production while its consumption was increasing rapidly, and would in consequence soon become a large importing country, many Americans having already become big buyers in South Australia. The explanation for this altered state of affairs was given in the annual review of the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company, as follows:—"It is shown that as population increases, not only does the area for sheep decrease, but the demand for the staple is larger, while in the more thickly populated countries, such as the United Kingdom, the Continent, and the United States, the necessity of breeding for carcases places the culture of wool in a subsidiary position, and drives the latter to the larger pastures of Australia and the River Plate. The primary interest of the meat trade in the United States is one of the factors which has induced the American buyers to operate largely in our market."

In 1890 the quantity of wool exported was 53,593,168 lbs. In 1889 it reached 63,331,639 lbs. In 1888 it fell to 50,596,901 lbs.; but in 1887 it was 62,075,113 lbs.

It is of course impossible to sum up the mineral wealth of South Australia; but, speaking generally, it may be said that almost two-thirds of the settled portions of the vast territory consist of geological formations which may be regarded as metal-bearing. There have always been drawbacks to its development. The enormous area; inexperience in mining matters; a disposition to start companies and float shares, rather than to survey the land and to educate the people up to an appreciation of their possessions; a lack of interest on the part of the Government, who have trusted too implicitly to "private enterprise", by which means worthless properties have been extolled and only brokers have been benefited—these have been the bane of the mining interest. Nevertheless the exported minerals of the colony—chiefly copper—up to 1889 represented a total aggregate value of twenty millions sterling. About that time a general revival of interest in mining took place; the Government awoke to the conviction that the desultory and ineffective way in which the pursuit, had hitherto been carried on should cease, and one of the first important steps taken was the establishment of a School of Mines in Adelaide, an educational centre for the whole community, where scientific training might be had for posts of trust in the management of mines, and such knowledge obtained as should lead to practical methods for conducting mining operations on a scientific basis. In January, 1889, an Inspector of Mines was appointed, and in the Legislature the laws affecting mining were liberalized, and disabilities which had stood in the way of the progress of the industry were removed, while, at the same time, the extension of the railway system opened up prospects of cheapening the expenses of transit.

Experts have expressed their belief that untold wealth lies at the very doors of the citizens of Adelaide; that the hundreds of properties opened, at one time and another, and abandoned, are still valuable, and may be made payable, while there is an almost unlimited field for further experiment. It is to gold, however, that practical miners now look, and such auriferous areas as Echunga, Barossa, Woodside, Wankaringa, and Teetulpa appear to them to be capable of much larger development, while in the far North, where the Government geologist has discovered some very excellent specimens of gold-bearing quartz, the sphere is practically illimitable.

What is wanted is adequate capital, deep sinking, economical methods, honest, persistent development, and practical knowledge. Let these be forthcoming, and the gold industry in South Australia will probably assume immense importance. Miners have hitherto spent their time too much in scraping and washing the surface, and when the shallow alluvial has been exhausted, a rich gold district like Teetulpa has sunk back into an obscurity almost as deep as that which characterized it before the gold rush brought it into notice. Apropos to this we may quote a remark of Mr. H.Y.L. Brown, Government geologist, in 1890 * :—

[* "A Record of tho Mines of South Australia", by Henry Y.L. Brown, F.G.S., Government geologist.]

"There yet remains one great difficulty to be overcome in the fact that the gold found in this province is usually very fine, and disseminated in such minute particles as to make its complete extraction from the matrix and associated ores, principally pyrites, a matter of apparent impossibility. This, of course, results at present in great loss, and there will be a new era of prosperity secured to gold mining, when cheap and effective appliances are invented, which will make bulk treatment produce the precious metal in quantities approximating to the percentages obtained by assays of mere samples. This technical difficulty overcome, it may fairly be assumed that South Australia and our Northern Territory will rank high among the gold-producing countries of the world, and that their prosperous future will be assured."

It will be remembered that at one period of crisis in the history of the colony, the invention of Ridley's reaping machine revolutionized the whole cost of wheat production and prospects of the province; may it not be that, in like manner, some enterprising colonist will solve the present problem by the invention "of cheap and effective appliances", and so cause these golden dreams to come true?

"With the wonderful climate of Australia," says Dr. Taylor, "with its volcanic and other weathered soils full of potash, iron, and other vine-food, with sound and educated vine-stocks from Germany and France—stocks on which there has been bestowed more than a hundred generations of careful culture—it would be surprising, indeed, if Australia were not supplying the world with 'wine that maketh glad the heart of man' long after the worn-out vineyards of the Old World have succumbed to horticultural starvation and entomological ravages."

We have from time to time in the course of this work referred to the progress and prospects of the wine trade, and therefore confine our remarks now to one or two of the later phases only. A great impetus was given to the industry by the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, held in London, when general attention was drawn to the Australian vintages. Notice was taken of them by connoisseurs, and practical advantages ensued. The absolute purity of the wine was established; the most exhaustive tests were applied, and every sample came out exactly what it professed to be—the pure juice of the grape. Of course there were some complaints, although the general testimony was that they compared favourably with the best German hocks and the best French sauternes and clarets, and it was seen that as the wine trade of South Australia, yet in its infancy, was capable of producing such good results, every year would make improvements, and that soon the great European desideratum would be found of a cheap, pure, and wholesome wine. Since that time the enterprising managers of the various "Stores" in London have pushed forward the sale of the wine, and have succeeded in breaking up former monopolies. The establishment of a regular market for the wines outside the Australian colonies has been another important result. Hitherto much that had been sold under the name of Tintara and Highercombe had never emanated from Australia at all; others had been blended with Spanish wine, and sold under various names. Now Australian wine is being increasingly valued as Australian wine, and there is in all quarters a growing demand for it. At present the whole produce of Australasia per annum is stated to be barely sufficient to meet the consumption in London for three months, and the share of South Australia in this produce does not amount to much more than one-fifth, and a large portion of this is consumed in the colony.

Here, then, is a wide field for future industry, and since the date of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition rapid strides have been made in its development. The eyes of the South Australians were opened to the necessity of procuring from the wine districts of the European Continent men theoretically and practically acquainted with the business of vine-growing and wine-making, and there is no doubt that, with the assistance of these specialists, every year will show better results in the production of uniformly good wine.

In 1888 an expert visited South Australia to examine and report. His verdict was that the diversity of climates—the climates of Spain, Italy, and Sicily—was invaluable, and that he had never seen grapes produced elsewhere in such perfection; the returns per acre were more than double those in the most carefully cultivated vineyard in the world, the Chateau Lafite Estate; and, moreover, he saw no reason why the cognac industry should not be established, and become one of the greatest sources of wealth to the colony.

Soon after this visit, that is to say, in May, 1888, a Company was formed in South Australia, with a view to establish upon a broad and strong basis the wine, fruit, olive oil, wattle, and other producing interests of the colony, and of doing so on a sufficiently large scale to sensibly influence the English and other markets, and thereby secure and develop a steady and profitable trade. This was what was wanted—united action and skilled labour, and in making the start arrangements were completed for at once leasing or purchasing the produce of such well-known properties as Beaumont, Tanunda, and Moorooroo. Already the effect of this combination has been felt, and the future will, it is believed, more fully demonstrate the soundness of the principle upon which it has been established.

It is impossible to lay too much stress on the importance and manifold advantages of Water Conservation and Irrigation to South Australia. In his admirable work, "Problems of Greater Britain", Sir Charles Dilke says—

"If the periodical droughts from which South Australia suffers can be dealt with by irrigation and by conservation of water, or by boring, very different use will be made of this vast territory, and irrigation is already beginning to tell its story in the parts of South Australia which border on Northern Victoria and Southwestern New South Wales, The country is so dry that its wheat-growing district yields but a small crop. In those districts which can be irrigated, either from the Murray or by boring, the farms will be reduced in size from the grain farms of two or three hundred acres to fruit and vine and vegetable farms of twenty acres, and an enormously increased population living in comfort will be the result."

We will endeavour in this place to sketch briefly what has been done and is doing to expedite this happy augury.

Mr. G.W. Goyder, C.M.G., to whom the colony is indebted for the prosecution of many important schemes, was the first to be entrusted with any active work in connection with water conservation. This was somewhere about 1874. Under his superintendence wells were sunk, reservoirs, tanks, and dams constructed, in various places, not only in the settled districts near Adelaide, but also in the far north. The first attempt to tap the subterranean waters by means of artesian borings was in 1878-79, and proved successful. But for these aids to the usual water supply, the stock routes to the various markets would have been impassable in time of drought. Up to this time the expenses were voted under "Expenditure from Revenue", but in 1881-82 a further step was taken by providing from loan money, under the headings of "Conservation of Water" and "Development of the Interior", for the whole expenditure for water supply, first for supplying water within proclaimed districts, and next for developing outside country, so as to promote settlement and attract stock from other colonies. In more recent years these two objects have been comprehended under the one heading of "Water Conservation."

From 1882 the work in this department has been perpetual, north, south, east, and west—work involving, in many instances, enormous difficulty and responsibility, but with the result that facilities have been afforded on most of the main routes for watering travelling stock, for assisting struggling farmers in newly opened hundreds to commence work, and for enabling travellers and explorers to reach almost any part of the colony. The expenditure on Government works for water conservation from January 1, 1874, to June 30, 1883, was £142,912.

In 1883 it was deemed expedient to establish a separate department for carrying on and extending this work, and Mr. J.W. Jones, at that time Deputy Surveyor-General, was appointed Conservator of Water, and the personal superintendence of the Surveyor-General then ceased. Mr. Jones had acquired an intimate knowledge of the geography of the colony by explorations, and by his field experience as Deputy Surveyor, and his services were very valuable. The Water Conservation Act passed in this year was concerned with two classes of undertakings—fresh water for stock and other purposes, and next, water for irrigation. To enumerate in barest outline the enormous number of borings, of wells, tanks, and reservoirs constructed, would only be wearisome. This necessary work, involving very heavy expenditure, was prosecuted with most commendable energy, and was accomplished with varying success.

In 1887 the attention of South Australians was directed with great eagerness to the action of the Victorian Government with regard to the establishment of Irrigation Colonies, or water trusts, on their side of the river Murray. In May of that year Victoria entered into a contract with the world-known firm of Chaffey Brothers to found an Irrigation Colony at Mildura.

Exactly a year from that date, namely, on the 30th of May, 1888, Messrs. Chaffey Brothers covenanted with the South Australian Government to establish an Irrigation Colony at Renmark, on their side of the Murray. The Government agreed to grant them a licence for the immediate occupation of 30,000 acres of land, the firm at any period during a term of twenty years from the date of the licence being allowed to apply to the Government from time to time for the fee simple, without payment to the State, of portions of the land at the rate of an acre for every £4 spent, and on their complying with other general conditions, no such grant to be less than 500 acres. They could also apply during the twenty years for a licence for an additional area of 10,000 acres on the same condition, and they were pledged to spend on land under licence, or on other portions of it, before the expiry of the twenty years, a sum of £300,000. The agreement likewise included an extra area of 310,000 acres, which Messrs. Chaffey could obtain upon the payment of £1 per acre to the Government, and on laying out an expenditure of £1 per acre. They were also licensed to take from the river Murray, so far as the Government could give such licence, equal to twenty-four inches of water per acre per year over the area actually under irrigation culture.

The site selected for the first South Australian Irrigation Colony was Renmark, 170 miles from Morgan by the river, or 180 miles in a direction east-northeasterly from Adelaide, and in the electoral district of the Burra. It is a fine piece of country, as level as the Adelaide Park-lands, and standing above the high-water mark several miles beyond Lake Bonney.

Water was not laid on for irrigation until June, 1888, but early in 1889 the population was 270, with 60 or 70 habitations, the majority being tents. At that date Chaffey's Foundry, stores, works, and numberless other buildings and appliances were in course of construction. The town of Renmark was surveyed into 500 acres, town and villa allotments, and laid out on the same lines as the Victorian town, Mildura, viz. town allotments one-eighth of an acre each, disposed of at £20 per lot; villa allotments of two and a half acres, £100 per lot; and agricultural and horticultural lauds from £15 to £20 per acre, selling either for cash or credit. All lands were sold with water rights running with the titles at the same rate per acre as the rights secured by the Government to the firm of Chaffey Brothers. To each purchaser of land there was issued one paid-up share in the Renmark (or Mildura) Irrigation Company, Limited, for each acre held by him, such share representing the proportion of the property of the general irrigation works acquired with each acre purchased. Each share entitled the holder to one vote in the control of the management of the irrigation works, and was issued "as appurtenant to and transferred with each acre of land."

To each of the religious denominations Messrs. Chaffey Brothers presented a block of land on which to erect a church, although at that time the ubiquitous Salvation Army was the only body that had put up anything in the nature of a permanent structure.

Such was the start of the first South Australian Irrigation Colony, and the question of its success the future must decide. It was gratifying to find that before the end of May, 1889, the land irrigated and on which settlers had commenced operations embraced 2000 acres, all of which had been taken up by sixty persons, principally South Australians.

One of the most profitable State enterprises of the colony, and of which South Australia is justly proud, is forestry. As early as 1873, Mr. Krichauff, M.P., initiated a scheme. A Bill was passed to give it effect, and during subsequent years great strides have been made in arboriculture. Of the 180,000 acres held by the Forest Department in 1888, 40,000 represented natural forests, 8000 had been planted, and 132,000 were reserves on which sheep and cattle were allowed to run. Six million trees had been planted in the various reserves within a period of ten or eleven years, and two and a half million trees had been given away by the Government to farmers, landed proprietors, and others.

Figures and reports are as a rule dull reading, but in this instance an extract or two from the report of Mr. J.E. Brown, the Conservator of Forests in 1888, will put the matter in a nutshell. Up to that date the Forest Department had expended £60,000 and received £70,000, or a profit of £10,000. Timber-cutting of native growth had been going on for, six years, and 500,000 sleepers for the railways had been turned out, exclusive of timber for other purposes. South Australia had hitherto been annually importing timber to the value of £200,000, but in a few years the Conservator thought the resources of the colony would be sufficient to meet its own demand. And this was his idea of the prospective value of one plantation:—" If required," he said, "I can cut a plantation planted eleven years ago at Bundaleer and send the timber to the Barrier mines. We could realize £15,000 for that timber, which is an enormous sum when you consider that the forest only cost the Government £300 for labour in planting. But I would hesitate as to clearing the forest just now, for I am of opinion that if the trees are left for another four or five years they will realize double the £15,000."

Apart from the question of profit to the State, and of benefit to the colony in finding profitable employment for many hundreds of men in forest culture, and of beauty in such places as, say, the Ninety Mile Desert, or even such districts as Jamestown, Gladstone, Kapunda, Gawler, or Quorn, all of which have their pleasant and picturesque plantations, it must be borne in mind that indigenous timber was dying out and being destroyed by clearings to an alarming extent, and in a country subject to drought experience has proved that a treeless area always has less rain than one covered with forests. In a sense, therefore, the future welfare of the timber trade and all kindred industries turns upon the development of forest culture. This has been wisely recognized, and is being taught practically to the rising generation, for, on the 20th of June, 1889, the American institution of "Arbor Day" was established in Adelaide, when the children in the State Schools went forth, amid the braying of "trumpets and shawms" and the sweet singing of bands of vocalists, to plant 760 trees on the Adelaide Park-lands, and so help to cover the waste places with planes, oaks, pines, or whatever trees were considered best adapted to the conditions. The scheme has spread into all the principal townships, and if it succeeds in proportion as it has succeeded in Nebraska, where, on their first Arbor Day, 12,000,000 trees were planted, and in the course of seventeen years 600,000,000 trees were flourishing, or indeed if it succeeds as in any of the thirty-four States in the Union where Arbor Day is observed, much will have been done by the young people of South Australia to adorn the land of their birth, to modify its climate, and to increase its industries.

Serious attention has in late years been directed to the necessity of securing a market for South Australian fruit in London. Formerly this would have been an impossibility, but now the quick passages of steamers, fitted up with excellent appliances for the preservation of fruit, brings the colony within reach of "the great world-centre." Moreover, the season of production in the colony and of demand in England tit in to a nicety.

In August, 1888, a trial shipment was made, and it arrived in the market in a fairly good state. It resulted in the laying down of the following conditions:—that only the very best fruit should be sent; that it should be gathered when barely ripe, so as to mature on the voyage; and that it should be most carefully packed.

Since then a considerable amount of trade has been done in this industry, and the "fruit colony" has been the result. One incident will explain. In July, 1890, Messrs. G. and I. Riddoch, well-known landed proprietors in the south-east, resolved to convert 1000 acres of their estate into a fruit-producing colony, cutting it up into ten-acre blocks at £10 per acre payable in ten years, with interest at five per cent. The estate is five miles from the Penola railway station, and one mile from a railway siding; unlimited water can be obtained by sinking ten feet, and the soil and climate are in all respects satisfactory for fruit-growing. It is an excellent idea, and if the scheme succeeds it will doubtless be largely extended.

There are many other important industries of the colony, to which reference has been made in some of the preceding chapters, that have been long established on a permanent basis and need only be mentioned here. Meat-preserving—a fluctuating trade dependent on the price of sheep—has made considerable progress; also the manufacture of soap, candles, and leather, as skins and hides are plentiful and tanneries numerous. This, again, has given rise to the establishment of boot and shoe factories, producing articles equal, if not superior to those imported. The abundance of wool in the colony has directed attention to the manufacture of tweeds, blankets, and other woollen fabrics, which in the future should become a much more important industry than it has been in the past.

Under the auspices of a most valuable society, the Chamber of Manufactures, the cultivation of native industries has been advocated and developed in a most praiseworthy manner. Among them the planting of olives for the manufacture of olive oil, and the growth of mulberry trees for sericulture. Sir Samuel Davenport was the pioneer in this latter industry, and his nephew. Dr. Cleland, followed his lead, and made persistent efforts, extending over a long series of years, to place it upon a sound and satisfactory basis.

In like manner the Agricultural Bureau has done good and useful work in introducing dairy factories; the application of scientific principles to ordinary farming; the cultivation of fodder plants, which grow freely in South Australia when once established, for the purposes of fattening live stock, the making of ensilage, and other valuable industries.

Time would fail to tell of the almost endless possibilities and sources of wealth in the future to South Australia, but among them will probably be mining for coal, silver, and precious stones, pearl-fisheries, bee-farming, poultry-farming, flower-culture for making perfumes, and ostrich-farming. Of the last two it may be interesting to note one or two points.

Everything grows luxuriantly, the climate is most dependable, and flower-fanning—the cultivation of lavender fields, the distillation and manufacture of essential oils and perfumes, the preparation of disinfectants from the one hundred and forty species of gum-trees, all with aromatic leaves—should form a most important and lucrative industry.

Ostrich farming may, and probably will, be one of the successes of the future. The experiment has been tried at Gawler and elsewhere with excellent results. At Mr. Malcolm's farm at Gawler, about a hundred adult ostriches were kept enclosed in twenty-six paddocks separated by wire fencing, the ground being left in its natural and uncleared state of bush. Some of the breeding birds for this farm cost as much as £100 each. When the young birds are only eight months old, some of their feathers may be taken. As they get older the feathers are plucked every eight or nine months, and as many as weigh one pound and three-quarters or more are not unfrequently taken from a single bird."

There is also the South Australian Ostrich Company with a flourishing farm at Port Augusta, where in 1889 530 birds were in stock, 263 of which had been reared during the previous three breeding seasons. This company is now the largest establishment of the kind in the world, there being in 1890 700 birds on the farm, at which time an "electric automatic self-regulating incubator" was about to be tried.

There can be little doubt that the future of South Australia will be one of wealth and usefulness. It has passed through reverses and successes, and it has had to bear the heavy burden of debt, but all along there has been steady progress. It is absurd to speak of South Australia as poor. She has an area, roughly speaking, equal to that of New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand, Germany, and France combined. But of her nearly six hundred million acres, only seven million acres have been sold in fee simple, nine hundred thousand acres partly paid for, four millions on lease with right of purchase, and three and a half millions held on perpetual lease.

All the vast extent of land which is not under settlement has a prospective value, increasing in worth with every mile of railway extending into it. For all the money that South Australia has borrowed she can offer as security, not only her magnificent railway system, but this enormous extent of unalienated land, hundreds of thousands of square miles, including pastoral and arable lands, hillsides covered with valuable forest trees, while some are deep veined with gold, silver, copper, and lead, sources of wealth practically illimitable.

[For further information on some of the subjects referred to in this chapter, see Appendix at end of volume.]

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Dec. 28.
—Arrival of first Governor, Captain Hindmarsh. Proclamation read erecting South, Australia into a British Province.
—The Governor, accompanied by Colonel Light and Mr. J. H. Fisher, visited proposed site of Adelaide.

Jan. 11.
—Survey and staking off of Adelaide com- menced. Contentions as to site.
—Arrival of the Coromandel, with Mr. Edward Stephens on board in charge of specie, small notes, and entire plant of the South Australian Company's Bank, of which he was to be cashier and accountant.
Feb. 10.
—Public meeting urging suspension of survey of Adelaide until coast had been further examined. Amendment carried approving selection of Adelaide.
Feb. 21.
—Arrival of Mary and Jane with live stock from Cape of Good Hope.
March 10.
—Survey of Adelaide completed.
—Choice of preliminary town sections decided by lot.
—Permission given to the public to cut down and grub up trees in public streets.
—The South Australian Company's Bank commenced operations.
May 13.
—First Court of General Gaol Delivery held (Sir J. Jeffcott, Judge).
—Naming of streets and squares commenced.
—Harbour proclaimed a legal port.
June 3.
—Second number of Gazette and Register published in South Australia (the first number was published in London on June 18, 1836).
—Messrs. J.H. Fisher, Morphett, Hack, and Colonel Light left Glenelg for an overland exploration to Encounter Bay. Encamped first night in a valley which they named Hurtle Vale (after name of Mr. James Hurtle Fisher). Reaches "Morphett" Vale on 19th.
—Mr. D. MacLaren became colonial manager of South Australian Company, in succession to Mr. Samuel Stephens.
—Mr. C. Mann, Advocate-General, proceeded overland to Encounter Bay, to inquire into the case of a man named Driscoll, killed by natives. The first outrage of the kind.
Oct. 16.
—Arrival of Rev. T.Q. Stow, first Congregational minister.
Gazette Extraordinary announced death of King William IV. and accession of the Princess Victoria.
—Mr. G.F. Angas, in London, laid the foundation of German emigration to South Australia by arranging to send out some hundreds of German Lutherans.
—Population of colony had reached 2500.
—Mr. Gouger, suspended from office, left for England.
—Mr. Mann, Advocate-General, resigned. Mr. G.M. Stephens, from Van Diemen's Land, appointed Advocate-General and Crown Solicitor.
Dec. 12.
—Sir J.W. Jeffcott, Judge, drowned in the rollers of Encounter Bay.
—Mr. J. Morphett and four others explored Mount Lofty ranges. First Europeans who ascended Mount Barker.
—First Congregational service in South Australia conducted in a tent, acre No. 5, Adelaide, by the Rev. T.Q. Stow. This land was "on the river's bank, where the railway now runs, and Governor Hindmarsh was one of the congregation, for whose convenience an empty box was provided as a seat. There were eleven Christian people, who at that service formed themselves into a Church, and entered into a solemn covenant" (Cox's "Jubilee Record of Congregationalism".) Mr. Stow was then elected as pastor of the newly formed Church.
—Resident Magistrate's court held its first sitting.
—Mr. W. Finlayson and three others made an excursion from Adelaide to Lake Alexandrina. Saw and named the rivers Bremer and Angas.
—Mr. Jickling selected as acting Judge, vice Sir J.W. Jeffcott.
—Public dinner to Governor Hindmarsh in commemoration of Proclamation Day. Shipwrecks—The Sir Charles McCarthy, near Holdfast Bay. The South Australian, belonging to South Australian Company, in Rosetta Harbour.
—Mrs. Bean, Kangaroo Island. Mrs. Gouger and infant.

Jan. 26.
—Foundation-stone of the Church of the Holy Trinity laid by the Governor.
—The first overland expedition, fitted out by Mr. Joseph Hawdon, started for Adelaide. The cattle, about 300 head, were mustered on the banks of the river Goulburn.
—Mail established between Adelaide and the Port. Conveyed by mounted police.
March 14.
—Public meeting. Addresses of condolence passed to Queen Dowager and of congratulation to Queen Victoria.
—Committee appointed to adopt measures for aid of aborigines.
April 3.
—Arrival of Mr. Hawdon and party of nine men overland from New South Wales with cattle.
—Birth, in Adelaide, of Charles Mann, destined to play an important part in the political history of the colony.
—Arrival of nine Timor ponies. Out of 119 shipped from Isle of Timor, all, save nine, died on the voyage. Estimated cost of survivors, £500 each!
—Police force organized, consisting of ten mounted and ten foot.
—The South Australian School Society's first establishment opened. Mr. J.B. Shepherdson manager.
—First execution. The culprit, Michael Magee, had attempted the life of the sheriff, Mr. J. Smart. The gallows was a tree on the park-lands in front of the Colonial Store.
May 17.
—First ballot for land by holders of preliminary land orders.
—A spring van commenced running between Adelaide and the Port; fares, 4s., single, or 7s. 6d. return.
—First four bales of wool exported to England from Port Adelaide in the Orator, viâ Mauritius.
—Arrival of Mr. J.W. Bull, who became one of the first vignerons in the colony.
June 20.
—First report of Protector of Aborigines (Mr. W. Wyatt) issued.
—Arrival in the Eden of Mr. John Bentham Neales, who soon after obtained the appointment of Government auctioneer. Many years later he exercised a considerable influence upon the politics of the colony.
      Governor visited Kangaroo Island in H.M.S. Pelorus.
      News of recall of Governor Hindmarsh reached Adelaide.
—Mr. E.J. Eyre arrived overland from New South Wales with cattle.
—Captain Hindmarsh left colony in H.M.S. Alligator.


{Page 147}

July 14.
—Mr. G.M. Stephens, son-in-law of Captain Hindmarsh, proclaimed acting Governor.
—An amended South Australian Act passed the British Parliament.
Aug. 29.
—Captain Sturt arrived overland from New South Wales with cattle.
Oct. 12.
—Arrival of Messrs. C.G. Teichelmann and Schürmann from Dresden Missionary Society. First missionaries to aborigines. Estimated number of sheep and lambs in colony, 22,500; cattle, 2175; horses, 233.
      Unexpected arrival of Rev. W. Longbottom, Wesleyan minister, saved from a wreck.


{Page 148}

Oct. 12.
—Arrival of Colonel Gawler in Holdfast Bay.
—Public reception and swearing-in of Governor Gawler.
—Messrs. Strangways and Blundell discovered the Gawler river.
—Messrs. R. Cock and Jamieson visited Yorke's Peninsula, and gained valuable information of unknown country.
Nov. 16.
—Arrival of Pastor Kavel of Klemzig, Prussia, with first batch of German Lutherans sent out under the auspices of Mr. G.F. Angas.
Dec. 5.
Gazette Extraordinary issued by Governor appointing Council to be constituted, to consist of, "for time being", Governor, Colonial Secretary, Advocate-General, and Assistant-Commissioner of Lands.
—South Australian Bush Club opened. Mr. W.B. Edmonds honorary secretary.
—Natural History Society of South Australia formed. Mr. J.E. Bright secretary.
Wrecks—The Elizabeth at Rivoli Bay. The Parsee at Troubridge Shoal.
the year
Land sold in 1838, 47,932 acres at £1 per acre.
Number of emigrants left England, 3154.
During 1838 the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register announced 90 marriages, only two deaths, both children, and two births.

Jan. 1.
—Governor Gawler raised official salaries all round.
Jan. 11.
—First "special survey" of 4000 acres applied for by Mr. F.H. Dutton.
      Arrival in the Orleana of Mr. Stephen King, one of the pioneers of the district of Gawler.
—Branch of the Bank of Australasia established in Adelaide. Mr. R.F. Newland manager.
—Residences of Mr. J.H. Fisher and Colonel Light destroyed by tire, together with the Land and Survey Office. Valuable public documents destroyed, and Colonel Light lost his portfolio of drawings made in the Peninsula and Egypt, and a private journal of the last thirty years of his life.
Feb. 25.
—Mr. E.J. Eyre arrived from second overland journey with 600 head of cattle and 1000 sheep.
—Captain Hart and Mr. Pullen brought 400 head of cattle from Portland Bay.
March 27.
—Mr. Wetherall arrived with 979 head of cattle.
April 25.
—Mr. Charles Bonney arrived from Portland Bay, having adopted a southern route, i.e. the Mount Gambier and south-eastern district of colony.
—Captain Finniss arrived by old route with 700 head of cattle and 2500 sheep.
May 25.
—First spadeful of earth dug for South Australian Company's road to Port.
June 7.
—Arrival of Rev. W.R. Newland, Congregational minister, who settled at Encounter Bay.
South Australian Gazette became organ of Government for official announcements.
      South Australian Register, formerly part of above, published separately.
Sep. 7.
—Duty of £5 for every hundred pounds weight of wheat, grain. Hour, biscuit, etc., exported from the province.
—The Adelaide Guardian started by Messrs. G.M. Stephens and W.E. Cox (editor. Dr. Litchfield). Discontinued in six months.
Oct. 5.
—Death of Colonel Light, first Surveyor-General, by whom the site of Adelaide was fixed.
—Public funeral of Colonel Light. [Every year, on the election of a Mayor of Adelaide, a toast is drunk to the memory of Colonel Light. The silver cup used at this ceremony was presented to the Corporation by Colonel Palmer, one of the South Australian Commissioners, after whom Palmer Place in North Adelaide is named.]
Nov. 9.
—Foundation stone of Congregational Chapel in Freeman Street laid.
—Arrival in the colony of Major Thomas Shuldham O'Halloran, who settled at the spot now known as O'Halloran Hill.
—Overland route so well established that Mr. Hawdon and Lieutenant A.M. Mundy drove over to Adelaide from New South Wales in a light tandem in the space of one month.
—Native school opened by Mr. Teichelmann.
—Board of South Australian Commissioners disbanded and new Board appointed.
the year
Libel cases relating to land sales, Mr. G.M. Stephens v. Mr. Macdougall, printer and publisher of the South Australian, and Mr. G.M. Stephens v. Mr. Thomas, printer and publisher of the Register.
One of Mr. O. Gillies' shepherds murdered by natives. Two executed.
Society for Protection of Flocks and Herds established.
Society for Encouragement and Advancement of Agricultural and Pastoral Knowledge established.
Botanic and Horticultural Gardens established by subscription. Mr. John Bailey, botanist.
Mechanics' Institute opened and lectures delivered.
Mr. J. Stephens published in London "The Land of Promise;" title subsequently altered to "History of South Australia."
Presbyterian Church opened (Associate Synod). Minister, Rev. P. Drummond.
Rev. P.W. Newland, Independent, commenced ministry at Encounter Bay.
Arrival of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Arthur Blyth, with his parents, in the Ariadne. He was destined to fill almost all the highest offices in the colony.

Jan. 10.
—Demonstration in favour of Governor (who was absent on the 28th of December, "Proclamation Day ").
—A Board of Audit for investigation of public accounts appointed by Governor Gawler.
—Formation in London of South Australian Society, "to guard against encroachments on the leading principles in the Act of Parliament upon which that province was founded."
—Supply of small arms received. Volunteers between eighteen and forty requested to send in their names. Officers appointed and gazetted, but practically no response from privates.
—Captain (afterwards Sir) George Grey visited the colony, and gave valuable information relative to the aborigines, the overland route to Western Australia, and the discoveries of Lieutenant Stokes in the Beagle on the north-west coast.
—A curious case, Allen v. Eyre, tried. The plaintiff claimed £180 for expenses incurred by Mr. Eyre and other overlanders for a ball and supper. The defendant alleged that the contract was for £75, and paid that sum into court. Among the items were—3 doz. pickled tongues, £7 16s.; six hams, £7 17s. 6d.; 6 roast geese, £6; 16 pigeons, £8; 2 doz. fowls, £8 12s.; 12 doz. eggs, £3 12s.; 36 lbs. of butter, £6; 2 lbs. isinglass, £6, etc. Verdict for plaintiff, £151, including the £75 paid into court.
—Memorial to Secretary of State for Colonies praying for extension of Legislative Council by admission of elected colonists, unconnected with Government.
—Major O'Halloran appointed Commissioner of Police.
—Mr. Eyre, accompanied by Scott, Baxter, and Coles, started on perilous journey overland for Western Australia.
—Wreck of the Maria. Five men and seven children who escaped the wreck were murdered by the Milmenrura or Big Murray tribe of natives.
—Arrival of Messrs. H.A.C. Meyer and F. Klose, missionaries to the aborigines, sent out under auspices of Mr. G.F. Angas.
—Captain W.L. O'Halloran arrived in the colony.
Sep. 6.
—Arrival of Rev. James Farrell to share the ministerial labours of Rev. C.B. Howard, first colonial chaplain.
Oct. 14.
—Great fête to celebrate opening of South Australian Company's road from Adelaide to the Port, projected by Mr. D. McLaren, manager of the Company. Five thousand persons present, the largest assembly of colonists ever congregated in South Australia up to that time. In the procession to the Port there were mustered 450 vehicles, from the four-in-hand barouche to the bullock team and donkey cart, besides 500 to 600 equestrians. Four hundred and fifty people sat down to the déjeuner.
Oct. 14.
—The Agricultural Society of South Australia formed. Colonel Gawler president; Captain Berkeley secretary.
—Corporation of Adelaide constituted.
—Mr. J.H. Fisher elected first Mayor of Adelaide. Five times re-elected.
Nov. 1.
—Opening of Freeman Street Congregational Chapel.
—The "Auction Company", one of the most original institutions of early colonial days, established. Chairman, Mr. John Baker; auctioneer, Mr. J.B. Neales.
Dec. 26.
—Date, at Downing Street, of Colonel Gawler's recall.
the year
The land sales reached 299,072 acres; population, 16,000.
The enormous sum of £277,000 sterling was sent out of the colony for the purchase of the necessaries of life.
Arrival of Dr. M. Moorhouse as Protector of Aborigines.
Mr. John Reynell planted the first South Australian vineyard.
Mr. B.T. Finniss appointed Deputy Surveyor-General.
The old meeting-place of the Congregationalists on North Terrace exchanged for Freeman Street Chapel, at that time the largest place of worship in the colony.
The Adelaide Chronicle, a weekly paper, started. Editor, Mr. O.K. Richardson.
The Adelaide General Advertiser and Port Lincoln Herald, a weekly paper, first published. Editor, Mr. Dutton.
The South Australian Church Building Society founded.

Jan. 11.
—Mr. D. McLaren, the first manager of the South Australian Company, left for England in the John Pirie. Mr. Edward Stephens appointed manager of the Company's bank, and Mr. William Giles the Company's general manager.
—Fire at the thatched cottage—the original Government House erected by the sailors of the Buffalo—used as the office of the Governor's private secretary. Many important public documents destroyed, which only a few days before had been removed from Government House to make room for Lady Franklin, who had just arrived in the colony.
Feb. 8.
—Intelligence reached Adelaide that bills drawn by Colonel Gawler on the South Australian Commissioners had been dishonoured.
—Fitting out of the Courier by Mr. R.R. Torrens, collector of customs, to seize a French vessel, the Ville de Bordeaux, the captain having refused to show satisfactory papers.
March 2.
—The Agricultural Society held its first Exhibition at Fordham's Hotel, Grenfell Street. The first prize for the best wheat was awarded to Mr. Warnock, of Onkaparinga. Other successful competitors for various products were Messrs. J. Williams, A.H. Davis, G. Stevenson, J. Pinkerton, Chandler, Grant, and Clarke.
—First Savings Bank established.
—Attempt to establish a Tradesman's Bank failed.
—Serious attack by natives upon an overland party under the leadership of Mr. H. Inman, formerly Superintendent of Police in Adelaide.
—News reached Adelaide indirectly of the recall of Colonel Gawler.
—Important public meeting to take into consideration financial position of colony.
—Meeting of Chamber of Commerce for same purpose.
—Baxter, Eyre's overseer, murdered by native boys.
May 1.
—Total debt due in England and chargeable on the revenue of the colony, £305,328 2s. 7d.
—Notice in Gazette that no more tenders for the purchase of special surveys could be accepted until further notice.
—The Lord Glenelg arrived bringing official recall of the Governor and having on board Captain Grey, his successor. "Captain Grey arrived to displace Colonel Gawler without notice, and walked into Government House without ceremony, having on the front steps read his commission in the hearing of a very small audience there assembled, and been received by them with no marks of approval."
—Addresses expressing regret and esteem presented to Colonel Gawler by all classes of the community.


{Page 155}

May 15.
—Captain Grey, the new Governor, took the oaths of office.
      Intimation received that her Majesty had been pleased to grant to the South Australian Militia the appellation of "Royal", and to sanction scarlet uniforms with royal facings, blue without lace.
—A committee appointed to protect overland parties travelling with stock. The committee consisted of Messrs. Inman, Kinchela, James Fisher, Captain Ferguson, and Mr. Giles, chairman.
May 15.
—Statistical Society formed. Mr. G. Young honorary secretary.
—Expedition under Major O'Halloran left Adelaide for the Murray to chastise marauding natives. Frequent attacks were made during this year by the natives on parties travelling overland with sheep and cattle.
June 22.
—Colonel Gawler left the colony. Presented with unanimous address and "a purse of £500, contributed by the colonists out of their diminished means, which sura he left to be invested in land on his account as a connecting link between himself and the colony."
July 15.
—Information received that the British Parliament had appointed a Select Committee of the House of Commons to inquire into the affairs of South Australia.
—Also that, on the motion of Lord John Russell, the British Parliament had voted £155,000 for South Australia, and that henceforth it would be considered and treated as a Crown colony.
—After a year's absence Mr. E.J. Eyre returned from his perilous journey along the coast from Streaky Bay to King George's Sound, for which he afterwards received the Founder's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society.
      South Australian News established in London by Mr. G.F. Angas.
—First number of the Adelaide Independent and Cabinet of Amusement published. Editor, Mr. N. Hailes.
—Banquet to Mr. E.J. Eyre in Company's room, Rundle Street. Captain Sturt presided, and Captain Grey was present—three of the greatest Australian explorers thus meeting.
Aug. 26.
—New Registration Act came into operation, providing that all deeds, conveyances, wills, and devises in writing must, to be valid, be entered at the Registry Office. Captain Sturt appointed Registrar-General.
—The Philanthropic Society for the extension of aid to persons in necessitous and destitute circumstances founded.
—Arrival of 57,200 vine cuttings and a choice variety of fruit trees from the Cape, for the South Australian Vine Association, Mr. H. Watson secretary. This valuable importation was divided among the subscribers to the association.
—First detachment of troops of the line (96th Regiment) arrived from Hobart Town. Temporary barracks prepared in a large store in Grenfell Street, previously occupied by Messrs. August Cook and Co.
—The Adelaide Free Press, weekly paper, first published. Editor, Mr. N. Hailes.
—First number of the Adelaide Examiner issued. Editor, Mr. N. Hailes.
—Report of Select Committee of Imperial Parliament on South Australia reached Adelaide.
—Nearly 2000 destitute persons were being supported in South Australia at expense of the Government.
the year
Many companies and societies sprang into more or less vigorous existence. Among them—
The Adelaide Auction Company for the sale of land, merchandise, stock, etc.
The Adelaide Flour Mill Company.
The South Australian Mining Association.
The Hindmarsh and Bowden Agricultural Company.
The South Australian Fire, Life, and Marine Insurance Company.
A Steam Navigation Company.
South Australian Temperance Society.
Mr. (afterwards Sir) R.R. Torrens appointed collector of customs at Port Adelaide.
The South Australian Company's Bank separated from the "Company", and formed into the South Australian Banking Company.
The South Australian Magazine, price 2s., first published.
Rev. R. Haining appointed first Presbyterian minister in Adelaide.
Arrival of Rev. J. Benson (Roman Catholic).

—An abundant harvest and great scarcity of labour. Gentlemen volunteered; the Governor gave permission for the military, and all who could be spared from active Government service, to lend a helping hand. Notwithstanding all this, a large quantity of grain was lost for lack of labour to get it in.
—To increase the usefulness of the Agricultural Society, prizes were this year offered. For the most meritorious agricultural labourer, £4; the most meritorious shepherd, £5; and so on. Prizes were also offered for fruit and vegetables, and Mr. Duffield carried off the prize for the finest wheat, which was grown at Echunga.
—Farmers' clubs were formed at Morphett Vale, Noarlunga, and Willunga.
—In early part of year a large portion of the province was divided into counties; the names given to them were—Hindmarsh, Adelaide, Gawler, Light, Stanley, Russell, Sturt, Eyre, and Flinders.
Feb. 9.
—Large meeting in Queen's Theatre (1200 present) to "take into consideration the existing distress and to devise means for its alleviation."
—Murder of Mr. John Brown and his hut-keeper by natives at Port Lincoln, succeeded by other murders, namely, of Mr. Biddle and servant, named Fastings, and of an old woman, Mrs. Stubbs, in the employ of Mr. A. Biddle. Detachment of the 96th sent out without effect.
—Mr. C.C. Dutton (manager of Mr. Driver's station) in taking cattle overland by head of Spencer's, Gulf perished, with all his party, it is supposed either at the hands of the natives or from want of water. Several search-parties sent out, all alike unsuccessful. From the fact that all the cattle, working bullocks, and horses returned to the run, the general impression was that Mr. Dutton and his men were murdered.
July 5.
—Large meeting in Queen's Theatre to oppose taxation.
—Meeting at Willunga to oppose taxation and adopt resolutions passed at Adelaide meeting of July 5th.
—A Bill "for the Better Government of South Australia" passed in the Imperial Parliament.
October 13.
—Intelligence received that drafts drawn by Captain Grey on the British Treasury had been dishonoured.
—Tenders received for erection of monument over the grave and in memory of Colonel Light, first Surveyor-General. Owing to the depressed state of the colony the sum subscribed was much smaller than it would otherwise have been. The tender of Mr. Lewis was accepted. The whole arrangements were carried out by Mr. G.S. Kingston.
Dec. 24.
—Despatches arrived announcing the passing in Imperial Parliament of "An Act for regulating the Sale of Waste Lands in the Australian Colonies and in New Zealand", and "An Act for the Better Government of South Australia." The former Act transferred the colony from the Commissioners into the hands of the Crown.
—Owing to the depressed state of the times, 642 houses out of 1915 were vacant in Adelaide, and 216 had fallen into decay.
the year
Board of Audit appointed to examine public accounts.
Immigration Board established to hear and judge cases for relief, and to deal with distress and destitution generally.
The South Australian Company's road to the Port purchased by the Government for £13,000.
A system of tender introduced for supply of all articles required for public service.
Arrangements made with Government of New South Wales for regular transmission of an overland mail between Adelaide, Sydney, and Melbourne.
Mr. Samuel Davenport, destined to become a leading politician, merchant, and philanthropist, arrived in the colony.
H.M.S. Beagle arrived at Port Adelaide from Swan River and King George's Sound, after a cruise in the Gulf of Carpentaria and along the north-west coast of Australia. Captain Stokes made a survey of the harbour of Port Adelaide.
The South Australian Reformer, mainly devoted to the advocacy of total abstinence, first issued.
First number of the Southern Star published. Editor, Mr. J. Allen.
Captain Frome and Mr. Benn proceeded on expedition to follow up discoveries of Mr. Eyre in northern districts.
One hundred and thirty-six writs for recovery of debts passed through the hands of the sheriff.

Jan. 26.
—Magistrates informed that Secretary of State required an expression of opinion as to the desirableness of sending a certain number of boys from Parkhurst Reformatory to each of the British colonies. Magistrates and press loudly denounced the proposition as an infraction of the principle on which South Australia was founded.
Feb. 20.
—The Act "for the Better Government of the Australian Colonies" came into operation.
March 16.
—Great meeting in Queen's Theatre to express "total want of confidence in the administration of Captain Grey."
April 3.
—Major O'Halloran resigned his appointment as Commissioner of Police in consequence of the office of Police Magistrate being added to it Mr. B.T. Finniss appointed to the vacancy.
June 20.
—First Council, under the new Act, called together.
—The Adelaide Observer first issued. Editor, Mr. John Stephens. (At this time the press of the colony was of a somewhat pugnacious character.)
—Captain Frome, Surveyor-General, started with a small party to explore northern interior of province. Absent two months. On return gave report confirming Mr. Eyre's discoveries; "but with respect to Lake Torrens it was found that what appeared not only to Mr. Eyre, but at first sight to himself, a large expanse of water stretching out to the eastward of Flinders Range, was in reality a desert of drifting sand, the extraordinary refractory powers of the sun's rays converting it into an apparent sheet of water."
Sep. 1.
—The first ploughing-match came off in Section No. 1, Thebarton, the first section surveyed in the colony, and selected by Colonel Light.
—The first cattle-show was held this year.
—In consequence of the great scarcity of hands for gathering in the harvest of the previous year inventors of machinery were urged to construct reaping machines, and in September eight makers submitted models to a meeting of men deeply interested in the agricultural operations of the colony, and a committee was appointed to pronounce judgment and make awards. Meanwhile Mr. J. Ridley, a miller at Hindmarsh, who did not enter into the competition, had invented a reaping and thrashing machine. This was soon perfected, and eclipsed all others, and Ridley's machines were for many years in great and ever-increasing demand, and are so still.
Oct. 10.
—New Legislative Council met in new building on North Terrace. First Council into which non-official members had been introduced.
—First select committee of new Council appointed to inquire into the disease known as scab in sheep, and the Act relating thereto.
—Editors of newspapers allowed to take copies of evidence given before committees.
—The question of State aid to religion came before the new Council for the first time, introduced by Mr. Morphett.
Nov. 14.
—First session of Council under new Act brought to a close.
—Arrival of the Rev. John Baptist Austin, who at once proceeded to Macclesfield, where he preached in a tent. Subsequently a stone church was built, and he originated "preaching stations" at Echunga, Strathalbyn, and the districts round about.
The year
was remarkable for colonial inventions and improvements, and for new manufactures in almost every branch of colonial business
Surplus sheep and cattle were for the first time boiled down for the sake of the tallow; and the manufacture of soap and candles on a large scale followed.
Starch and blacking were among the new manufactures.
Messrs. Wyatt erected the first steam engine constructed in the colony.
Although most of the inventions and manufactures were due to the partial return of prosperity, many of them were the result of enforced leisure during the financial crisis.
Discovery of Kapunda Copper Mine. Operations soon afterwards commenced, and the first shipment of copper to England drew attention to a source of wealth destined to give a great impetus to trade and commerce in the colony.
First number of the Oddfellows' Magazine issued. Editor, Dr. Cotter.
South Australian Vignerons and Gardeners' Manual issued.
Mr. J.H. Angas arrived in Adelaide to look after the affairs of his father, Mr. G.F. Angas, in the Barossa district.
Serious dissensions took place among the members of several of the Nonconformist churches on account of the acceptance of Government aid to religion. A number of Wesleyan Methodists, for example, seceded from that body, and formed themselves into a new association called the "Australian Methodist Society."
A fancy bazaar held on behalf of a debt on the Independent Chapel. The first scheme of the kind resorted to in the colony.
Particular Baptists erected a chapel in Kermode Street, North Adelaide.
United Presbyterians opened a new place of worship in Gouger Street.
Wesleyans opened chapel in Happy Valley.
Methodist New Connexion opened chapel in Hobson Place.
Australian Methodist Society held its first camp meeting.
Death in July of Rev. C.B. Howard, first chaplain.

Feb. 14
—Grand Agricultural, Horticultural, and Floricultural Exhibition (the result of an amalgamation of two societies) held in a large marquee erected under the shade of some fine old gums to the east of the Frome Bridge— a very creditable show for an eight-year-old colony. [One of the peculiarities of these early shows was the fine display of sweet and water melons, Mr. J. Ind was one of the earliest and largest growers, and in 1844, or thereabouts, advertised sixty tons for sale. Until other fruits became plentiful, the consumption of melons was very great.] The best and largest collection of fruits exhibited was from the garden of Mr. George Stevenson, at North Adelaide, who has been called "the Father of Horticulture in South Australia."
Feb. 16.
—The Montacute Mine, recently discovered, bought at public auction.
—The Independent Order of Odd Fellows commenced a school for the education of the children of members and others. Mr. Disher superintendent.
—Captain Grey, Mr. C. Bonney, Mr. Burr, and Mr. George French Angas started on expedition to south-eastern districts of colony. Discovered good country between rivers Murray and Glenelg.
June 3.
—Murder of Geo. MacGrath at MacGrath's flat, North Coast, by a native, Wera Maldera, alias Peter.
Aug. 10.
.—Captain Sturt and party (including Mr. J. Poole and Mr. J.M. Stuart) started, under auspices of Government, for exploration of interior, and to discover a supposed chain of mountains lying parallel with the Darling.
—Dr. Ludwig Leichardt and a party of five, assisted by private individuals in New South Wales, set out on expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington. Returned to Sydney, March, 1846, having been given up in mean time as lost.
—Mr. Darke, Mr. Theakstone, and two others left Port Lincoln to explore north-western territory of colony. Mr. Darke murdered by natives (October 21st).
Sept 18.
—Arrival of two hundred German emigrants.
—Severe floods swept away several bridges and did great damage to private property; amongst other losses, Mr. Shand's brewery fell into the Torrens, and bottles, casks, and brewing utensils floated away down the stream.
and November.—Visitation, for the first time to an alarming extent, of locusts. They were seen in myriads, like small clouds, twenty to thirty feet in the air, and descended into fruitful places. They did not consume every green thing they alighted upon, but separated the tendrils of the vine or melon, or whatever plant they fancied, destroying much more than they consumed. [Pedestrians were obliged to go about with umbrellas up, or handkerchiefs tied over their faces to protect themselves against the hard head of the insect in its progress.] The remedies to prevent their ravages were the noise of rattles, bells, or any tintinnabular sound, strewing leaves of the castor-oil tree on the ground, watering the vines or plants and then powdering them with sulphur, larkspur, and other means, all more or less effectual, but useless in comparison with a good gale of wind.
Nov. 6.
—Arrival in the colony of the Right Rev. Francis Murphy, D.D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide.
—First report issued of National Sunday School, conducted by Messrs. Jacob Abbott, Anthony Forster, and D. Kekwick.
—St. Mary's, Morphett Vale—the first Roman Catholic church erected in the colony—solemnly dedicated by Bishop Murphy.
—Foundation stone of St. Patrick's, West Terrace, laid by Bishop Murphy (Roman Catholic).
the year
There were between thirty and forty schools in the colony, the depressed state of trade having turned the attention of many persons to teaching as a means of livelihood.
The Church of Scotland erected a new place of worship in Grenfell Street; the Congregationalists, an auxiliary one in Franklin Street.
A "Union" chapel erected at Kensington and a mission chapel at Encounter Bay.
Arrival of Rev. Thomas Playford, Baptist Minister.
Mr. E.J. Eyre retired from office of resident police magistrate.
Mr. John Dunn (John Dunn & Co.) erected his first steam mill at Mount Barker.
Mr. Owen visited Swan River settlement on his own initiative, and induced between twenty and thirty persons to take up their abode in South Australia. Many others followed.
It was estimated that during the year no fewer than 1000 persons arrived in South Australia from New South Wales, either overland or by sea.

Jan. 2.
—Further public meeting to protest against the sending out by the Home Government of Parkhurst prison boys.
—Captain Underwood, in his little schooner, the Governor Gawler, met with a series of strange adventures, and the sailors of the Port looked upon him and his craft as possessed of a charm. It was believed that there was scarcely a rock or a sandbank in the two gulfs, at Port Lincoln, or along the southern coast, that he did not know.
Feb. 14
—1480 visitors paid for admission to the Agricultural and Horticultural Society's Exhibition on the Park-lands.
March 29.
—Wera Maldera, a native, alias Peter, executed in front of the gaol at Adelaide for the murder of Mr. George MacGrath.
—Discovery of the Burra-Burra Copper Mine.
      Mr. George French Angas (son of Mr. George Fife Angas) exhibited, in the Legislative Council Chamber, the sketches he had made of subjects for his illustrated works on Australia and New Zealand. It was the first Art exhibition in the colony, and was greatly appreciated, as the colonists were able to see many interesting places in their adopted country they had not visited, and to become acquainted with some of the most remarkable types of aborigines, their customs, dances, weapons, and implements.
July 5.
—Repeal of pilotage, tonnage, wharfage, and all other port and harbour dues and charges, thus opening Port Adelaide and all other ports within the province to ships of all nations, free of expense on entering, remaining, and departing.
—Public meeting to frame an address to the Governor in appreciation of his measure for abolishing all port and harbour dues.
      Reproduction of the South Australian Gazette and Register. Editor, Mr. George Stevenson.
—Governor Grey moved a resolution for a grant of £200 for the purchase of suitable school books to assist in the education of the children of the poorer classes in the province. Carried.
—First number of Australiana issued. Editor, Mr. Robert Lyon Milne.
Sep. 29.
—First blasting-powder operations in the Burra-Burra Mine.
—Attempt to introduce into the colony conditionally pardoned men from Van Diemen's Land, frustrated.
—Rumours abroad that Captain Grey was to be promoted to New Zealand, confirmed by London press.
—Mr. Mengé set out on a geological tour to Flinders Range.
—Arrival of Major Robe in the Elphinstone.
—Captain Grey officially informed the Legislative Council of his approaching removal to New Zealand.


{Page 169}

Oct. 25.
—New Governor took the oaths and assumed the title of "Lieutenant-Governor."
—Captain Grey left South Australia in the Elphinstone for New Zealand.
—The Adelaide Magazine (monthly) issued. Editor, Mr. J. Wilson.
—News received of Lord Stanley's attempt to impose a royalty or reservation on minerals raised in the colony. Bill defeated by Lord Lansdowne and Lord Monteagle.
Dec. 13.
—Important public meeting to discuss threatened imposition of royalty on minerals.
—Mr. W. Giles, on behalf of the South Australian Company, brought an action against Lieut.-Governor Major Robe for refusing to allow him to exercise his right of selection of mineral sections near the Montacute Mine. Action disallowed by the Judge.
—Testimonial presented to Mr. Ridley, the inventor of the celebrated reaping machine.
the year
An Auxiliary to the British and Foreign Bible Society formed.
Arrival of Rev. G. Stonehouse, Baptist minister, who commenced his labours at Angaston.
Mr. (afterwards Sir) Henry Ayers became manager of the Burra Mines.
Census taken of the Roman Catholics in South Australia, who numbered 1273 out of a population of 19,317.
June 14.
—Mr. J. Poole, second in command of Captain Sturt's expedition to the interior.

—Return of Captain Sturt and remnant of his party from his adventurous exploration of interior.
—Major Robe, accompanied by private secretary and Mr. Burr, set off on tour of inspection of bays on the south-east coast—Lacepede Bay, Guichen Bay, Portland Bay, and Rivoli Bay. Census taken. Population, 22,390.
—Banquet in honour of Captain Sturt on his return from exploration in the interior.
—Lord Stanley (Secretary of State for the Colonies) acknowledged the receipt of Mr. Walter Duffield's case of South Australian wine, the first production of his vineyard sent to the Queen, which her Majesty was graciously pleased to accept, and stated "that she felt much interested in the success of this new branch of commerce in the colony." In another despatch Lord Stanley acknowledged the receipt of five drawings and plans of Mr. Ridley's reaping and threshing machine, which were submitted to the Queen and to Prince Albert, "who were pleased to express their admiration of the ingenuity and apparent usefulness of the invention." The plans were then sent by Lord Stanley to the Royal Agricultural Society and to the Board of Trade.
March 5.
Government Gazette announced that a royalty of one-fifteenth would be reserved upon all minerals raised from lands alienated from the Grown.
—Great public demonstration to protest against imposition of royalty on minerals as "illegal, unjust, and impolitic."
—Mr. G.S. Kingston, Honorary Secretary of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, received intimation that the prize wheats exhibited at the last Exhibition of the Society had also been exhibited on the London Corn Exchange, where "they excited much interest and were considered of most extraordinary quality and splendid specimens." The specimens of barley were pronounced to be "of the finest quality of any that had ever been seen in the London Corn Market."
April 28.
—First of several arrivals of Government immigrants from Great Britain.
—Adelaide Railway Company (capital, £100,000 by 5000 shares of £20 each. 1000 of which to be reserved for the colony) registered in England, and Colonial Committee appointed in South Australia.
June 24.
—Major Robe introduced into the Legislature the question of State aid to religion.
July 11.
—A small party, under command of Mr. J.A. Horrocks, started to explore the then unknown country to the north-west of the ranges of Mount Arden. By the accidental discharge of his gun at the head of Spencer's Gulf, Mr. Horrocks lost his life, and the party returned. The only camel in the colony went with this expedition.
—Great excitement and activity among all the religious denominations with regard to State aid to religion.
—The "South Australian League for the Maintenance of Religious Freedom in the Province" formed.
—Petitions for and against State aid to religion presented to the Legislative Council.
—Repeal of the City Corporation Act, the Mayor having retired, and no legal provision made for his successor. Debts of the City Council taken over by the Government.
Sep. 30.
—New Waste Land Bill introduced.
the year
The Church of England had a large accession of clergy, and a great impetus was given to the operations of the Church. It was the year when the first great struggle in regard to State support to religion took place.
First annual meeting of South Australian Bible Society held.
Rev. D.T. Draper arrived to take the superintendence of the Wesleyan Methodist circuit.
Mr. Patrick Auld commenced the celebrated Auldana Vineyard.
Mr. F.S. Dutton published in England a work on "South Australia and its Mines."
Whooping-cough introduced—it was understood by ship Templar.
Captain Sturt took his seat in the Executive and Legislative Councils by virtue of his offices as Colonial Treasurer and Registrar-General.
Four thousand pounds voted by the Council for a steam-tug, the shipping having, from the earliest days of the colony, suffered great inconvenience from the want of such a vessel.
Large sums voted for new Court House (carried on in part of building previously used as a theatre) and a Post-Office.
April 24.
—Rev. Edmund O'Mahony, for some time Roman Catholic Missionary in South Australia.

Jan. 29.
—Great fire broke out at the Port in the sail loft of Mr. Buy ley. Damages about £5000.
Feb. 10.
—First building society in the colony founded under title "The Adelaide and Suburban Building Society."
—The Directors of the South Australian Savings Bank found it necessary to suspend the payment of interest to depositors in consequence of the banks refusing to allow interest on deposits in account of that institution. A Bill subsequently passed the Legislative Council placing the Savings Bank under the management of the Legislature.
—Governor Robe reported how the grants in aid of religion had been distributed.
June 29.
—Consecration of Rev. Augustus Short in Westminster Abbey to see of Adelaide.
July 1.
—Arrival of Mr. James Martin, who became the founder of one of the largest engineering and agricultural implement works in the Australian colonies.
—£160,000 appropriated to immigration purposes, and arrangements made for despatch from England of one vessel per month.
—Great hailstorm in Adelaide, "the hailstones varying in size from marbles to pigeon's eggs."
—Serious floods. Several bridges damaged. No loss of life.
Sep. 22.
—The Savings Bank Act passed.
Nov. 5.
—The first over-sea steamer arrived.
—The Council called together to discuss the question of steam communication with the mother country.
Dec. 30.
—Bishop Short, who arrived in the colony on December 29, formally inducted at Trinity Church, when her Majesty's letters patent were read, constituting South Australia a diocese, and appointing Dr. Short to be "Bishop thereof under the style and title of Lord Bishop of Adelaide."
the year
Mr. L. O'Vanberyl, a Jewish Christian known as the "Prophet", foretold the end of all things in 1848.
A movement was set on foot by members of the Church of England to establish a Collegiate School, which resulted in the foundation of St. Peter's.
Agitation on the question of State aid to religion was kept up continuously throughout the year.
The Mount Barker Agricultural Association held its first annual show at Nairne. After a few years the example of Mount Barker was followed by all the principal country towns and districts.
Captain Sturt left for England, where he received the Founders' Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society and other honours.
Steam communication with Sydney was established by the laying on of the steamer Juno.
Influenza very prevalent.
£2180 10s. 4d. raised in the province as a contribution in aid of the sufferers in Ireland from the failure of the potato crop.
Upwards of thirty mines in all had been opened in the colony up to the end of 1847, but no second Burra-Burra or Kapunda had been found.

—Four or five bushrangers, who had escaped from Van Diemen's Land on an American whaler, landed on Kangaroo Island. After committing many depredations, they proceeded to Yorke's Peninsula, where they were adroitly captured by Mr. A. Tolmer and a party of police.
—First number of the Adelaide Miscellany of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, a weekly journal, published. Editor, Mr. E. Stephens.
—Arrival of Sir Henry Edward Fox Young in the emigrant ship Forfarshire.
—Lieutenant-Colonel F.H. Robe took leave of the Legislative Council.


{Page 174}

Aug. 2.
—Sir H.E. Young took the oaths of office and received addresses.
—Bill passed through all its stages increasing the salary of the Governor to £1500 per annum. (N.B.—The salary of Governors at the present time is £5000.)
—The Governor suspended the imposition of royalties on minerals.
—Public meeting in Neales' large room to express satisfaction and gratitude to the Governor for suspending the obnoxious imposition of royalties on minerals.
—Announcement made that the Secretary of State proposed to send to South Australia male and female Irish orphan emigrants between the ages of fourteen and eighteen, hitherto maintained in Irish workhouses.
—Committee formed "for the protection and guardianship of the expected orphans." The Prelates of both the Churches of England and of Rome, Dr. Short and Dr. Murphy, were among the Committee.
—Memorial of colonists to Governor, praying for a resumption of the "special survey" system. Counter memorial from stockholders against the system. Decision deferred.
—A new weekly paper, the Adelaide Mercury and Sporting Chronicle. Editor, Mr. Hammond.
Large increase of population during year. In one week in December no fewer than 1131 persons arrived, 600 of whom paid full passage.
the year
Mr. George Coppin, known as "the Father of the Australian Drama", erected a theatre at Port Adelaide.
Dr. Ludwig Leichardt and a small party set out to cross the continent from Queensland to Swan River, and were never heard of more.
"St. Peter's College was established in the year 1848, through the exertions of several gentlemen, who subscribed towards its incorporation, and otherwise assisted in promoting its success. Amongst these Dr. Short, the Anglican Bishop of Adelaide, deserves to be recorded for his eminent services in the organization of this, the first advanced school, and also the name of Mr. William Allen, as a munificent contributor to the funds requisite to give stability to the endowment" (Finniss's Constitutional History of South Australia, p. 112).
Mr. George, painter, erected a block of buildings in King William Street, designated the Royal Exchange. It was condemned as unsafe and pulled down.
Strike of 300 Burra miners. An amicable arrangement was effected, but shares fell in a few months from £220 to £120.
The Adelaide Mechanics' Institute amalgamated with the South Australian Subscription Library.
A new journal came into existence, The German Australian Post.
Six or seven actions for libel entered against Mr. J. Stephens, the proprietor of the Register and Observer.

Feb. 19.
—Captain Frome, R.E., Surveyor-General and Colonial Engineer, left South Australia for England. Captain Freeling appointed his successor.
—Government steam-tug Adelaide arrived after a passage of nearly five months under sail.
—Government printing-office opened, Mr. W.C. Cox, of the Register and Observer, receiving the appointment of Government printer.
—Wellington Ferry opened (Mr. W. Carter, manager), a great convenience to overland parties with stock and others proceeding to Melbourne or Sydney.
May 3.
—Murder of Captain John Beevor in Port Lincoln district by three natives, Neulatta, Pulluruninga, and Keelgulta, who were executed at Port Lincoln, Nov. 9, 1849.
—First shipload of Irish orphans arrived.
July 16.
—Announcement made that in future the financial year would end in December, instead of March. A similar plan to be adopted in each of the other colonies, by direction of Lords of the Treasury.
—Introduction of Bill to constitute a municipal corporation for the city of Adelaide, and a Bill to provide a general board for the care and maintenance of the lines of roads, with local elective boards for the management of district or cross roads.
—Introduction of City and Port Railway (private) Bill.
—Dr. Murphy, the Roman Catholic Bishop, addressed a pastoral letter to the clergy of his Church, urging a collection for the Pope, who had been obliged to fly from Rome and take refuge at Gaeta. The letter commenced—"Francis, by the Grace of God and favour of the Apostolic See, Catholic Bishop of Adelaide and Vicar Apostolic of the Province of South Australia", etc. This was considered by the Anglican Bishop Short as an unlawful assumption, and he accordingly entered a protest against it, which was prefaced as follows:—"Augustus, by Divine permission Bishop of Adelaide, and pursuant to the Letters Patent of her gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, bearing date at Westminster, June 25, 1847, Ordinary Pastor of the Diocese of Adelaide", etc. The rival claims of these two prelates were referred to the Colonial Office, and the Secretary of State issued a general order as to the respective titles of each, which, as was anticipated, placed Bishop Short as the higher in rank and office.
Aug. 15.
—Mr. Alexander Tolmer appointed Commissioner of Police and Police Magistrate.
Sep. 24.
—Arrival of the Grecian, bringing the new Constitution for the Australian colonies generally. Great discussions on Australian Federation ensued, both in and out of the Legislature.
—The barque Sultana, from London, wrecked on Troubridge Shoal, while running up the gulf at night in a gale. No passengers. Captain and crew saved.
Oct. 9.
—The cutter Thomsons, with cargo and thirteen passengers, left Port Adelaide for Rivoli and Guichen Bays. Supposed to have driven on the rocks at night near Guichen Bay, the shore being strewn with fragments of the wreck, but as the captain, crew, and passengers were all lost, the particulars of the catastrophe could not be ascertained.
—Threatened emigration of colonists to Californian diggings.
Dec. 28.
—"Yesterday, thirteen years ago, there were 200 Europeans, two horses, two mules, and one cow in South Australia. Yesterday, there were 52,000 British subjects occupying and cultivating one million acres of land, raising wheat and all grains and fruits in profusion, exporting the produce of grain, wool, copper, silver, lead, gum, oils, etc., of the annual value of upwards of £800,000, and importing in British manufactures an almost equal amount."
the year
The first stone of St. Peter's Collegiate School was laid, and an Act of Incorporation obtained.
The Government granted the sum of £1317 11s. for educational purposes, which was divided among sixty-two teachers.
A prize of £50 offered by the Government for the best essay on road-making; was awarded to Mr. E.W. Wright, architect and surveyor.
A Marine Assurance Association was founded.
The St. Patrick's Society founded to promote Irish emigration. President, Major O'Halloran.
Mr. James Allen brought out two new journals, the Adelaide Times (published daily) and the Adelaide Weekly Times.
The South Australian Home Missionary Society (Congregationalist) formed for the purpose of supplying religious services wherever stations could be occupied by its agents.
The importation of hops was sixty tons, valued at £6000 sterling.
A treadmill bought at a cost of £310. Shortly after its erection its use was discontinued, practical hard labour being found a better mode of punishment for refractory seamen and others for whom it was intended.
The turf honoured for the first time with the patronage of the Legislature, the sum of £100 per annum being voted "to stimulate exertions to improve the breed of native horses;" the money to be applied to the purchase of a "Queen's Cup", "to be competed for annually, under such regulations as the Jockey Club might prescribe", with the sanction of the Governor.
Mr. J. Stephens, sorely pressed with the cost of many actions for libel, was on the eve of suspending the Register and Observer, but his friends rallied round him, and he was tided over the difficulty. In one instance he was called to account by about 150 persons, who felt aggrieved on account of an obituary notice written by him, and inserted in one of his papers, but an address of confidence was presented to him, signed by nearly 2000 persons.
This year was called the Libel Era of South Australia. In addition to the numerous actions against Mr. Stephens, no less than seven other actions came on at one of the Civil Sittings of the Supreme Court—Mr. George Stevenson was either plaintiff or defendant in four, Mr. J. Allen in one, and Mr. A. Murray in one. Two or three of these cases arose out of some articles inserted by Mr. Stevenson in the Gazette and Mining Journal of a highly personal nature against Mr. R.R. Torrens, collector of customs. The total amount of damage claimed by the plaintiffs in the seven actions was £12,950; the amount of the verdicts awarded was one shilling and a penny, while the law costs of the several actions amounted to £840.
An eccentric man, W.W.G. Nicholls, of atheistic and socialistic tendencies, known by the sobriquet of "Pisé", a constant attendant at public meetings, died by his own hand.
July 31.
—Rev. William Longbottom, Father and Founder of the Wesleyan Church in South Australia.

Jan. 1.
South Australian Register issued as a daily paper.
—Two ships cleared out for California with 200 passengers on board. In February another vessel left with 199 passengers, and in March a fourth with 150.
—Formation of the Congregational Union of South Australia.
—The South Australian Gold Company "for washing and streaming for gold in South Australia" started.
—The Onkaparinga Gold Company also came into existence. Results nil.
—Committee formed for collecting and conveying articles of colonial produce and manufacture for the Great International Exhibition of 1851, to be held in London. Mr. Samuel Davenport secretary; Mr. John Hector treasurer.
May 23.
—Sir Henry Young propounded his scheme for a railway connection of the river Murray at the Goolwa with Port Elliot.
Sep. 10.
—Sir Henry and Lady Young, accompanied by friends, started on an expedition up the Murray.
—Arrival and public reception of Messrs. West and Bell, delegates from the Australian Conference for the Discontinuance of Transportation. One result was that South Australian convicts, instead of being transported as formerly to Van Diemen's Land, were sentenced to hard labour. Subsequently a stockade was established at Cox's Creek, and a Labour Prison at the Dry Creek.
—A fearful and unexampled gale, in which the Grecian was wrecked at the entrance to the Port. All on board, save one, rescued.
The cutter Jane Flaxman overturned in the gulf. Seven passengers and the crew were lost.
—Mr. Dashwood reappointed Commissioner of Police, vice Mr. Alex. Tolmer.
Nov. 7.
—A new set of Waste Land Regulations relating principally to squatters was issued.
the year
Bishop Short met the other colonial Prelates at Sydney, and attached his signature to a minute affirming the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. One or two other Bishops present did the same, but the Bishop of Melbourne refused.
The Adelaide Chamber of Commerce established.
Rev. J. Gardner, first minister of the Free Presbyterian Church, arrived. Foundation stone of Chalmers Church laid on North Terrace.
Jewish synagogue erected in Rundle Street.
Arrival of Messrs. Way and Rowe, Bible Christian ministers. In ten years this denomination had fifty-one chapels in the colony.
Between 3000 and 4000 persons paid for admission to the Agricultural and Horticultural Society's Exhibition this year.
Rev. T.J.N. Hall arrived to take superintendence of Wesleyan Methodist circuit.
Foundation stone of Pirie Street Wesleyan Chapel laid by the Governor, Sir Henry Young.
The Preceptors' Association formed "to elevate the standard of education in the colony by the improvement of the educator", and "to obtain a higher social grade for the teacher, so that the scholastic profession shall have its recognised position in the same way as the classical, legal, and medical professions."
In view of the privilege of electing members for the new Legislative Council, the democrats formed an "Elective Franchise Association." Later on, the "South Australian Political Association" was founded.
Archdeacon Hale inaugurated a native settlement on Boston Island. Afterwards removed to Louth Bay.
His Highness Prince Frederick of Holstein (first cousin to Queen Victoria) visited the colony.
Mr. J. Stephens, one of the best-known men in the colony, at the early age of forty-four. In 1839 he published in England the "History of the Rise and Progress of the New British Province of South Australia", and edited the South Australian Colonist, published in England. He arrived in Adelaide in 1843, and started the Adelaide Observer. He afterwards acquired the Register, and mainly conducted the editorial as well as the business departments of both papers. A man of character and ability, he soon distinguished himself, and exercised an important influence in the colony. His high principles, chivalrous love of rectitude, and eagerness to redress grievances, combined with an impetuous nature, frequently led him into difficulties, and during the last two or three years of his life he was involved in from fifteen to twenty actions for libel. The Register was brought out as a daily paper only a few months before his death.

Jan. 16.
—Arrival in the colony of Mr. G.F. Angas, one of the Founders of the South Australian colony. The new Constitution arrived in the same vessel, the Ascendant.
—New Constitution, introducing popular representation, proclaimed. First candidate for Legislative honours, Mr. F.S. Dutton.
—The Austral Examiner, advocating the principles of the League for the Defence and Maintenance of Religious Liberty, was issued early in the year. Discontinued in December owing to the exodus to the Victorian diggings.
—The Church Intelligencer and Christian Gleaner, commenced by the Rev. H. Hussey, shared a similar fate.
—So also did the South Australian Educational Times, both editor and printer having gone to the diggings.
—A public dinner at Freemasons' Tavern to welcome Mr. G.F. Angas, one of the Fathers and Founders of South Australia, to the colony. Mr. J.H. Fisher presided.
Feb. 5.
—On this day fearful atmospheric disturbances took place, causing it to be known as Black Thursday. "There was no violent action of wind, but the atmosphere for many hours remained charged with a black dust combined with a dense smoke. The same extraordinary state of the atmosphere extended to the neighbouring colonies. All business for that day was of necessity suspended."
Feb. 21.
—A Bill passed "to establish the Legislative Council of South Australia and to provide for the election of members to serve in the same."
—Busy time for the Political and Ballot Associations and the League for the Maintenance of Religious Freedom. The Independents were, from the foundation of the colony, the most determined opponents of State aid to religion, and it was mainly through their instrumentality that the Government grant was discontinued. In this movement the Rev. T.Q. Stow took a leading and very active part.
July 2.
—Elections under New Constitution Act commenced.
—Sir Henry Edward Fox Young, Knt, proclaimed "Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of the colony of South Australia."
—Mr. G.F. Angas returned unopposed for the District of Barossa.
Aug. 19.
—The South Australian Reform Association established. Dr. Eades president.
—The new Council met for the first time and in the new Court House.
—The great battle of the session. The discontinuance of State aid to religion carried by a majority of three. For, ten; against, thirteen. All the members, save one, voted.
—New Education Bill passed.
—City and Port Railway Bill passed.
—Premium offered for any vessel landing mails and passengers within sixty-seven days from Great Britain. At Nepean Bay, £250; at Port Adelaide, £400. Total amount not to exceed £5000 in any one year.
—The sum of £600 per annum voted as pension to the gallant Captain Sturt on his retirement into private life.
Aug. 29.
—News reached the colony of daily increasing richness of gold discoveries in New South Wales and Victoria. Great exodus from South Australia commenced.
—Government offered £1000 for discovery of a goldfield in South Australia.
the year
The South Australian Company relinquished pastoral pursuits, and disposed of the whole of its flocks and herds.
An "Old Colonists' Festival" was got up. Seven hundred dined together in a large booth erected in Morphett Street in the rear of Mr. Williams' Hotel, Mr. J.H. Fisher in the chair.
The Marie wrecked off Cape Northumberland; the George Horne off Kangaroo Island, with five hundred tons of copper on board. Crew saved.
Emigrant ship Marion wrecked off Troubridge Shoal. Two hundred emigrants landed on Yorke's Peninsula and the remainder on the coast near Willunga.
The first number of the South Australian Times issued. Editor, Mr. W.A. Cawthorne.
A country edition of the Observer was published and forwarded by the mails on Friday to the more distant parts of the settled districts.
The Adelaide Morning Chronicle, advocating State aid to religion, first issued. Editor, Mr. A. Murray.
Plans and estimates invited for a bridge over the Torrens, and for the erection of a House of Assembly on the acre opposite the Court House. Fifty pounds offered for the best design for each.
Rev. J.D. Draper projected a scheme of Church extension. One result was the erection of the fine Wesleyan Chapel in Pirie Street.
Discovery of a fresh-water lake occupying part of the supposed bed of Lake Torrens, reported by Mr. Oakden, Also of the Pound, near Wilpena, by Mr. R.N. Bagot, together with about 150 miles of good country to the east of Mr. Eyre's tracks from Mount Eyre to the Two Peaks.
A singular voyage made down the Murray by Mr. Gerstacker in a boat constructed from the bark of a tree.
Mr. Dashwood, Police Commissioner, and Mr. Moorhouse, Protector of Aborigines, proceeded to interior to investigate supposed murder of Mr. H. Baird by the natives. Result unsatisfactory.

—The year of the great Victorian gold rush. Great exodus from South Australia.
—On the retirement of Captain Sturt, Colonial Secretary, the following appointments were made:—B.T. Finniss to be Colonial Secretary; E.R. Torrens, Colonial Treasurer; G.F. Dashwood, Collector of Customs; A. Tolmer, Commissioner of Police.
—Mr. George Tinline, manager of the Bank of South Australia, conceived the idea of assaying gold into stamped ingots as a legal tender.
—The Chamber of Commerce memorialized the Government a second time to convert gold-dust into exchangeable value by stamping bullion and proclaiming it a legal tender.
—The Legislative Council specially called together to discuss a Bullion Bill. The Bill was read a first, second, and third time, passed, and assented to on the same day.
Feb. 10.
—Government Assay Office opened. Mr. B. H. Babbage assayer; Dr. Davy assistant assayer.
—Mr. Tolmer, in company with one police trooper, left Adelaide for Mount Alexander, commissioned to receive all the gold that might be entrusted to him.
March 19.
—Arrival of first overland gold escort under care of Mr. Tolmer, Commissioner of Police, who brought with him gold valued at £18,456 9s., sent by three hundred diggers.
—Presentation of a testimonial to Mr. Tolmer for successfully undertaking and conducting the first gold escort.
—Great meeting of gold-diggers at Mount Alexander. Petition signed by 1600 persons praying Governor of South Australia to keep up escort and mail service.
May 4.
—Second overland gold escort arrived in Adelaide with 1600 pounds weight of gold, valued at £70,000, sent by 851 diggers.
—During this month the arrivals from the gold diggings exceeded the departures.
—Eleven vessels arrived at Port Adelaide, bringing back 687 passengers from the Victorian goldfields.
Aug. 23.
—Reported discovery of valuable gold-field at Echunga.
—An "Act to appoint District Councils and to define the Powers thereof" passed the Legislative Council.
the year
Flour rose from £12 to £37 per ton.
News received of the death of the Duke of Wellington, who had been mainly instrumental in passing through the House of Lords the Act establishing the colony.
Large stores in Grenfell Street destroyed by fire.
The Washington stranded on Troubridge Shoal.
The Margaret Brock wrecked on her passage to Melbourne.
Mr. James Martin, of Gawler, commenced the manufacture of improved Ridley reaping machines, and "the advantages they conferred in enabling farmers to get their crops off the land marked a new era in agriculture."
The Governments of New South Wales and Victoria granted a pension of £200 per annum to the daughter and sole surviving relative of Matthew Flinders, the celebrated explorer of the South Australian coast. He died July 14, 1814.
Postage stamps introduced, by means of which all letters were to be prepaid.
Visit of the Roman Catholic Archbishop, Dr. Polding.
Owing to the gold mania there was no exhibition of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society this year.
The year 1852 was one of the most memorable in the history of the colony. In addition to the introduction of about £2,000,000 worth of gold from Victoria, steam postal communication was inaugurated by the arrival at Port Adelaide, direct from England, of the steamers of the Royal Mail Steam Navigation Company, and, viâ Suez, of the steamships of the P. and O. Company. Captain Cadell had descended the Murray from Swan Hill to the Goolwa in a boat, with a view to opening up the navigation of this noble river. A new market had been developed in Victoria for an almost unlimited supply of wheat, flour, and other colonial produce, and a period of general prosperity appeared to have dawned.
Mr. Justice Crawford, second Judge of the Supreme Court, died, greatly respected. Twenty carriages and seven hundred followers on foot attended his funeral.
Mr. Mengé, one of the pioneer colonists of South Australia, and the Father of geological research in that colony, died on the Bendigo diggings, Victoria.

—A notice in the Government Gazette announced the discontinuance of the assay of gold by the Government. On appeal the Governor allowed the office to remain open under the superintendence of Dr. Davy, who was then licensed as assayer of gold.
April 5.
—Handsome testimonial (service of plate and purse of £2500) presented to Mr. G. Tinline, manager of the South Australian Banking Company, for the important part he had taken in furthering the objects of the Bullion Act of the previous year.
—The Register and Observer newspapers purchased by a joint stock company under the editorial and general management of Mr. A. Forster, one of the shareholders.
—Mr. Justice Boothby arrived in the colony.
—Celebration in Tasmania of the jubilee of the cessation of transportation.
—Arrival in Adelaide of Mr. William Townsend by the Dutch ship Fop Smit. He became one of the best auctioneers in South Australia, and Melbourne sought to tempt him from the colony by an oiler of "£3000 a year to mount the rostrum there."
—Re-issue of the Adelaide Deutsche Zeitung (suspended during exodus to gold-fields). Editor, Mr. W. Eggers.
—Discontinuance of overland gold escort—Total value of gold brought to colony by this means, about £2,000,000.
the year
The cost of obtaining the necessaries and comforts of life in South Australia increased on an average 150 per cent.
Important discussions in the Legislative Council and elsewhere on the terms of the new Constitution.
The Governor accompanied Captain Cadell in an expedition on the Murray in the Lady Augusta, a navigable course of 2000 miles.
Proclamation of the Murray Hundreds.
A vaccine Board appointed and other precautionary measures taken to ensure vaccination, vessels having arrived in the neighbouring colony of Victoria with small-pox on board.
A Young Men's Christian Association formed.
Thomas Bastard arrived in Adelaide, and subsequently distinguished himself as "Professor" of the art of natation.
Mr. W.R. Randell built the first Murray steamer, for which he was awarded £300 by the Government, and a purse of gold by his fellow colonists.
Bishop Short left for England, where he stirred up considerable interest in "the Church" in South Australia, and obtained a large sum towards the erection of a cathedral, and for other Church and educational purposes. He also submitted plans to the authorities in the mother country for the constitution of a Diocesan Synod. On his return in 1854, the Synod commenced its sittings. The organization was established by voluntary compact, and consisted of three orders, the bishop, the licensed clergy, and the representative laity. Each of these orders possessed a right of veto. Each congregation in Adelaide was represented by four lay synodsmen, all other congregations having respectively two representatives. All synodsmen were to be communicants of the Church. The Synod did not in any way interfere with each Church having its own vestry composed of the minister, church-wardens, and seat-holders, which possessed powers analogous to those in the Churches in England.

—The South Australian Sunday School Magazine commenced. Editor, Rev. H. Hussey.
April 15.
—Mr. J.H. Angas left for England on a visit.
—Tremendous hailstorms, the hail assuming the form of flat pieces of ice.
Dec. 16.
—A Bill authorizing the formation of the Adelaide and Gawler Town Railway assented to.
—An armed body of volunteers enrolled. Mr. B.T. Finniss appointed "Lieut.-Colonel of the Staff and Inspecting Field Officer."
—Sir H.E.F. Young left the colony.


{Page 192}

the year
Arrival of Mr. Thomas Elder (A.L. Elder and Co.), afterwards one of the greatest philanthropists in the province. He largely assisted exploration work, sports, and pastimes, and gave £20,000 to the Adelaide University.
The Rev. G.H. Farr appointed headmaster of St. Peter's Collegiate School.
The South Australian Religious Tract Society founded. Judge Boothby president.
Nov. 6.
—Rev. J. Sawle, for some years pastor of the Congregational Church at Angaston.

—The committee of the Patriotic Fund transmitted the sum of £6500 as the contribution from South Australia for the widows and orphans of those killed in the Crimea.
—First Wesleyan Conference held in Adelaide, it having been arranged by the Home Conference that the affairs of the Wesleyans in Australasia should be managed in the respective colonies.
—Annual gathering at Adelaide of aborigines on Queen's birthday discontinued.
June 1.
—Murder of Peter Brown near Franklin Harbour by three natives, Wadmiltie, Pamgulta, Hyeltu. Executed at Franklin Harbour, January 14, 1856.
—Arrival of new Governor, Sir R.G. MacDonnell.


{Page 193}

June 8.
—Entry of new Governor into Adelaide.
—The Governor held his first levée.
—Arrival of Rev. J. Hannay. Baptist minister, who settled at Angaston.
—The Corporation of Adelaide defended an action brought by the Bishop of Adelaide for the purpose of ascertaining whether his lordship had any legal claim to a long disputed acre in Victoria Square. After a lengthy trial verdict was given for the Corporation.
—Dissolution of first representative Council of South Australia.
Much trouble occasioned by the large amount of unemployed Irish female labour.
Aug. 17.
—Outline of New Constitution Bill published in a Gazette Extraordinary. Writs for election of members for new Council issued.
—During first eight months of the year 2800 adult single women landed at Adelaide, of whom 2047 were Irish.
—New Constitution Bill under discussion.
Sep. 20 and 21.
—Election of members for new Council. Riot at West Adelaide.
—Great rejoicing over the news that Sir William Molesworth, an old and tried friend of South Australia, was appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies. A few months later came the news of his death.
Nov. 1.
—New Legislative Council met and new Council Chamber used for the first time. Government measure for the establishment of a new Constitution introduced.
—The first electric telegraph put in operation between the City and the Port—a private enterprise of Mr. James Macgeorge.
—.A magnetic telegraph ordered by Government, and intended for use on the same line, arrived from England.
—Saturday, the 29th, and Monday, the 31st, observed as holidays for "public thanksgiving and rejoicing" over the fall of Sebastopol.
—Nearly 200 sheep destroyed by lightning at Coorong on one night, being portions of two flocks depasturing about ten miles apart.
the year
Wrecks—The Iron Age off Cape Northumberland; the Valentine Helicar off Yankalilla; the emigrant ship Nashwauk near the mouth of the Onkaparinga. Three hundred emigrants, officers, and crew landed in safety; death of the captain.
The Register and Observer printed by steam power. This was the first application of steam to the printing of newspapers in the colony.
A gang of highwaymen, who had molested several pedestrians to the eastward of the city, captured and "lodged in a place of safety."
Extensive fires, destroying several thousand pounds worth of property, led to the public discussion of a better water supply for the city.
Sunday School Teachers' Union formed. Hon. G.F. Angas president.
Adelaide Times and Weekly Despatch submitted to public auction.
The South Australian Company obtained a charter of incorporation.
Arrival of Rev. J.C. Woods, first Unitarian minister. Rev. J.D. Draper left Adelaide and became "Head of the Wesleyan Denomination" in Victoria.
South Australian Museum opened.
Captain Thomas Lipson, R.N., resigned appointment as harbour-master at Port Adelaide, and retired on a life pension.
Arrival of Rev. C.W. Evan, B.A., who took service as co-pastor of Freeman Street Congregational Church with Rev. T.Q. Stow.
The South Australian Institute and Museum incorporated by Act of Parliament to promote the general study of the Arts, Sciences, Literature, and Philosophy.

Jan. 2.
—South Australian Parliament Bill passed its third reading.
Feb. 18.
—First Government telegraph in South Australia (Adelaide to Port Adelaide) opened.
June 4.
—The session of the Legislature, opened on the 1st of November, 1855, prorogued; the longest ever held in the colony up to that time.
—The "Act to establish a Constitution for South Australia and to grant a Civil List to Her Majesty" received the royal assent.
July 19.
—First line of telegraph between Adelaide and Melbourne opened.
Aug. 11.
—The Governor, Sir E.G. MacDonnell, with Lady MacDonnell and others, started for a trip up the Murray in the Melbourne.
—Rev. T.Q. Stow resigned the pastorate of Freeman Street Congregational Church.
—Mr. B.H. Babbage, Government geologist, started on expedition in search of gold. Discovered a creek and lake, and named them respectively MacDonnell and Blanchewater.
Oct. 23.
—Return of Sir Richard and Lady MacDonnell from their exploration of the Murray.
—New constitution proclaimed and appointment of new Ministry. New Waste Lands Act, transferring to the colonial Legislature the absolute control of the Land Fund, also proclaimed.
—Farewell breakfast given to Chief Justice Cooper, on his leaving for a visit to England after eighteen years' absence. Mr. Justice Boothby Acting Chief Justice during his absence.
the year
Adelaide City and Port Railway opened to public.
Gawler Line opened as far as Salisbury.
Government magnetic telegraph erected and opened on the Port Line.
The bridge connecting North and South Adelaide erected at a cost of £20,000.
Lighthouse on Troubridge Shoal completed and put in use.
Some thousands of Chinese landed in the colony, and proceeded overland to the Victoria gold diggings. This course was adopted in order to avoid the poll-tax levied in Victoria upon Celestials arriving by the seaboard.
The steamship Royal Charter made the passage from London to Melbourne in fifty-nine days, the quickest then on record, and brought intelligence of prospect of peace with Russia.
South Australia joined liberally with the other British provinces in the testimonial to Miss Florence Nightingale for her heroic services in the Crimea (£200 sent by South Australia).
The "South Australian Female Home" established, mainly through the exertions of Bishop Short.
Archdeacon Hale resigned charge of Poonindie Native Institute. Succeeded by Dr. Octavius Hammond.
The South Australian Bush Mission, to supply religious services and instruction to the scattered inhabitants of the remote country districts, originated mainly through the efforts of Mr. G.F. Angas. Two agents were engaged to travel from station to station to conduct religious services and circulate religious literature.
Great fire in Hindley Street, partly the property of Messrs. Solomon and Co. Total loss estimated at £100,000.
Vessels stranded or lost—The Naroon off Cape Northumberland, Commodore and Harry at Port Elliot, and Grenada at Port Willunga. The loss of life confined almost exclusively to those on board the ill-fated Naroon.
First show of the new Horticultural and Floricultural Society.
First number of South Australian Horticulturalist published. Editor, Mr. J.D. Woods.
Wheat and flour sent out of the colony in 1856 amounted in value to the enormous sum of £528,320 13s. 4d.
Foundation-stone of Archer Street Wesley an Chapel laid by Governor, Sir R. MacDonnell.
£1000 voted to aid search for gold, and Mr. B.H. Babbage entrusted with command of a northern expedition.
Foundation-stone of Roman Catholic cathedral laid in Wakefield Street.
A species of aphis attacked cabbages and a few other plants, and remained a permanent pest.
Mr. T. Wilson (of Brighton), one of the first cultivators of the soil of South Australia.
Mr. Gottfried Lubasch, an old German colonist, who had accumulated much wealth. He was one of the first carriers of the mail to Mount Barker, long before the days of tandem spring-carts and omnibuses. With a little Timor pony and a small spring-cart the old man could be seen wending his way over the then rugged roads of the Mount Lofty ranges, when the inhabitants of the Mount Barker district had to be content with a weekly mail.
Oct 17.
—Captain William Allen, one of the directors of the Burra-Burra Mine, and holder of 228 shares. He was one of the great philanthropists of the colony, and contributed largely to St. Peter's Collegiate School and other institutions.
Oct. 18.
—At North Adelaide, Mr. George Stevenson, J.P., who arrived in the Buffalo, with Captain Hindmarsh, aged 57. Mr. Stevenson was editor and part proprietor of the first South Australian newspaper, intimately connected with the affairs of the infant settlement, and possessed, during the unfortunate administration of Captain Hindmarsh, more influence probably than any other individual in the colony. He was private secretary to the Governor, and having the only newspaper at his own disposal, his power was almost unlimited. In 1842 he retired from the editorship of the Register, and devoted himself to horticultural pursuits, in which he was highly successful. In 1845 he again identified himself with the press as editor and proprietor of the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, which was given up at the time of the gold discoveries in Victoria, when Mr. Stevenson accepted the office of coroner, a situation which he held up to the time of his death.

—The South Australian Union Magazine (the organ of the Sunday School Teachers' Union) started. Editor, Mr. A.H. Davis.
—Mr. B.H. Babbage set forth to explore Lake Torrens and to follow up explorations already made in the north and north-west.
March 9.
—Election of members for first South Australian Parliament. Colony divided into "districts" and "divisions". Universal suffrage and vote by ballot.
April 22.
—First meeting of first South Australian Parliament.
—Mr. G.W. Goyder, Deputy Surveyor-General, started for north to establish a trigonometrical survey in neighbourhood of Blanchewater arid country discovered by Mr. B.H. Babbage. Reported a large fresh-water lake.
—House of Assembly voted £2000 for exploration of north-western interior. Expedition entrusted to Mr. Stephen Hack, an experienced South Australian bushman.
June 22.
—Mr. Stephen Hack left Streaky Bay for north-western interior.
—Mr. Babbage came accidentally upon the remains of W. Coulthard, a bushman, who had been in search of "runs."
July 25.
—A party, organized by Captain Freeling, Surveyor-General, set forth to follow up discoveries of Mr. Goyder. Reported that the large fresh-water lake existed only in mirage!
—A small private party, consisting of Messrs. D. Thomson, M. Campbell, and C. Swinden, started from head of Spencer's Gulf for a trip northwards. Discovered lagoon named Pernatty, Bonney's Bluff, Bottle Hill, and Elizabeth Creek.
—First number of the Educational Journal of South Australia issued. Editor, Rev. A.R. Russell.
—Mr. C.F. Gregory (just returned from search for Leichardt's remains) engaged by Government to supplement Mr. Babbage's expedition.
Sep. 19.
—First number of the People's Journal issued. Editor and publisher, Mr. H. Hughes.
—Major Warburton left Port Augusta to assume command of the expedition entrusted to Mr. Babbage.
Oct. 5.
—Railway from Adelaide to Crawler (twenty-five miles) completed.
Nov. 13.
—Arrival in Adelaide of the Rev. F.W. Cox, Congregational minister, who was at once called to the pastorate of Ebenezer Chapel.
Dec. 15.
—Mr. R.R. Torrens' memorable Real Property Bill passed its third reading in the House of Assembly.
—Mr. G.F. Angas left for England on a visit.
—The colony attained its majority (twenty-one years of existence). Foundation Day celebration marred by tremendous rain.
the year
Federal movement between colonies occupied much attention. Select Committee appointed to confer and report.
Tax levied upon the landing of Chinese, who disembarked at Adelaide to avoid the Victorian tax.
First pile driven for erection of jetty at Glenelg.
First wire of intercolonial telegraph fixed.
Doubts having been expressed on the subject, a proclamation set forth that Sydney sovereigns and half-sovereigns were a legal tender in all the Australian colonies and in New Zealand.
Serious fires in Adelaide. Loss, £30,000, Also at the Port. Loss, £100,000.
Wrecks unusually numerous. The Phaeton, Sultana, and Koenig Wilhelm II. at Guichen Bay; the Halcyon off the Murray mouth; the Swordfish and Josephine L'Arizeau at Port Elliot; and the Maid of the Valley at Port Willunga. Almost the only loss of life was by the upsetting of a boat from one of the wrecks in Guichen Bay, when sixteen persons perished.
Arrival of Rev. Julian E. Tennison-Woods (Roman Catholic). He originated the Catholic school system, and established a teaching order of the Sisters of St. Joseph.
Erection of Unitarian chapel in Wakefield Street.

Jan. 1.
—Regatta and Aquatic Sports held at the Port. (A curious coincidence was that the number of persons who went by rail corresponded exactly with the year just entered upon, namely, 1858.)
—The South Australian Primitive Methodist Record first issued. Editor, Rev. Whittaker.
—The celebrated Real Property Act of Mr. R.R. Torrens passed the Legislative Council by a majority of five.
—Mr. R.R. Torrens visited neighbouring colonies, and was received with ovations and crowned with honours.
—Sir Charles Cooper, Chief Justice, returned from England, where he received the honour of knighthood.
—Police-trooper Goharty instructed to proceed north-west of Streaky Bay to ascertain correctness or otherwise of reported discoveries by Messrs. Miller and Dutton in 1857.
July 2.
—Real Property Act came into operation.
—Intelligence reached Adelaide of arrival at some of the distant stations of Mr. A.C. Gregory, sent out by New South Wales Government in search of the unfortunate Leichardt and his party.
—Mr. Parry (a Government surveyor) started from Angepina on an expedition to country west of Lake Torrens.
—Gregory, the explorer, reached Adelaide overland from the Dawson.
July 28.
—Formation of the "Political Association."
—The Christian Advocate and Southern Observer first issued. Editor, Rev. H. Hussey.
—The Farm and Garden first issued. Editor, Mr. E.W. Andrews.
—The South Australian Weekly Chronicle first issued. Editor, Mr. J.H. Barrow.
Sep. 24.
—The Rev. Thomas Binney, D.D., of London, delivered a lecture in White's Rooms, on "Writing and Speech; or Hints for Prose Composition and Public Speaking."
Oct. 11.
—Memorial to the Bishop of Adelaide, signed by the Governor (Sir R.G. MacDonnell) and a number of the most prominent officials of the Legislature, praying that the Rev. Dr. Binney, the celebrated Nonconformist minister, on a visit to Adelaide, might be allowed to fill one of the pulpits of the Church of England, Request declined.
Oct. 29.
—Telegraphic communication established between Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney.
—Public meeting to consider condition of the aborigines resulted in formation of "Aborigines' Friends Association." Mr. G.F. Angas president for ensuing year.
Nov. 13.
—Arrival of Rev. James Way, a Bible Christian minister.
the year
Movement for discontinuance of free immigration.
Mr. Henry Gawler (son of Colonel Gawler, second Governor of South Australia) returned to the colony and was appointed a solicitor under the Torrens Act.
A claim was put in by Mr. J.M. Stuart for the right of free pasturage of a large tract of the new country he had discovered. A measure for granting 1500 square miles to the intrepid explorer for fourteen years passed the House of Assembly, but was rejected by the Council. An arrangement was subsequently made to allow him the use of 1000 square miles for three years on certain conditions.
Introduction of gas by Mr. Longbottom's patent process.
Prevalence of diphtheria, which in several instances proved fatal.
Discontinuance of Adelaide Times and Weekly Despatch.
A "Farmer's Club" founded for the reading of practical papers and discussions thereon.
Towards end of year a report of gold-fields at Port Curtis in Queensland. Early tidings of failure prevented an exodus.
South Australian Government securities bearing interest at six per cent. realized a premium of upwards of ten per cent. in the London money market.
The financial year altered from 1st of January to 1st of July.
Bill for levying an assessment on stock led to appointment of a Select Committee, who recommended that the measure should be withdrawn.
April 26.
—Bishop Murphy, at West Terrace, Adelaide. For fourteen years Roman Catholic Bishop of South Australia. Aged 63.

—Bush fires were unusually prevalent, and spread over several miles of country—from Cox's Creek in the east to Hindmarsh Valley in the south, doing in the latter place a large amount of damage; driving some of the settlers from their homes, and leaving them with only the clothes they had on at the time. The liberality of the South Australians was again conspicuous; the sum of over £4250 was contributed by the colonists for those who were left by the fire in destitute circumstances.
Jan. 23.
—Sir Richard MacDonnell left in Captain Cadell's steamer, the Albury, for a trip up the Darling.
—The first pile of the jetty on the beach of Lefevre's Peninsula driven in.
—Pier at Glenelg opened with a public demonstration.
—Mr. J.M. Stuart went northward in search of pastoral runs for Messrs. Chambers and Finke.
May 11.
—Telegraph to Kapunda established.
—One of the important matters discussed this session was the amendment, reconstruction, and consolidation of the criminal code, and no fewer than eight Bills were passed, determining the nature of certain offences, and defining the punishment for the committal of them.
—News received of Austria declaring war against Sardinia. A Militia Bill and Volunteer Bill passed through the Legislature.
—Colonial defence under discussion.
—Roman Catholic Cathedral opened.
—£2000 voted by Parliament to any one who would cross the continent and reach the northern coast.
—Public meeting to arrange for the formation of the Working Men's Political Association.
.—Labour test (used in 1841 under Governor Grey) reapplied to the unemployed.
—Return of J.M. Stuart from his explorations on behalf of Messrs. Chambers and Finke.
Aug. 8.
—News received of the wreck of the Admella. Loss of eighty lives.
—Dr. Geoghegan consecrated Roman Catholic bishop of the diocese.
—The Governor set out to follow up the discoveries of Stuart, Babbage, and Warburton in the north.
—The Wallaroo Mine discovered.
the year
No. 1 of the Church Chronicle (monthly) issued. Editor, Rev. A.R. Russell.
Visit of the Rev. A. Buzacott, missionary from the South Sea Islands.
Point MacLeay Native Institute inaugurated under auspices of Aborigines' Friends Association. Mr. G. Taplin superintendent.
The Adelaide City Mission founded.
Arrival of the Rev. James Jefferies, LL.B., Congregational minister, and an excellent preacher.
Mr. Crawford returned from Barrier ranges without finding gold.
Mr. Selwyn, Government geologist in Victoria, visited South Australia, and reported upon the geological features of various parts of colony; but none favourable to gold discovery.
Mr. Tolmer started to cross the continent, but soon returned.
Mr. J.M. Stuart searched for a gold-field and failed.
Telegraphic communication established with Tasmania.
National Bank of Australasia commenced operations in the colony.
Ten guineas offered by the Gawler Institute for the best song of Australia; ninety-three competitors. Prize awarded to Mrs. C.J. Carleton.
A similar sum for best music for the song. Awarded to Herr Linger.
Board appointed to award prizes to the best scholars in colony by competitive examination. £200 voted by Legislature for this purpose.
Diphtheria again prevalent.

—Thermometer 158° in the sun. Fruit literally roasted on the trees. Birds took shelter in the houses of settlers. Heavy rains followed. Influenza and bronchitis largely prevalent.
—First number of The Thursday Review issued. Editor, Mr. A.H. Davis.
—News received of the native outbreak in New Zealand. Major Nelson, commander of the forces in South Australia, proceeded to the scene of action and rendered essential service. Captain Blyth appointed as his successor; received commission of colonel of the Volunteer Military Force.
—The discovery of rich gold-fields at the Snowy River in New South Wales threatened a small exodus of adventurers.
—Mr. S. Stuckey reported a valuable discovery made by him and his brother in September, 1859, a large fresh-water lake, named Lake Hope, and three smaller lakes.
—Mr. S. Hack returned to Adelaide from a successful exploration in the north.
March 1.
—First South Australian Parliament dissolved by proclamation.
—Elections for second Parliament commenced.
April 27.
—Second South Australian Parliament called together by proclamation.
May 13.
—Execution at Franklin Harbour of a native found guilty of murdering one John Jones, of the same place.
—On Queen's Birthday first public review of the Adelaide Volunteers. About 7000 spectators.
—Governor petitioned to countenance a reduction in number of representatives in Parliament. Population, 114,000, including women and children; male adult population, about 30,000; Legislative body, 54 persons: "and is wholly out of proportion, as your petitioners believe, to the number of electors, and is both cumbersome and expensive, and beyond the present requirements of the colony." Signed by 600 persons. This was issued before the General Election, and met with no sanction from the Governor; but as it was respectfully worded and influentially signed, he promised to transmit it to her Majesty.
—Grand demonstration to do honour to Mr. R.R. Torrens, the originator of the Real Property Act. Banquet at White's Rooms, 300 present.
—Postal contract given up by P. and O. Company, and mail steamers ceased to call at Kangaroo Island. Further contract accepted; but unless South Australia were prepared to guarantee the whole of the £60,000 per annum herself, Kangaroo Island could not, said her Majesty's Government, be retained as a mail station.
Aug. 3.
—Railway to Kapunda opened.
—The Burke and Wills expedition left Melbourne to cross the continent.
Oct 7.
—Mr. J.M. Stuart, with his two companions, Kekwick and Head, returned to Adelaide from unsuccessful attempt to cross continent, in consequence of lack of water and hostility of natives.
—Three young men killed by lightning while engaged in mowing near Kapunda.
—Mr. J.M. Stuart set forth on another expedition to cross the continent with eleven men and forty-nine horses.
—Departure of Lieutenant-Colonel Freeling to rejoin the Royal Engineers. Handsome testimonials presented to him.
the year
The South Australian Volunteer Military Force made considerable progress, and numbered 2143 of all ranks.
The Militia Act was proclaimed, the number of volunteers not being sufficient. The enrolment in the various militia districts gave the total number of men liable to be drawn at 14,330, out of an entire community of 120,000.
The cost to the Government of maintaining the Volunteer force was estimated at from £10,000 to £12,000 per annum.
Major Warburton went on expedition to explore No Man's Land. Unsuccessful.
Retiring allowances for civil servants effected on the basis of one month's salary for every year in the service, on the average salary for whole period of office.
Funds provided for Mr. J.M. Stuart's further explorations, his last having extended nearly across the continent.
Annual tax on dogs levied for first time. The enormous increase of curs of all colours, sizes, and breeds had become a serious nuisance. The tax greatly reduced the number.
The Metropolitan Bishops of Sydney and Melbourne visited South Australia, and preached in many of the churches in city and country.
Select Committee appointed to inquire into disposition of funds set apart for benefit of aborigines.
The Northern, Star, a weekly paper, first published at Kapunda. Editor, Mr. G.M. Allen.
The Border Watch and South Eastern Advocate published in the Mount Gambier District.
Mr. J.H. Fisher, President of the Legislative Council, and one of the oldest colonists—who sailed from England in the Buffalo with Captain Hindmarsh—received the honour of knighthood.
Lighthouse erected on Kangaroo Island—a condition upon which the Ocean mail steamers would continue to call there.
The Agricultural and Horticultural Society held its first exhibition in the building erected on the Park-lands adjoining the Botanical Gardens (a canvas booth or pavilion had previously been used).
Railway from Gawler to Kapunda opened.
Telegraph extended to Mount Barker, Kooringa, and other places.
Arrival of steamers Omeo, Balclutha, and Aldinga for intercolonial trade.
Wrecks—Fides near Cape Border. Captain, second mate, and eight seamen drowned. Flying Fish at Port Elliot.
May 24.
—Mr. Charles Mann, one of the pioneer colonists, first Advocate-General of South Australia, afterwards Commissioner of Insolvency, and on two occasions Acting Judge. He also rendered good service to the colony by his contributions to the press.
July 1.
—Mr. Robert Thomas, aged 78, who established in 1830 the first printing office and the first South Australian newspaper, the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register.

—Water laid on to the houses in Adelaide. City baths and public drinking; fountains opened.
—The Wesleyan body received a visit from the well-known Dr. Jobson, one of the Fathers of Methodism, sent out by British Conference to visit the churches in the colonies.
—New buildings for the use of South Australian Institute opened.
—Execution at Fowler's Bay of two natives, Nelgerrie and Telcherrie, for the murder of Mr. Thomas G. Bergeest, of the same place.
—Over £500 collected and sent to the sufferers in the great Indian famine occasioned by extensive failure of rice crops.
—Mrs. Rainberd and her two children horribly murdered by natives at the Belvedere ranges near Hamilton, and buried in a wombat hole, where, after a night's search, the bodies were found by the distressed husband and his neighbours. Four of the implicated natives were captured and executed at Adelaide. Intoxication pleaded.
—In consequence of the murder of Mrs. Rainberd and her two children, a special meeting of Justices of the Peace was held, who agreed to refuse to grant a licence on future application to any person who, under any circumstances, supplied intoxicants to the aborigines.
May 2.
—Execution at Port Lincoln of two natives, Karrabidne and Mangeltie, for the murder of Margaret A. Impey.
—Discovery of the Moonta Copper Mine.
Aug. 16.
—John McKinley, explorer, and party set forth from Adelaide with a team of bullocks, seventy sheep, two pack horses, and four camels in search of the missing explorers, Burke and Wills, the Victorian explorers.
Nov. 4.
—information received of the tragic end of Burke and Wills.
—Retirement of the Chief Justice, Sir Charles Cooper, on a pension of £1000 per annum. He arrived in the colony in 1838, and had occupied the Bench for upwards of twenty years. In granting the retiring allowance, it was expressly stated that this case was not to be regarded as a precedent; it was a peculiar one, and such as could never occur again. (Mr. R.D. Hanson appointed his successor. The validity of the appointment questioned by Mr. Justice Boothby.)
—Rifle matches. Ladies' silver cup, value one hundred guineas, won by Mr. F.E. Ayers. Champion prize, consisting of silver medal, presented by the British National Rifle Association, won by the Hon. G.C. Hawker. First of the Government prizes (gold medal and £60) won by Mr. W. Vincent.
—A party of South Australian riflemen proceeded to Victoria to compete for open colonial prizes. Gold cup of the Victoria Rifle Association carried off by Lieutenant Sutherland, of the Adelaide Free Rifles. Great demonstration on his return.
Mr. J.M. Stuart again headed an expedition to cross the continent.
the year
The territory known as "No Man's Land", about 80,000 square miles, lying between the boundaries of South and Western Australia, was added to South Australia by Act 24 and 25 Vict. c. 44, making the western boundary the 129th degree of east longitude.
Mr. W. Giles relinquished managership of South Australian Company. Succeeded by Mr. W.J. Brind.
First census of aboriginal population taken. Total, 4397.
According to the census of 1861 the total number of scholars attending the various schools in the colony was 15,344, or 1 for every 8½ of the population. This total was exclusive of scholars receiving private instruction in families.
Bills passed for the erection of a jetty at Wallaroo, for the construction of a tramway to the mines near Kadina, and for the incorporation of the "South Australian Gas Company."
One thousand Enfield rifles received from Imperial Government for use of Volunteers.
Rifle Association formed, mainly through the instrumentality of Lady MacDonnell.
Retirement of Captain Watts from the office of Postmaster-General after upwards of twenty years' invaluable service. Succeeded by Mr. J.W. Lewis.
One hundred and twenty cases and packages shipped for the Great International Exhibition to be held in London. Exhibits arranged by Mr. F.S. Dutton, who was visiting England at that time.
An account of the colony drawn up by Mr. F. Sinnett, with the sanction of the Government, for gratuitous distribution at the Great Exhibition in London.
Wrecks—The John Ormerod off MacDonnell Bay; loss of six seamen. The Alma and Livingstone at Guichen Bay.
Mr. W.W. Whitridge, formerly editor of the Austral Examiner, and, prior to his decease, on the staff of the Register.

Jan. 17.
—Wallaroo Railway commenced.


{Page 213}

March 4.
—Arrival and swearing-in of Sir Dominick Daly, Governor. Departure of Sir R.G. MacDonnell.
April 22.
—John McDouall Stuart planted a flag on "Central Mount Stuart."
—Mr. McKinlay, sent out for relief of Burke and Wills' expedition, arrived at the Gulf of Carpentaria. The first to successfully cross the continent.
July 19.
—Loss of the steamer Marion at Cape Spencer on her voyage from Wallaroo to Port Adelaide. Fifty passengers and crew. All saved.
—Mr. J.M. Stuart reached the Indian Ocean, having successfully crossed the continent.
Aug. 4
—The Victor Harbour Tramway opened.
—First number of the Telegraph, a penny evening newspaper, published in Adelaide. Editor, Mr. F. Sinnett.
—Government accepted the tender of the Australian Steam Navigation Company for a branch mail service to King George's Sound in connection with the English postal service, at £1300 per month.
—The Critic, by Pendragon, appeared for a little while, and then vanished.
.—Information received of McKinlay's bold dash across the continent.
—Remains of Burke and Wills brought to Adelaide en route to Melbourne for interment.
—Return of J.M. Stuart to settled districts after his successful journey across the continent to the northern coast.
the year
Telegraphic communication with New South Wales and Queensland viâ Tanunda, Overland Corner, Wentworth, and Deliniquin, undertaken. The line to Gumeracha opened in June, and to Normanville in September, 1862; to Moonta in September, 1865; to Lyndoch Valley and Tanunda, January, 1866; to Watervale in February, and to Greenock, Nuriootpa, and Angaston in March; to Port Augusta in August, and to Wentworth in September, 1866; to Mount Pleasant and Blumberg in January, to Port Wakefield in February, and to Lacepede Bay in September, 1867.
The citizens sanctioned a loan of £16,000 for a Town Hall, and in 1864 £4000 more.
New Corporation Act passed. Office of alderman abolished. Mayor to be elected by whole body of ratepayers, and not by Council.
Real Property Act revised by commission, and an amended Act passed.
Money order system between England and Australia introduced.
Large subscriptions received for the sufferers in the Lancashire Cotton Famine consequent on the civil war in the United States.
May 11.
—In Adelaide, aged 70, William Giles, who in 1837 arrived at Kangaroo Island with his wife and eleven children. He was for many years manager of the South Australian Company, and a popular lay preacher. An excellent man whose loss was deeply felt.
July 19.
—The Rev. T.Q. Stow, aged 61, at Sydney, where he had gone for his health. Body brought to Adelaide for interment. He was the first Congregational minister in the colony, having been sent out under the auspices of Mr. George Fife Angas in 1837. The funeral procession was half a mile in length. He and Mr. William Giles arrived in the colony in 1837, worked together in every good movement, and died within two or three months of each other. Aug. 4.—James Chambers, one of the first men who drove a team of bullocks from Adelaide to Port Adelaide.

Feb. 27.
—First session of third Parliament under the Constitution Act of 1856, met for business.
—Meeting of mechanics and labourers seeking to obtain a reduction in the time of labour to eight hours per day. Not granted until some years afterwards.
—Spacious Baptist chapel in Flinders Street opened for public worship. Rev. S. Mead, M.A., LL.B., pastor.
—The Express brought out as an evening paper. May 4.—Foundation-stone of Town Hall laid by Sir Dominick Daly.
June 22.
—Adelaide first lit with gas.
—Colonel J.H. Biggs appointed colonel commandant and Major Mayo lieutenant-colonel of the Volunteer force.
—Governor received despatch from Duke of Newcastle announcing that the Northern Territory would be placed under charge of South Australia.
Oct. 1.
—Bill to provide for disposal of land in Northern Territory introduced.
The Bunyip, the chronicle of the Humbug Society, started by Dr. George Nott of Gawler. The idea of the Humbug Society was the exposure of every form of social sham and hypocrisy.
—Mr. Hargraves sent out by Government to search for a payable gold-field.
—The famous Tintara vineyard planted.

—The Albert Tower, in memory of the late Prince Consort, commenced.
—Demonstration against transportation to Western Australia. Three thousand three hundred and eighty-four signatures to protest obtained in four days.
—Bishop Patteson, the devoted missionary to the Melanesian Islands, visited Adelaide. A liberal response made to his appeal on behalf of the mission.
March 1.
—Offices opened in London and Adelaide for sale of land in Northern Territory.
April 29.
—Mr. B.T. Finniss, Government Resident, and staff sailed in the Henry Ellis for northern coast.
June 18.
—Return of Mr. Hargraves from unsuccessful search for a payable gold-field.
—Chapel opened in connection with St Peter's Collegiate School and its vicinity.
—Chief Justice Hanson requested by the Committee of the South Australian Auxiliary to the British and Foreign Bible Society to resign his office of president, "in consequence of his having expressed 'unsound views'(!) in a lecture on the relations of science to theology."
—Special Jubilee Services to commemorate the establishment of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in the Australian colonies. With the proceeds of the collections the Wesleyan Jubilee Church was erected at Kent Town.
—Tramway from Port Elliot to Victor Harbour opened for traffic.
—The Advertiser, Express, and Chronicle offered by auction with a reserve of £5000. Subsequently purchased by a small proprietary for £3510.
Sep. 8.
—Execution of a native, Mangultie, for the murder of William Walker of Venus Bay.
—Major Warburton started on an expedition to explore "No Man's Land."
—The Hon. A. Forster retired from the proprietary of the Register and Observer newspapers, disposing of his interest therein to the other partners, Messrs. Andrews, Thomas, and Fisher.
—The Government having closed a level crossing over the railway at the bottom of Morphett Street, and remonstrances having proved unavailing, the citizens hired a number of labourers to remove the fence, and thenceforth the thoroughfare was open.
—First number of Wesleyan Methodist Magazine published at Mount Barker, subsequently issued at Adelaide.
—Opening of Methodist New Connexion Chapel in Franklin Street. Pastor, Rev. J. Maughan.
the year
A strike at the Wallaroo and Moonta Mines, lasted for nine weeks.
Terrible loss of stock through drought.
Captain Hunter visited the colony to enlist volunteers for active service in New Zealand.
March 8.—Rev. W.W. Newland, through the accidental upsetting of a mail cart in which he was travelling, aged 74.

Jan. 1.
—Return of the South Australian from Northern Territory, bringing intelligence of serious difficulties between Mr. Finniss, the Government Resident, and his subordinates, and of a collision between Europeans and natives.
Jan. 20.
—A night alarm was given to the Volunteers in the City, the Port, at Glenelg, Gawler, and Kapunda, when a goodly number mustered in a very short space of time.
—Government railways advertised for sale by public tender. Amounts offered were considered altogether inadequate, and no tender was accepted.
—Foundation-stone laid of the Stow Memorial Church in Flinders Street.
March 31.
—First session of fourth Parliament opened.
—Commission appointed to inquire into best means for protecting coast in the event of invasion.
—H.M.S. Falcon arrived from Hobart Town. [South Australia had not at any period of its history been favoured with frequent visits from her Majesty's ships of war, but the vessels of the blue-jackets were always welcome.]
—Express train, between Adelaide and Port, conveying the Governor and his friends to the Port for the purpose of visiting H.M.S. Falcon, was thrown off the line and a portion of the train overturned. Mr. C.S. Hare, Manager of Railways, removed from office in consequence.
May 7.
—A ship's boat, the Forlorn Hope, with seven persons on board, sailed from Adam Bay, and, after a perilous voyage, arrived safely at Champion Bay, a distance of 2600 miles.
June 20.
—Town Hall opened. Cost of erection, over £25,000.
—News received of total disorganization of survey party under Mr. B.T. Finniss.
—Wesleyan Jubilee Church at Kent Town opened by the Rev. W. Taylor of California.
—John McKinlay, explorer, started for the Northern Territory to report on a site for the first settlement.
—Presbyterian congregation (Pastor, Rev. J. Lyall) removed from Gouger Street to their new place of worship in Flinders Street.
—Second visit of Bishop Patteson to Adelaide.
Dec. 11.
—Bank of Adelaide established.
—Inconvenience having been felt in terminating the financial year on the 30th of June, the old system was reverted to of ending it on the 31st of December.
—Hon. John Morphett, one of the oldest and most esteemed colonists, who arrived in the Cygnet in 1836, appointed President of the Council in succession to Sir J.H. Fisher.
—Mr. Earl, a writer on Northern Australia, proposed a scheme for a new postal route between Australia and Singapore by establishing a horse express along Stuart's track across the continent to Van Diemen's Gulf, and from thence by small steamers to Singapore. The idea did not assume any practical shape. Within a few years (although little anticipated at the time) Adelaide was connected by telegraph, not only with Singapore, but with England and all the world.
—Publication of the "History of Australian Exploration", by the Rev. J.E. Tennison-Woods.
the year
Wrecks.—In March, the schooner Agnes, bound from Yankalilla to Melbourne, off Cape Jaffa; five lives lost. In May, the barque San Miguel on Tapara Reef, Port Wallaroo. In May, mail-boat swamped when endeavouring to land the English mail from steamship Rangitara; four men drowned. July: The schooner Blanche totally wrecked at Port Wallaroo; no loss of life. September: Great gales. Four men drowned at Merino. The brig Mary Grant wrecked at Yankalilla.
May 30.
—Mrs. Morgan, aged 28, eldest daughter of the Hon. B.T. Finniss. She was the first of European descent born in the colony.
—At Woodlands, near Angaston, Mr. F.F. Wood, an excellent vigneron and for some time manager of the extensive vineyards and nurseries of Mr. Henry Evans at Evandale.
Aug. 9.
—George W. Francis, F.H.S., first Director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden. Succeeded by Dr. Schomburghk.

—Special prayers in all the churches for rain.
—The steamship London sailed from Plymouth. Foundered in the Bay of Biscay, when 220 out of 239 persons perished, among them the Rev. J.D. Draper and his wife. The people of Adelaide erected the "Draper Memorial Church" to his memory.
Feb. 13.
—Arrival in Adelaide of Mr. B.T. Finniss, who had been recalled by the Government.
—Dr. Short, Bishop of Adelaide, left for England to collect funds for erection of a Cathedral.
—Poll taken to decide whether a portion of Victoria Square should be set apart as a public market-place. The majority of votes were against the movement: 571 to 326.
.—The Southern Argus, a weekly paper, published at Port Elliot, but after a time the office was removed to Strathalbyn.
—Visits from H.M.S. Falcon and Curaçoa.
May 12.
—Drought broken up by continuous rain of twenty-four hours.
—Commissioners gave in report condemning action of Mr. B.T. Finniss in Northern Territory.
May 12.
—The missionary ship, John Williams, arrived at Port Adelaide. Large numbers of Sunday School children visited the historic vessel.
—The Royal Geographical Society presented a handsome gold watch and written testimonial to John McKinlay, explorer.
June 20.
—Formal opening of Town Hall. Banquet, 800 guests. Albert bells first chimed.
July 11.
—Tramway, ten miles in length, connecting the mining township of Moonta with Wallaroo on Yorke's Peninsula, opened for traffic, and soon proved remunerative.
—Mr. McKinlay returned from unsuccessful attempt to explore country east of Adam Bay.
—Installation of Dr. Shiel as Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide. A revival in Roman Catholicism ensued.
—At the conclusion of the Maori War in New Zealand 183 officers and privates of the 14th Regiment came from Auckland, and met with a warm reception in Adelaide.
Dec. 14.
—Great Protestant meeting in Chalmers' Church to discuss the equalization of the marriage laws.
—An Act passed making the Volunteer Military Force a paid body.
—Hons. G.F. Angas, S. Davenport, and J.M. Solomon retired from political life.
—Mr. Thomas Elder introduced 121 camels into the colony for the purpose of exploration.
April 11.
—Dr. Woodforde, who formed one of the first expedition sent out to the colony in 1836, aged 57. For many years city coroner.
—Hon. E. McEllister, aged 58.
June 4.
—Mr. A.H. Davis, J.P., aged 69. Writer on Conservative themes.
—Mr. Osmond Gilles, aged 79. One of the original staff who arrived in 1836. First Colonial Treasurer.
Nov. 23.
—At Kew, near Melbourne, Frederick Sinnett, a voluminous correspondent to several South Australian papers, and author of an admirable "Handbook of South Australia" for the Exhibition at the Crystal Palace, London, in 1862.

—H.M.'s steam corvette Esk arrived from Sydney.
—Committees appointed to make arrangements for colonial exhibits at Paris Exhibition.
—The barque Zanoni, from Port Wakefield to Port Adelaide, with 4025 bags of wheat on board, foundered. Crew saved by prompt services of lifeboat.
—Captain Cadell sailed for Northern Territory to examine sites for future capital.
—Waters of the Torrens thrown back by a dam near the gaol, which, filling up the spacious bed of the river, made a noble sheet of water. Boating, etc., commenced. But in October heavy rains swept away the dam. Several attempts made to raise funds for another and stronger dam were unsuccessful.
—Opening of the "Stow Memorial Church", erected to the memory of the Rev. T. Q Stow.
—Mr. W. Townsend, in recognition of his services as Mayor of the City, presented with a handsome testimonial of plate and a purse.
—One of the most novel incidents of the Parliamentary Session, opened in July, was the summoning Messrs. Andrews, Thomas, and Clark, proprietors of the Register, etc., to the bar of the Legislative Council, charged with having committed a breach of privilege in publishing a brief abstract of the evidence taken before a Select Committee on the Police Force. Whether the House could not or would not proceed to extremities cannot be stated; but it was the opinion of some that the Council was in a difficulty, and, with great presence of mind, the "previous question" was proposed and carried, it being understood that, though the publication might be considered a breach of the Standing Orders, these were framed for regulating the business of the Legislature, and could not be considered binding upon the public.
—Two hundred and thirty-two rank and file of the 50th Queen's Own, in charge of Colonel Hamley, arrived from Taranaki, New Zealand.
—The detachment of the 14th Regiment left for Hobart, Tasmania.
Oct. 31.
—Public reception in Adelaide of H.E.H. the Duke of Edinburgh. Thirty-five thousand persons present.
Nov. 1.
Levée held by the Prince at Government House. Foundation-stone of Victoria Tower laid. Torchlight procession of 500 Germans.
—Review of Volunteers by the Prince.
—Foundation-stone of Prince Alfred (Wesley an) College laid by H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh.
7 to 9.
—Grand live stock show and exhibition of colonial products under auspices of Royal Agricultural Society.
—Civic banquet in Town Hall.
—H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh left in the Galatea for Melbourne.
Nov. 21.
—Captain Cadell discovered the mouth of the river Roper, Gulf of Carpentaria.
the year
A Working Men's Association was formed, with a view to protect the interests of the working classes, and to guide them in the exercise of their franchise at election times.
Mr. George Hamilton appointed Commissioner of Police.
Large fires this year. Duffield's flour mill at Gawler; 10,000 bushels of wheat and other property, valued at £12,500, destroyed. (The mill was again destroyed by fire at end of following year.)
Messrs. Dunn and Co.'s flour mill at Port Adelaide destroyed, together with £3000 worth of stock.
Jan. 14.
—Mrs. George Fife Angas, at Lindsay Park, Angaston.
April 15.
—Dr. F.C. Bayer, aged 52. Much appreciated for his professional skill and large-hearted benevolence.

January.—H.M.'s steam corvette Charybdis paid a visit to Adelaide.
—Loop line connecting Dry Greek with Port Adelaide opened for traffic.


{Page 225}

Feb. 20.
—Lieut.-Colonel Hamley, senior officer in command of her Majesty's Forces in the colony, sworn in as Administrator of the Government.
—Public funeral of Sir Dominick Daly, the late Governor.
—The premises of Messrs. D. and W. Murray, wholesale drapers, King William Street, destroyed by fire. Estimated damage, £40,000.
March 1.
—The "Marriage Act of 1857", placing all persons qualified to perform marriages on an equal level, came into operation.
—Intelligence received in Adelaide of O'Farrell's attempt to assassinate the Duke of Edinburgh in Sydney.
—Parliament dissolved by proclamation.
May 3.
—General Thanksgiving Day for preservation from assassination of Duke of Edinburgh, and for his recovery.
July 31.
—First session of fifth Parliament opened by the acting Governor, Lieut.-Colonel Hamley.
—Reform of the land system generally, the great question of the day.
Dec. 27.
—Opening of the "Draper Memorial Church" in Gilbert Street, erected to commemorate the Rev. J.D. Draper, who was drowned in the steamship London.
—Mr. G.W. Goyder, Surveyor-General, sailed for Port Darwin.
—An attempt to establish a Bushmen's Home, succeeded through efforts of Mr. J.H. Angas and "William", the Bush missionary.
Feb. 19.
—At Government House, the Governor, Sir Dominick Daly.
—The Rev. W.J. Woodcock, aged 59, Archdeacon of the diocese of Adelaide.
June 2.
—Mr. Justice Boothby.

—The Evening Journal published. This, with the Telegraph and Express, made the third afternoon paper issued in the colony.
—Roman Catholic Church of St. Lawrence the Martyr, at North Adelaide, opened by Bishop Shiel.
Jan. 24.
—Special thanksgiving services for bountiful harvest.
Feb. 15.
—Arrival of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh on second visit to South Australia. Arrival of the new Governor, Sir James Fergusson, Bart.
—Colonel Hamley retired from interim administration, and Sir James Fergusson took oaths of office. Prince Alfred being present.


{Page 227}

Feb. 18.
—Foundation-stone of Sailors' Home at Port Adelaide laid by H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh (Prince Alfred). Subscriptions languished until one gentleman (Mr. G.F. Angas), who had given £400, added another £500, and several thousands of pounds then followed.
—The Duke of Edinburgh left South Australia.
—News received that her Majesty had been pleased to confer the honour of knighthood on the Hon. J. Morphett, M.L.C., President of the Legislative Council, and on the Hon. G.S. Kingston, M.P., Speaker of the House of Assembly.
—Crisis in the history of Volunteer Corps owing to action taken by the Legislature disparaging to those who had taken an interest in the movement. On the 2nd of March Captain Mayo and other officers resigned. On the 17th Colonel Biggs was removed from office of Colonel Commandant, Major Warburton appointed his successor.
April 1.
—The Adelaide Punch made its first appearance. An auspicious day, but the paper soon disappeared.
April 1.
—Memorial to Bishop Short, "to prevent by all lawful means the introduction and spread of ritualistic practices in the diocese under his charge."
June 22.
—The Prince Alfred Wesley an College opened. Centre part of building only complete.
—Foundation-stone of St. Peter's Cathedral laid at Pennington Terrace, North Adelaide, by Sir James Fergusson.
July 1.
—New Volunteer regulations issued, but force was being gradually disbanded by secessions from its ranks.
—Northern Railway from Roseworthy to the Burra opened to Tarlee. August 9.—Evangelical Alliance formed.
—Bishop Shiel left Adelaide to attend the Œcumenical Council at Rome.
—Return of Mr. Goyder from the Northern Territory, having completed necessary surveys.
the year
Gold-field discovered in the Barossa Range, ten miles east of Gawler.
The Strathalbyn and Middleton Railway and the Roseworthy and Tarlee Railway opened for traffic.
April 26.
—At Malvern, England, the Very Rev. James Farrell, second Colonial Chaplain, South Australia, aged 66.
—Lieut.-Colonel Gawler, second Governor of South Australia, aged 73.
June 16.
—In England, John McDouall Stuart, the intrepid South Australian explorer.
—At Cheltenham, England, Charles Sturt, the Father of South Australian exploration. He was designated for a knighthood, but died before the honour was actually conferred. His widow, Lady Sturt, survived him for many years.
Oct. 24.
—Mr. E.R. Mitford, a frequent correspondent to the South Australian Press and proprietor and editor of Pasquin.

—At commencement of year, work being slack and wages low, working men, joined by loafers and loungers, paraded the streets.
—The new city market, situated near Victoria Square, opened by the Mayor.
Feb. 4.
—Large political meeting to discuss the depressed condition of the Colony. "Land reform" and "Promotion of local industries" were the watchwords.
—Line from Tarlee to Manoora opened.
—Visit from H.M.S. Blanche (Captain J.E. Montgomery)
—The Commissioner of Public Works, presses! by the unemployed to find them work, offered them trenching at the new Lunatic Asylum at the rate of 1s. 10d. per rod to meet the emergency. This was considered too low a price, and next day two hundred men "rushed" the Government offices, and tried to gain access to the Treasury. The police were called out, foot and mounted, special constables were sworn in, and the military were in readiness; but as, on the first rush of the mob, some of the ringleaders were taken prisoners, the excitement subsided. Eventually the current rate of wages was taken. The unemployed had totally failed to enlist the sympathy of the public.
—Captain Douglas appointed Governor Resident in the Northern Territory.
—First ballot took place for land in the Northern Territory.
—A Russian war-ship (Captain Sichoff) called at Port Adelaide and stayed a few days, the visit of course being of a friendly character, though it was surmised that the commander would not fail to report on the defenceless state of the colony.
May 20.
—The Bushmen's Club in Whitmore Street, Adelaide, formally opened by the Governor, Sir James Fergusson. "William" (Mr. William Hugo) honorary resident superintendent.
—Action taken by the Government in the matter of an overland telegraph line from Port Augusta to Port Darwin.
—Uniform telegraph charges throughout the colony (1s. for ten words) established; one exception being between City and Port Adelaide, ten words for sixpence.
—The 18th Royal Irish Regiment (Colonel J.H. Rocke commanding) took their departure from South Australia. This was the last detachment of Imperial troops to be stationed in the colony, unless their presence should be urgently required at any future time. Their admirable behaviour while in Adelaide was warmly commended by the Governor.
—First expedition in connection with overland telegraph left Adelaide for Northern Territory.
—A small party of explorers under leadership of Mr. John Forrest arrived in Adelaide from Eucla, Western Australia. Want of water in some places almost proved fatal to men and horses.
—Line from Manoora to the Burra opened.
Sep. 15.
—First pole of overland telegraph planted in Northern Territory by Miss Douglas.
Oct. 1.
—The Gumeracha Guardian issued. Its name and place of publication afterwards changed to Kapunda.
Nov. 6.
—Handsome Baptist church in Tynte Street, North Adelaide, opened.
Nov. 30.
—All tolls in South Australia abolished.
—During the year 1870 for the fourth and fifth time an Act for legalizing marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister was passed. On the fifth occasion the majority in the Assembly was 26. The Legislative Council did not even divide, so strong was the feeling in its favour. South Australia was the first British possession to persist in insisting upon this great social and domestic reform. The Governor again reserved the Act for the signification of her Majesty's pleasure, and at length the Royal Assent was granted.
Jan. 25.
—Mr. W. Bakewell, for some time Crown Solicitor, aged 52.
Aug. 6.
—Mr. J.T. Bagot, an old and useful politician, aged 61.
—Major O'Halloran, who arrived in the colony in 1838, and had tilled important places in the Civil Service and in the Legislature, aged 73.

Jan. 12.
—Land Bill, to amend Strangways' Act in some important particulars, passed all stages in the House of Assembly.
—Considerable trade in exporting Australian wines commenced.
Feb. 9.
—Banquet at Hindmarsh to the Hon. H.B.T. Strangways prior to his departure for England.
June 30.
—Two hundred and fifty-eight thousand acres of Crown land were sold for cash or credit during the first six months of the year. July.—Three thousand four hundred and fifty shares applied for and allotted in the Glenelg Railway scheme. Action taken at Mount Gambier for the formation of a sugar-beet company.
News received that Mr. John Ross had successfully crossed the continent, traversing the route of Mr. J.M. Stuart.
Mr. J. Darwent put in a claim for reward for discovering a payable gold-field in the Northern Territory.
July 4.
—The case of the North Australian Company against the Government for the recovery of the purchase-money for land in the Northern Territory brought before Mr. Justice Gwynne and a special jury.
—News received that Messrs. Darwent and Dalwood's contract for constructing the overland telegraph, had been cancelled.
—The Kapunda Institute opened.
—A New Road Bill introduced by Government, providing for division of colony into road districts governed by Boards who should have control of-expenditure of funds voted by Parliament for construction and maintenance, and who, when these funds failed, might levy rates upon the holders of property.
—The Rev. Ralph Drummond celebrated his jubilee as a minister of the Presbyterian Church.
—Cape Jervis Lighthouse lighted for the first time. September.—Intercolonial Conference at Melbourne to discuss border duties and ocean postal service.
—The Governor recommended the introduction of iron tramways upon metalled roads.
—Drainage scheme for the city of Adelaide submitted by the Mayor. Estimated cost, £100,000.
—First ploughing match at the Burra, 100 miles north of Adelaide.
—The Chamber of Manufactures reported having taken steps to encourage olive, flax, and sugar-beet cultivation.
Sep. 8.
—Mr. J. Lindsay presented to the House of Assembly a Bill to authorize the construction of a railway from Adelaide to Glenelg.
—The Intercolonial Free-Trade Bill passed both Houses.
—Great discussion on the Education Bill, and especially the conscience clauses, both in and out of Parliament.
—Mr. Ernest Giles projected an exploratory expedition across the hitherto untraversed country lying between Perth in Western Australia and Mount Freeling, near Central Mount Stuart.
—Sixty acres of land laid down at Mount Gambier with beet, preparatory to entering on sugar manufacture.
—Plumbago discovered at Franklin Harbour, in the Western district.
—A grand German Peace Demonstration held at Tanunda, on the termination of the Franco-Prussian War.
—Great discussions in political circles on the right of the Governor to stipulate that the Minister who forms an Administration should, in every instance, occupy in it the position of Premier.
—The penal dissolution of the House of Assembly which took place after the tie upon the No-confidence debate brought about many changes in the personnel of the People's Chamber. Several old members, who had done good Legislative service, decided to retire from public life. Several others were rejected by the constituencies. Among the new members who were returned was Mr. J.H. Angas, who headed the poll for Barossa, having for his colleague Mr. J.A.T. Lake. In the election of 1875 Mr. Angas was again returned at the head of the poll, his colleague being Mr. J.W. Sudholz, who was unseated on petition.
—Petitions to the Legislature against the exclusion of the Bible from public schools, signed by over 20,000 persons.
—Intelligence received of the murder of Bishop Patteson, of the Melanesian Mission, by natives of the island of Santa Cruz.
—Shore end of cable between Port Darwin and Banjoe wangle laid at the former place.
—First telegram came through, stating that communication with Java was completed.
Dec. 3.
—Thermometer 108° in the shade and 153° in the sun.
—A serious visitation of locusts, which, not content with making short work with everything in the suburbs, made a descent upon the city. Happily, the Botanic Gardens escaped their ravages.
—The largest number of old South Australian colonists ever assembled at the same time met at a banquet given by Mr. Emanuel Solomon in the Town Hall, Adelaide.
March 8.
—Rev. J. Maughan (Methodist New Connexion), aged 44.
June 21.
—Rev. Samuel Keen, a much-respected Bible Christian minister, aged 53.
—Mr. John White, a colonist of thirty-three years.
July 24.
—Rev. George Stonehouse, pastor of the first Baptist Church in the colony. He was sent out by Mr. G.F. Angas, and held the position of president of the Baptist College. Aged 63.
—Mr. W. Salter, sen., of Angaston. Arrived in colony in 1839. Mr. James Hamilton, manager of the English and Australian Copper Company.
Aug. 10.
—Rev. D.J.H. Ibbetson, incumbent of St. John's, Adelaide, and of St. Bartholomew's, Norwood, aged 48.
Aug. 31.
—Rev. T.C. Baker, pastor of the South Rhine Baptist Church.
Sep. 21.
—The Rev. W. Colley, many years a Primitive Methodist minister, aged 44.
Oct. 7.
—Mr. G.R. Irwin, a master at St. Peter's Collegiate School, the Adelaide Educational Institution, and the South Australian Institute, greatly respected.
—At Glanville Hall, Lefevre's Peninsula, after a long and painful illness. Lady Edith Christian Fergusson, wife of his Excellency the Governor, aged 32.
—Mr. Jabez Burford, a pioneer colonist, who arrived in 1837.
Nov. 14.
—Mr. Charles Platts, who for a third of a century carried on business as bookseller and stationer. Arrived in 1839.
Dec. 10.
—Mr. Dominick Gore Daly, eldest son of the late Governor, Sir Dominick Daly, aged 44.

—The citizens of Adelaide authorized a special rate of 2d. in the pound for street lighting during 1872.
—The lighthouse at Cape Jaffa, a prominent point near Lacepede Bay, first opened.
—Some bones and other supposed relics of Leichardt and his party discovered by Inspector Gilmour, of the Queensland Mounted Police, in lat. 25°, long. 138°.
—The census returns showed that, out of a population of 185,626 souls in South Australia, there were 104,312 under twenty-one years of age, and of this number 31,450 had been born during the previous five years.
—Great damage done to the southern portions of the overland telegraph from extraordinarily high floods.
—No cattle or sheep imported from beyond the seas allowed to land, except upon quarantine ground, owing to the prevalence of foot and mouth disease.
—Overland telegraph communication opened as far as the Alice Springs Station, 1200 miles from Adelaide.
—Mr. C. Todd, the Superintendent of Telegraphs, sailed for Port Darwin.
—Seventh Parliament opened.
—A contract entered into by South Australia to collect for New South Wales the duties on goods going up the Murray.
—Mr. J.S. Westcott and party left on a gold-prospecting expedition to the Northern Territory.
—The P. and O. steamer Bangalore called at Glenelg for the first time, when mails were taken on board without inconvenience and very little delay.
—Mr. C. Todd, Superintendent of Telegraphs, reported that the Roper river could be navigated by large steamers for a distance of 100 miles from the mouth.
—Practical steps first taken to promote the growth of flax.
—In the south-eastern district hop-growing began to attract attention.
—The Rev. C.B. Symes, B.A., appointed pastor of the Stow Memorial Church.
—A Union College projected by the Presbyterian, Congregational, and Baptist bodies for the training of students for the Christian ministry.
—Completion and opening of the bridge over the river Torrens between North and South Gumeracha.
—Company formed in Adelaide for the construction of a railway from Port Augusta to Port Darwin. Managing director, Mr. R. D. Ross. In the Assembly the Hon. Arthur Blyth sought to obtain a grant of 200,000,000 acres in alternate blocks along the line as a bait to British capitalists.
—Mr. Anthony Trollope paid a visit to South Australia.
—In Victoria steps were taken to form a company for a gold search in the Northern Territory.
—Mr. Ward's Bill to reduce the salary of future Governors from £5000 to £4000, although it passed the House of Assembly, found no seconder for its second reading in the Council.
—Large meeting at the Town Hall on the Immigration Bill before Parliament, urging grants of land to immigrants who paid their own passage-money.
—During this month 42,950 acres of Government land were taken up by private purchasers.
—New Post-Office and Telegraph Office opened for public business. The cost of this fine building, with the Victoria Tower, was between £40,000 and £50,000. Soon after completion it was found necessary to make extensive alterations to adapt it to the exigencies of the service.
—A Bill establishing copyright in telegrams received from beyond the limits of the colony passed both Houses.
—The Bethlehem Lutheran Church in Flinders Street, Adelaide, opened.
—Sad fatality in St. Vincent's Gulf Five young men, with two boatmen, left Glenelg in an open boat for Yorke's Peninsula on a squally night. Supposed that the boat was capsized at a great distance from the shore, but the facts were never known. All lives were lost.
—A Bill defining the privileges of the South Australian Parliament as identical with those of the House of Commons passed both Houses.
—Severe epidemic of diphtheria in the Port Lincoln District.
—A silver pastoral staff presented to the Lord Bishop of Adelaide, in celebration of the twenty-fifth year of his episcopate.
—Foundation-stone of an Oddfellows' Hall in Adelaide laid by Dr. Mayo.
—Severe storms and hail at Mount Remarkable and northward.
—The first direct telegraphic communication from London was delivered in Adelaide, having occupied ten days in transit. August.—The Hon. Thomas Elder proposed to the Government to equip an exploring party to traverse the unknown country between one of the interior sections of the overland telegraph and Perth, in Western Australia.
—Many rumours concerning the discovery of gold-fields in the Northern Territory.
—£13,000 voted in the Assembly to drain the swamp lands in the south-east.
—The remains of the ship Grecian, wrecked in 1850 near Port Adelaide, raised and floated into harbour.
—The Governor visited Melbourne, Sydney, and other colonies.
—A company for the cultivation of tropical plants in the Northern Territory promoted.
—A commission of fifteen gentlemen appointed to represent the Colony at the London International Exhibition, 1873.
—The Customs Act came into force in the Northern Territory on and after this date.
—Intense cold. The unusual spectacle of snow on Mount Lofty to the depth of three inches. Snowballs brought as curiosities into Adelaide. Weather on the plains colder than had hitherto been known.
Aug. 12.
—At noonday a brilliant meteor was distinctly visible in many parts of the colony.
—First through message received at Adelaide from Port Darwin.
—Mr. Robert Mitchell ordained to the Presbyterian Church at Clare—the first student wholly trained in the colony for ministerial work.
—A Bill introduced into the Legislature to reorganize the Civil Service by creating two divisions, the professional and ordinary, and to subdivide each into eight classes.
—The Adelaide Hospital formally "recognized" by the Royal College of Surgeons of England, thus enabling candidates to pass one year of the term for professional study in the colony.
—A proposal made to introduce some hundreds of Chinese to work the Daly and Stanley Mines in the far north.
—The old Post-Office building converted Into a police-station.
—Meeting held, presided over by Bishop Short, to establish a University. The liberal offer of Mr. W.W. Hughes to give £20,000 on certain conditions held out hopes of a successful issue.
—Return of the Governor from a tour in the neighbouring colonies. October.—During twelve months ending in October, 124,515 acres were selected in three of the northern areas, of which 34,000 came under immediate cultivation.
—The Oidium Tuckerii made its appearance in several vineyards.
—A Young Men's Christian Association formed in Adelaide.
—A Bill to encourage native manufactures by providing for the granting of bonuses in certain cases was carried through Committee of the Assembly, its object being to encourage the application of time, labour, skill, and capital to the introduction of new industries likely to become a fresh source of profit to the community in the future.
Oct. 21.
—Telegraphic communication between Australia and Great Britain restored by the repair of the cable between Java and Port Darwin.
—Sunday School Teachers' Union inaugurated.
—Return of Mr. C. Todd from his trip across the continent.
—Intimation received that Sir James Fergusson had been appointed to the Government of New Zealand.
—Bonuses of £2000 voted by Parliament for the first 1000 tons of fibre manufactured from the black flag, £2000 for the first 250 tons of paper, and £200 for the first 2000 gallons of olive oil produced in the colony.
—A meeting held to establish a Blind and Deaf and Dumb Asylum. Subscriptions to the amount of £2362 collected privately by Mr. Townsend, M.P. The Government agreed to supplement by an equal amount all funds so raised.
—Mr. Ernest Giles returned to Adelaide, being unable to cross to Western Australia as desired by Baron von Mueller.
—The steamer Providence blown to pieces on the Darling by the bursting of the boiler. Captain and four men killed.
—Great demonstration in honour of Mr. C. Todd on completion of overland telegraph. Also banquets in London and Sydney on game day.
—Grasshoppers devastated large areas of country in South Australia, and also in Riverina, New South Wales.
Dec. 2.
—Banquet to Sir James Fergusson, Bart, prior to his leaving the colony.
—Sir James Fergusson left South Australia for New Zealand.
—Sir Richard Hanson sworn in as Administrator of the Government.


{Page 241}

December.—Towards end of year reports of rich gold-reefs in the Northern Territory led to the formation of several prospecting and gold-mining companies in Adelaide and elsewhere. A speculative mania, fostered by telegrams by the new overland route, caused serious losses.
—The local banks decided to close on Saturdays at noon instead of one o'clock.
—Branch telegraph opened from Beltana to Blinman.
—Foundation-stone of St. John's Church, Coromandel Valley, laid by Miss Richman.
—Furnaces of the Provincial Gas Company at Thebarton lighted for the purpose of supplying Adelaide with additional gas supply. The South Australian Gas Company not having now a monopoly, cheap gas was obtained.
Jan. 15.
—John King, the explorer, celebrated in connection with the Burke and Wills expedition.
      Mr. James Andrew Buchan, J.P., manager of the Bank at Gawler.
—Suddenly, Captain Ray Boucaut, an old and much-respected colonist, whose son, the Hon. J.P. Boucaut, became one of the leading members of the Government and afterwards a Judge.
March 1.
—At Willunga, aged 56, the Right Rev. L.B. Shiel, D.D. (Roman Catholic). "He introduced into South Australia eighteen priests and seven nuns, built sixteen churches and five schoolhouses, established St. Francis Xavier's Hall and St. Francis Xavier's College, and the Dominican Convent, Orphanage, Female Refuge, and other institutions."
April 13.
—Suddenly, Mr. E.M. Meyer, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and commercial reporter of the Register.
      Suddenly, Mr. J.F. Bottomley, well known throughout the southern districts.
—At Mitcham, the Rev. Ralph Drummond, first minister of the United Presbyterian Church in South Australia, aged 80.
May 18.
—At Morialta, aged 58, Mr. John Baker, one of the pioneers of South Australia, and for many years a member of the Legislature. Being a man of exceptional ability he exercised great influence in all public affairs.
—Mr. Oscar Lines, who arrived in 1836. A well-known exhibitor at agricultural and horticultural shows.
—At Glenelg, Lady Daly, widow of Sir Dominick Daly, seventh Governor of South Australia, aged 71.
—At Hindmarsh, Mr. G. Shearing, a colonist and resident in Hindmarsh for thirty-three years.
Aug. 24.
—Mr. James Brook, of the legal firm of Messrs. Way and Brook.
Oct. 6.
—The Rev. J.N. Hinterocker, of St. Ignatius Church, Norwood, aged 53.
—At Nuccaleena, Mr. W.D. Kekwick, a member of the Government exploring party towards Western Australia. He was second in command on Mr. J.M. Stuart's expedition across the continent in 1860.
Oct. 19.
—Mr. Aulay Macaulay, the superintending surveyor for the Northern District under the Central Road Board, aged 5
—Mr. Joseph Darwent, well known in railway and shipping circles. He undertook, in association with Mr. Dalwood, to construct the northern portion of the overland telegraph between Port Augusta and Port Darwin. Aged 48.
Nov. 8.
—Mr. Talbot Baines Bruce, of the firm of Stow, Bruce, and Ayers, aged 38.
—At the Semaphore, Dr. George Nott, of Gawler, originator of the Bunyip, and a leading spirit in the "Humbug" Society.
Dec. 28.
—Tinnanamby, King of the Moorundee tribe of natives, aged over 80.
—Mr. John McKinlay, the gallant South Australian explorer, aged 53. Buried at Gawler.

—The subject of coolie labour for the Northern Territory much discussed.
—Mr. W.W. Hughes bound himself by deed to give £20,000 towards founding a University in Adelaide within ten years, and to pay six per cent. interest in the mean time for such portion as might remain unused.
—All Saints' Church, Hindmarsh, consecrated by the Bishop of Adelaide.
Young Men's Magazine, organ of the South Australian Young Men's Mutual Improvement Societies, started.
—St. John's Church, Norton Summit, consecrated by the Bishop of Adelaide.
—Foundation-stone of St. Mary's, Penola, laid by Mr. R. McClure.
—Special meeting held of the Church of England Synod in the diocese of Adelaide. After receiving report from the delegates to the late conference at Sydney (October 23, 1872), the meeting accepted the new constitution of the General Synod of the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania.
Jan. 25.
—An anticipated "gold rush" in the Northern Territory. Many companies took up claims. February.—Mr. Reynolds, Commissioner of Crown Lands, set forth to study the question of coolie labour with a view to its adoption in the Northern Territory.
—Official telegram received announcing appointment of Mr. Anthony Musgrave as Governor of South Australia.
—The Daly river (Northern Territory) explored for over one hundred miles, and described as a finer river than the Adelaide.
—At the end of 1872 there were 15,955 depositors in the Savings Bank, the amount in the hands of the trustees being £578,517, an increase of £90,000 within the year.
—Visit to the Colony of H.M.S. Clio.
—Valuable report made to the Government by Dr. Schomburgk on rural industries and forest culture.
—The nett profit on the operations of the Kadina and Wallaroo Railway and Pier Company amounted to £9556 in the half-year.
—Proposal to construct a dam across the river Torrens at a cost of £6000.
—The Intercolonial Conference in Sydney closed. March.—Copper discovered in the Mount Lofty Range, near the Fifth Creek.
—A scare raised as to pleuro-pneumonia in cattle near the City.
—"William", the philanthropic honorary superintendent of the Bushmen's Home, published a history of that institution.
—Important meeting at Chamber of Commerce to urge Government to bring in a comprehensive Immigration Bill.
March 24.
—A meeting of subscribers decided to build Cottage Homes for the Aged at North Adelaide.
-—A valuable "Handbook for Emigrants to South Australia", by W. Harcus, J.P., published in Adelaide.
—Great fears entertained as to the fate of the ship Springbok, which left Port Darwin for Adelaide on the 6th of January, and had not been heard of since.
—The Mount Emu Station in the south-east sold for £94,000 cash.
—Colonel P. Egerton Warburton and party left Alice Springs and made their way to Oakover river, in Western Australia, which they reached on the 12th of December in desperate circumstances.
—Many persons assembled at Thebarton to witness a test of what appeared likely to prove an industry of great importance—the making of kerosene oil from a substance found exuding from the earth in large quantities at the head of the Coorong.
—Mr. W.C. Gosse and party left overland telegraph at a point about fifty miles south of Central Mount Stuart, to track out a westerly overland route to Perth. Resulted in "information of 60,000 miles of hitherto unknown country", and the discovery of Ayers' Rock, an isolated mass of granite two miles long and a mile wide, rising abruptly, 1100 feet above surrounding country.
—Fine auriferous quartz found oji the Barossa gold-fields.
—A movement started in Adelaide and at Moonta for the establishment of the eight hours' system.
—Mr. Anthony Trollope's book on "Australia" arrived in the colony.
—The Springbok, which left Port Darwin on the 6th of January with over seventy passengers for Adelaide, after a perilous voyage of 119 days, reached Cardwell in north of Queensland. Naval Court, H.M.S. Basilisk, suspended Captain Harrison as imbecile. Mr. D.D. Daly, nephew of the late Governor, highly praised for his courage in taking charge of the ship and for his skilful navigation.
—First mustard factory in South Australia established.
—Trial trip by the directors and their friends on the completed Adelaide and Glenelg Railway, begun in March, 1872.
June 5.
—Report of the Hon. T. Reynolds, Commissioner of Crown Lands, received upon the state and prospects of the Northern Territory.
—Mr. Anthony Musgrave, C.M.G. (afterwards K.C.M.G.), the new Governor, and his family, arrived from Natal, and at once took up their quarters at Government House.
—Mr. Musgrave sworn in as Governor.


{Page 246}

—Conventions between New South Wales and South Australia and New South Wales and Victoria. Border Duties, to hold good for three years, brought into force.
—An unfortunate outbreak of small-pox on board the Baroda raised for the first time the question of quarantine.
—The Riverine trade much under discussion.
—Presentation to Lieut. J.A. Fergusson (brother of the late Governor) by the cricket clubs of the City and suburbs.
—Mr. D. Randall, a specialist, left for England to arrange for the introduction of colonial wines into the English market.
—Competition between the gas companies brought down the price of gas to 7s. per 1000 feet.
—New South Australian Jockey Club formed. Patron, the Governor; president, Sir John Morphett.
—A proposal to appoint immigration lecturers and sub-agents in Great Britain approved by the Ministry.
—Damage done by floods after heavy rains.
—Arrival of the steamer Coorong, with a number of gentlemen on board, including the Hon. T. Reynolds, Commissioner of Crown Lands, who left the Northern Territory in the Gothenburg a month previously.
—Resignation of the Hon. T. Reynolds as Commissioner of Crown Lands.
—The new Governor opened his first Parliament.
—The Assembly resolved to sit only three days a week.
—An Act passed for the protection of natural oyster beds and the formation of artificial ones. It repealed the practically inoperative Act of 1853, stringently provided for the protection of the interest of cultivators, and enacted a close season during October, November, and the first twenty days of December.
—A new game law passed. It enacted a close season for game from August 1st to the 31st of January, but for "native game" only until 31st of December. Rabbits, which Australia had been protecting to her serious cost and damage, were no longer to be considered game, and all persons were henceforth to be at liberty to shoot them at any time. The killing, sale, or possession of game during prohibited periods was to secure for the offender a penalty not exceeding £5, or, in the case of native game, of £2. But the aborigines themselves were to be free to kill or take the eggs of any native game which they might require for their own use.
—A Public Health Bill promoted and passed into law. It provided for the establishment of central and local Boards of Health, with authority to take steps for the prevention of the spread of disease, the prohibition of noxious trades and factories in the City, the cleansing of house property, drains, etc.
—The "Australian Customs Act" having been passed by the Imperial Legislature, conceding certain demands of the Australian colonies, and establishing facilities for free trade between the various members of the group, a Convention was held to settle details arising out of the Act, as regarded the traffic across the river Murray, at which Sir Henry Ayers and Mr. Barrow represented South Australia, and Mr. Parkes and Mr. Lloyd New South Wales. The result was the passing of a Bill by which the former colony agreed to pay the latter £13,500 in lieu of all customs, excepting as regards tobacco, for which special arrangements were to be made.
—The Rev. C.A. Reynolds, Catholic Administrator, appointed Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide.
—At the Peake, 636 miles in the interior, a strong shock of earthquake was felt.
—In the locomotive and carriage departments of the Government railways the eight hours' system was adopted.
—Public meetings for and against free immigration were held.
—A Bill introduced into the Assembly to amend the Constitution Act, by providing that the Attorney-General should not necessarily be a member of Parliament; that a sixth Minister, "the Minister of Education", should be appointed; and that the salaries of all members of Government should be equalized.
—A branch of the English, Scottish, and Australian Chartered Bank opened at Palmerston, Northern Territory.
—Public opening, by the Governor, of the Adelaide and Glenelg Railway.
—The Ministry propounded their policy with reference to the Northern Territory, founded on report of the Hon. T. Reynolds.
—Mr. John Hall Angus ordained by Presbytery of South Australia to charges left vacant through the death of Rev. James Roddick.
—A Trans-continental Railway Bill brought before the Assembly, and rejected. September.—State grant of £500 voted for the encouragement of silk culture.
—Several important agricultural shows held throughout the Colony. That of the Royal Agricultural Society clearly proved the important advances made in cattle-breeding. This industry had received much encouragement from Messrs. J.H. Angas, J.P., C. Price, and E.M. Bagot, all of whom were competitors.
—The appointment of Government Resident in the Northern Territory having been offered to the Hon. T. Reynolds, Mr. Sheriff Boothby, and Mr. C. Bonney, it was finally accepted by Mr. G.B. Scott, Stipendiary Magistrate of Robe.
Sep. 3.
—After prolonged discussion, the eight hours' movement came into force. Celebrated by a dinner and entertainment at White's Rooms. About 450 employés were the hosts, and about fifty employers the guests on this occasion. Sir Henry Ayers gave a congratulatory address as to the manner in which both sides had carried on and carried out the movement. "The improvement in steam and water power ought to benefit the working classes, and shorten their hours of toil. Thus they would be able to improve their minds, raise themselves socially, and increase their political power." Several similar demonstrations were held at Port Adelaide and other towns, and workmen who had not yet secured the eight-hour concession were stirred up to make efforts to obtain it.
—Mr. Krichauff brought forward a motion for leave to introduce a Bill on the most important subject of forest culture. October.—Governor Musgrave paid visits to Yorke's Peninsula, Moonta, and the north.
—The Constitution Amendment Bill, providing for the appointment of a sixth Minister and the equalization of salaries at £1000 per annum, passed the Assembly.
—Between fifty and sixty Victorian diggers came over by steamer to work the local gold-fields.
—A much-needed movement set on foot for establishing a glass-bottle manufactory in the colony.
—Madame Arabella Goddard gave a series of concerts to crowded and delighted audiences.
—Foundation-stone of North Adelaide Cottage Homes laid by Mrs. Musgrave. November.—A company projected to form and work an olive plantation at Stony Fell, near Adelaide.
—First number of the Port Darwin newspaper published, and Wesleyan Church opened at Palmerston.
—Mr. George Byng Scott, the newly appointed Government Resident of the Northern Territory, arrived at Port Darwin.
—Very Rev. C.A. Reynolds consecrated Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide in the Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier.
—Foundation-stone of Murray Bridge laid by Governor.
—Lord Penzance gave judgment in the appeal from Supreme Court of South Australia to the Privy Council re claim of North Australian Land Company, Limited, for £33,818. South Australia to pay the money and the Company to surrender their land orders.
—New embankment and wharf at Port Adelaide opened by the Mayor, Mr. J. Formby, and named "Corporation Wharf."
—The Port Wakefield, Hoyleton, Port Pirie, and Port Broughton Railway Bills passed by the Assembly.
Dec. 18.
—The seventh Parliament under Constitution Act came to a close.
—Sir John Morphett retired from the office of President of the Council. 30.—Quartz-crushing by machinery commenced on the gold-fields in Northern Territory.
the year
A new Electoral Act, long discussed, was passed, increasing number of members of the Assembly from thirty-six to forty-six.
Jan. 14.
—Mother Mary Teresa Joseph, Prioress of St. Mary's Dominican Convent, Franklin Street, Adelaide.
Jan. 28.
—The Hon. John Hart, C.M.G., an active member in several Ministries, and for twenty years one of the leading politicians of the Colony. He died suddenly when attending a meeting of the Mercantile Marine Insurance Company.
Feb. 2.
—In London, Mr. Edward Stirling, who came to the Colony in 1839, and engaged in pastoral pursuits at Strathalbyn. He was for many years a member of the Legislature and of the firm of Elder, Stirling, and Co., and was universally esteemed.
—Mr. Charles Fenn, a well-known member of the South Australian Bar, aged 56.
March 3.
—Mr. F. Vaux, chief clerk of the Treasury, consequent upon a fall from the roof of an omnibus.
—W.H. Simpson ("Billy Simpson"), the celebrated jockey.
—Mr. John F. Wills, of H.M. Customs, aged 61. Arrived in the colony in 1836.
—Mr. George G. McLachlan, J.P., Government surveyor in the Northern Territory.
—Captain John Watts, for over twenty years Postmaster-General of the province.
May 27.
—Mr. C.J. Lawrence, the Governor of H.M.'s Gaol, aged 46.
—Mr. Thomas Gilbert, one of the early pioneers, aged 87.
June 15.
—Mr. J. Reynell, an old and respected colonist and vigneron.
—Mr. John Newman, aged 63. Arrived in the colony in 1838.
July 31.
—At Glenelg, the Hon. John Bentham Neales, aged 67. A colonist of over thirty years' standing, and for many years one of the political leaders of the province. He was the "Father" of mining in South Australia.
Sep. 18.
—At Mitcham, the Rev. Thomas Playford, Baptist Minister, after a ministry of twenty-nine years, aged 79.
Sep. 18.
—Rev. W. Ewbank, M.A., aged 42.
Oct. 9.
—Mr. Emanuel Solomon, aged 73. Arrived in the colony in 1837. A highly successful merchant.

—Model schools opened in Adelaide.
—Mr. John Ross, the explorer, despatched by Mr. T. Elder in search of Major E. Warburton and his expedition.
—Arrival of the Earl Dalhousie with 385 Government immigrants, nearly all of whom found immediate employment.
—The balance-sheet of the Adelaide Meat Preserving Company showed losses amounting to £13,269.
—Three great bush fires; one, on Mr. J.H. Angus's run, from Spring Creek over Willowie, devastated twenty-five miles of pastoral country; a second near Booyoolee; a third on the Beetaloo Run. Dense smoke obscured the sky for thirty miles round Mount Remarkable.
Feb. 22.
—Barrow's Creek Station, on the overland telegraph route, 1207 miles from Adelaide, attacked by natives. Mr. J.R. Stapleton, station-master, and J. Frank killed, and two others wounded.
—Despatch of a survey party to report upon the feasibility of cutting a canal from the river Murray through the sandbanks at Goolwa to the sea, a distance of half a mile.
—Two thousand four hundred persons presented a petition in favour of permission being granted to the Glenelg Railway Company to carry their line through Victoria Square, and public meetings held to protest against this. The City Council refused the application of the petitioners.
Feb. 22.
—Adelaide Meat Preserving Company wound up on account of losses.
—Pretended discovery of Leichardt's fate by Andrew Hume, proved to be a canard.
—Mr. Thomas Elder equipped an expedition under Mr. John Ross to set forth from the overland telegraph line and proceed to Perth.
—First loss of life by a railway accident in the colony. W. Gale and Mrs. Parsons killed by a train being diverted into a blind siding near Roseworthy on the Northern Extension Railway.
—Considerable alarm and discussion on hearing that the French Government proposed to make New Caledonia a penal settlement.
—The Central Board of Health applied itself vigorously to abate unsanitary nuisances in the matter of drainage and water supply.
—Local Boards of Health were established at Hindmarsh, West Torrens, Moonta, and elsewhere.
—The Erskine Bridge erected over the river Bremer near Callington, and another over the Onkaparinga, near the Wheatsheaf.
—The Government purchased and applied to the telegraph poles a patent for preserving timber from the ravages of white ants.
26 to 28.
—W.G. Grace's All England cricket team played twenty-two members of the South Australian Cricketing Association at Adelaide. The English team won by thirty-six runs.
—Resignation of Dr. Wyatt, for thirty-three years Chief Inspector of Schools.
—The Governor arranged to set apart an hour each Wednesday for receiving colonists at his office on business.
—The Institute Commission recommended the founding of a thoroughly National Library and Museum, the erection of a building to cost from £85,000 to £95,000, and the commencement of a series of lectures.
—Great strike of 2300 miners, mechanics, and labourers at the Moonta, Wallaroo, and Doora mines on Yorke's Peninsula, in consequence of a reduction of wages. Strike terminated on the 15th of April by the directors withdrawing the notice of reduction for two months.
—Return of Colonel Warburton from Western Australia after successfully completing the journey from the overland telegraph to the west coast.
—Parliament opened by Governor. The sum of £1000 voted to Colonel Warburton, the explorer, and £500 to his followers. May.—Captain Douglas retired from office of Government Resident of the Northern Territory. June.—£5000 voted by House of Assembly to erect a country residence for the Governor at Mount Lofty.
—The miners' strike on Yorke's Peninsula brought to a satisfactory conclusion.
—A Bill brought forward by the Government to prevent the importation of tandsticker and other matches. Protest by the trade against the measure.
—The South Australians beat the Victorians by fifteen points at the international rifle match.
—£6000 voted for a water supply at Moonta.
—In the Stow Memorial Church a new organ erected at a cost of £1000.
—Mr. Ernest Giles reached Charlotte Waters, and reported discovery of valuable country, but was unable to carry out the purposes of his expedition.
June 16.
—The barque Contest, from the Northern Territory for Adelaide, wrecked at Rockingham, near Freemantle, West Australia, All passengers saved.
—Anglican Church of St. Albans, Port Wakefield, opened.
—Gold discovered at Blackwood Gully, near the Meadows, and in country between Echunga and Barossa.
—The Sericultural Association had 11,000 white mulberry trees planted out, besides some thousands in the nursery.
—Cold so intense at Norwood, near Adelaide, that a tank was covered with ice as thick as a shilling, while in some parts of the country it was nearly an inch in thickness.
—First number issued of the Methodist Journal, conducted by Mr. T.S. Carey.
—An Anti-Immigration and Land Reform League established. Flock of 7000 sheep on the Coorong river destroyed on account of fluke. August.—A Bill to improve the status of Civil Servants, and generally to furnish them with motive for continuing in the employment of the Government, was, after undergoing the ordeal of a Select Committee, passed.
—The expedition of Mr. John Ross, who started from the telegraph line in the previous March, ended in failure owing to lack of water and the difficulty of penetrating through the mulga scrub.
—By a vote of the Assembly the Government was called upon to prepare a general scheme of railway construction for the whole colony.
—Much discussion as to the best means of securing the Murray river trade, and whether a canal or a railway should be the means of communication with the sea.
—Discussions as to the boundary line between Victoria and South Australia, which had been recognized since 1847, although it was known to differ from that defined in Imperial Order in Council.
—The report of a Commission appointed by the Government to inquire into the alcoholic strength of South Australian wines showed that the natural spirit ranged to a point considerably beyond 26 per cent.
—Bank money orders, payable at any of the branches, issued by the banks of the colony.
—Inauguration of a series of Saturday Popular Concerts.
—The Alberton Meat Preserving Company commenced operations.
—It was ordered that cadets before entering the Civil Service should pass an examination.
—First appearance of a satirical paper called the Lantern.
—First importation of coolies into the Northern Territory to assist in solving the labour question.
—Total wreck of the ship Fairfield, bound from Port Adelaide to Wallaroo. The master's certificate was suspended by a Court of Inquiry.
—The City of Adelaide, Messrs. Devitt and Moore's regular liner, went ashore on Kirkcaldy beach. The passengers and crew were safely got off, and eventually the vessel was towed into Port Adelaide.
—Mr. John Forrest completed his adventurous journey from the west coast to overland telegraph, having travelled about 2000 miles since May. Magnificent reception accorded him on arrival in Adelaide.
—Educational examinations inaugurated in connection with the South Australian Institute.
—£200 voted Lo Mr. Ernest Giles in recognition of his exploring services.
—All Souls' Church, Moonta, opened by the Bishop of Adelaide.
—An exploring party, under the charge of Mr. J.W. Lewis, who had previously acted with Major Warburton, set out to examine Lake Eyre and the surrounding country.
—Meeting at Adelaide Town Hall in connection with funeral reform, called by Dean Russell. Strong resolutions passed against burdensome funeral and mourning customs.
—Much discussion on a projected railway between Port Adelaide and the river Murray.
—Foundation-stone of a Convalescent Home near the Semaphore laid by Mrs. Musgrave.
—Munificent gift to the University by the Hon. Thomas Elder, of £20,000, free from all restrictions.
—From the Northern Territory reports were received of the successful introduction of coolie labour.
—The Secretary of State for the Colonies applied to Victoria for the use of the overland telegraph in transmitting messages with regard to the transit of Venus. He forgot, or did not know, that the South Australians were the constructors and proprietors of the line, and they naturally felt aggrieved.
—The schooner Triumph wrecked near the river Glenelg, and all hands lost.
—Act of Incorporation, Adelaide University, passed.
—Foundation-stone of new Institute at Port Adelaide laid by Mr. David Bower, J.P.
—The first of a series of intercolonial cricket matches took place on the Adelaide Oval, between eleven Victorian players and a team of eighteen South Australians. The Victorians won by fifteen runs.
Nov. 3.
—A national welcome, in which 20,000 persons took part, was given to Messrs. John and Alexander Forrest and their party, on their arrival in Adelaide, after crossing from Champion Bay to the overland telegraph line through country never before traversed by white men.
—St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) Church, Kooringa, opened by Dr. Reynolds, Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide.
—Opening of the Strathalbyn Institute. Public demonstration.
—Foundation-stone of the McKinlay memorial, at Gawler, laid by Mr. John Forrest.
—The Cornuvia, from London, stranded on the back of the North Bank, near Port Adelaide lighthouse.
—Unexpected arrival of H.M.S. Barracoota off Glenelg.
—First sod turned of the Fort Pirie and Gladstone Railway, by Hon. H.K. Bright, Commissioner of Public Works.
—Mr. R.J. Day, Mayor of Kapunda, elected Immigration Lecturer in England, in succession to Mr. J.S. Gowling, deceased.
—The Government arranged with the Western Australian Government for the erection of a telegraph line to Port Eucla, thus opening communication between South and Western Australia.
—Great mortality having prevailed at Yorke's Peninsula, the Central Board of Health adopted stringent measures to improve the sanitary condition of the mining townships.
—Attention called to the successful cultivation of a new grass, Panicum spectabile.
—Departure of Mr. Ernest Giles to survey and report upon the pastoral capabilities of country lying within about one hundred miles of the coast line of the great Australian Bight.
Dec. 3.
—Opening of the Riverton Institute.
—Foundation-stone of the Mount Barker Institute laid by Mr. A. Hardy.
—Great meeting at White's Rooms to form an association for the promotion of railway extension in South Australia.
—Foundation-stone of the Burra-Burra Miners' and Mechanics' Institute laid by Messrs. A. Stewart and A. McCulloch.
Jan. 29.
—In his 84th year, Mr. William Peacock, who came out in the Glenalver (chartered and freighted by himself) on the 28th of December, 1838. Took a prominent part in public life, and founded the firm of W. Peacock and Son.
Feb. 24.
—At Bexley, Sturt, Dr. R.F. Burton, J.P., aged 64, an esteemed colonist and a skilful surgeon.
March 15.
—Mr. H.W. Parker, in his 66th year, a well-known barrister. From 1832 to 1849 a Government official and part owner of the Morning Chronicle and other papers in England. Came to colony with scheme for railway from Adelaide to the Port, afterwards carried out by Government.
April 26.
—At Glenelg, Rev. Robert Haining, for over thirty years Presbyterian Minister in Adelaide, aged 73.
—Mrs. Catherine Hussey, aged 82, well known for her charitable and philanthropic work. 24.—Rev. James Daniel, Baptist Minister.
Aug. 14.
—Mr. E.C. Homersham, an old colonist and well-known politician.
—Mr. J.H. Barrow, M.P., aged 58, formerly on staff of the Bradford Observer. He came to the colony about 1852, and wrote for the Register and Observer; subsequently he started the Advertiser, Chronicle, and Express; was also pastor of Clayton Congregational Church till 1858, when he entered the House of Assembly as member for East Torrens; entered Legislative Council in 1861. In 1870 he was a Commissioner at the Melbourne Intercolonial Conference. He was returned to the Assembly in 1871, and was treasurer in Sir Henry Ayers' Ministry in 1872-73. Mr. Barrow also took a prominent part in various public movements, municipal offices, commissions, etc.
Sep. 12.
—Rev. W.A. Clayfield, aged 34 (Church of England).
—Mr. Thomas Robin (Sarnia Timber-yard), aged 44 years. A highly respected Wesleyan and a warm encourager of scientific and literary work.
Oct. 5.
—At Glenelg, William Rounsevell, aged 58. In the colony thirty-five years. A very successful carrying and mail contractor.
Dec. 14.
—Rev. James Ashton, Chairman of the Bible Christian Denomination, aged 55.
—Mr. A.B. Cooper, Deputy Surveyor-General, aged 32, on board the Carlisle Castle, whilst returning from a visit to England.
—Mr. W.B. Randell, of Kenton Park, Gumeracha, aged 75. One of the thirteen persons who formed the first Baptist Church in the colony.

—Hon. W.H. Bundey, Minister of Justice and Education, retired from political life.
—Hot winds; thermometer 156.2° in the sun.
—Destructive bush fires in North Rhine and near Kapunda.
Jan. 14.
—The seventh Parliament dissolved by proclamation.
—Masonic hall at Moonta opened.
—Prince Alfred Sailors' Home, Port Adelaide, opened by the Governor.
—Many bush fires through the intense heat at Canowie, Mallala, Goolwa, etc. 109.5° in the shade, 161.6° in the sun at 3 a.m.
Feb. 3.
—New flash light of the Port Adelaide Lighthouse first exhibited.
—Steamship Gothenburg, bound from Adelaide to the Northern Territory, wrecked on a reef at Flinders' Passage. Of the 99 passengers and 38 crew, all but 22 persons perished. The members of the Circuit Court, headed by Judge Wearing, also the Hon. Thomas Reynolds and other well-known colonists, were among the drowned. (See obituary, p. 268.)
—A poll of the citizens of Adelaide decided, by 1423 votes to 835, that the locomotive of the Glenelg Railway should continue to come up King William Street South, as far as the Supreme Court.
—Mr. John Cox Bray, a prominent member of the Opposition, appointed Minister of Justice and Education, in place of Hon. W. H. Bundey, resigned.
—Mr. Randolph Isham Stow, Q.C., appointed Third Judge in place of Judge Wearing, drowned in the Gothenburg.
—The St. Magnus, with a cargo of flour and bran, from Messrs. Hart and Co., of Adelaide, put in at Cape Moreton on the 26th Feb., but next day, owing to stormy weather, had to make for sea with a pilot on board. Two days, later, she was seen bottom upwards.
—St. Patrick's Day. Pastoral staff and address presented to the Very Rev. C.A. Reynolds, Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide, at St. Francis Xavier Cathedral.
—Installation of Mr. Justice Stow as a Judge of the Supreme Court.
—The arrival of Mr. Ernest Giles, the explorer, at Finniss' Spring, on the overland telegraph line, announced. He had lost all his horses, and was only saved by having two camels.
—Telegraphic communication opened between the city and Kensington and Norwood.
—A great fire broke out in Mr. T. Duryea's photographic establishment, demolishing the premises and about 60,000 registered negatives.
—Return of Governor Musgrave from a trip to the neighbouring colonies.
—Part of the township of Port Pirie submerged by a tidal flood.
—Steamer Royal Shepherd stranded on Troubridge Shoal. Got off May 2.
—An exploring party, under charge of Mr. Ernest Giles, and at expense of Mr. T. Elder, set forth and successfully journeyed from overland telegraph to Perth.
4 to 13.
—Continuous rains; 6.576 inches at the Observatory, 9.16 inches at Mount Lofty.
—Parliament opened by the Governor. Education formed the main topic of his speech.
—Mr. F.H. Dutton gave £3000 for a hospital and public recreation ground for Kapunda.
—Immense downfall of rain, followed by disastrous floods; great damage to market gardens and other property.
—The rainfall heavier than in any year since 1852.
—Verdict by consent taken for £11,000 in the action brought against the Government for £128,000 by Mr. W.D. Dalwood (Darwent and Dalwood) for breach of contract in connection with the construction of the overland telegraph.
—Issue of a work containing six essays on political economy by Governor Musgrave.
—Bust of Captain Sturt, executed by Mr. Sommers of Rome, placed in the Institute by Mr. David Murray.
—A gold nugget weighing twenty-one ounces found in Stewart's Gully, Northern Territory.
—Dinner and presentation to Mr. Justice Stow on his elevation to the Bench.
—Strathalbyn lighted by gas.
—Mr. C.H. Johnston, stationmaster at Daly Waters, murdered by natives.
—Opening of the Sinclair Wharf at Granville.
—Fund raised for the Gothenburg widows and orphans amounted to over £9000. Government grant voted for the relatives of officials, including Mrs. Wearing £4000, Mrs. Whitby £1500, Mrs. Lyons £500.
—Mr. K.R. Kunckey, with a survey party, set out to lay a line of telegraph between Moonta and Edithburg, in Southern Yorke's Peninsula.
—Mr. S. Davenport, J.P., appointed Executive Commissioner to represent South Australia at the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876.
—A Commission appointed to consider the best means of promoting agricultural and technical education in the colony.
—Presentation to Messrs. Robert Brazil, John Cleland, and James J. Fitzgerald of gold watches and cheques of £50 each for distinguished bravery in the Gothenburg catastrophe.
—Presentation of gold medals to Messrs. Brazil, Cleland, and Fitzgerald by Governor Musgrave.
—On the motion of Mr. Ingleby the Assembly voted that the travelling expenses of Members should be paid.
—A public dinner to Mr. J.W. Lewis and party, the successful Lake Eyre explorers.
—Intelligence received of the death of Commodore Goodenough, of H.M.S. Pearl, and two of his crew, from poisoned arrows treacherously thrown by natives of the Santa Cruz Islands.
—First post of the telegraph to Western Australia erected at Port Augusta.
—The one o'clock time ball first dropped at the Semaphore.
—Arrival of the Hesperides, bringing 396 immigrants, all of whom found good employment within a few days.
—The Daniel O'Connell centenary celebrated with great enthusiasm by the Irish and others in Adelaide; Pontifical High Mass at the Cathedral, procession with music and banners, athletic sports, and in the evening a "grand national concert" at the Town Hall.
—In both Houses of Parliament addresses were moved in favour of the annexation by Great Britain of the island of New Guinea.
—Glenelg first lighted with gas.
—The Wheatstone Automatic Morse Telegraph system applied with success between Adelaide and Melbourne.
Sep. 10.
—Laying of the foundation-stone of the Kensington and Norwood Institute by Governor Musgrave. Opening of the Mount Barker Institute by the Hon. J. Dunn.
—An Education Bill providing for compulsory and secular education, with permissive Bible reading before school hours, passed by both Houses.
—Mr. Krichauff's Bill for the planting and conservancy of forests passed.
—A Board appointed by the Government for the conservancy and planting of forests.
—Institutes opened at the Burra and at Truro.
—Port Darwin made a free port by the passing of the Northern Territory Customs Repeal Bill.
—The Public Teachers' Association formed.
—A series of concerts given by Mdlle. Ilma de Murska and an excellent company.
—The Rev. Charles Clark, of Victoria, lectured in Adelaide, Kapunda, and Gawler.
—Foundation-stone of St. Clement's Church at Melrose laid by the Bishop of Adelaide.
—Three hundred immigrants arrived in the Trevelyan, and at once obtained employment.
—By the P. and O. steamer Pera, which arrived at Glenelg on the 14th of October, intelligence was received that the Queen had conferred the honour of knighthood upon Governor Musgrave, an announcement that gave great satisfaction to the colony. News was also brought of the successful floating of the South Australian loan of £400,000.
Nov. 2.
—Port Pirie inundated by the spring tide.
—First trial of the Westinghouse air-brake on the South Australian Railway.
—Exhibition of models opened at the Town Hall Exchange Room in connection with the Chamber of Manufactures. A supplementary session of Parliament opened for consideration of the public works and financial policy of the Government. December.—The want of labour severely felt, especially in connection with the harvest just gathered in.
—Mr. H.B. Hawke, of Kapunda, invented a machine by which one hundred acres of land could be sown broadcast per diem, i.e. four times the quantity that could be treated in the same time by hand sowing.
—A tender of £4900 accepted for the erection of the Glenelg Institute.
—Arrival of the Rev. S. Antliff, D.D., who came as a deputation to the Australian colonies from the Primitive Methodist Conference of Great Britain.
—A Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals formed, mainly through the efforts of Dr. Wylde and Mr. A. Abrahams.
—After eleven years of litigation, the local Court of Appeal recognized Mr. William Whittaker as heir to the estate of Mr. James Whittaker, who was drowned in the Admella in 1859.
—All customs duties on entering the Northern Territory abolished, and Port Darwin declared a free port.
—Harvest hindered by unseasonable and heavy rains.
—Rev. J. Thorne, Bible Christian minister, sent to England to co-operate with Mr. R.J. Day in lecturing on the colony.
—Mr. S. Davenport, J.P., sent as commissioner to the Philadelphia Exhibition.
—Foundation-stone of the Glenelg Institute laid by Sir Henry Ayers.
—New Post-Office clock set in motion by the Chief Secretary, Hon. W. Morgan.
—New Independent church opened at Houghton by Revs. F.W. Cox and F. Searle.
—Direct communication between London and Adelaide established by the arrival of s.s. Glenelg, after a passage of sixty days.
Jan. 20.
—At Gawler, Rev. Theodore Bougaerts, a hard-working and much-esteemed clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church.
—At Gawler, Edward Lindley Grundy, the genial editor of the Bunyip.
—In Adelaide, Sir J.H. Fisher, aged 85. He arrived in the colony in 1836, as Resident Commissioner during the administration of Captain Hindmarsh; was for eight years President of the Legislative Council, and was five times re-elected Mayor of Adelaide.
Feb. 10.
—Mrs. Robert Thomas, widow of the "Founder of the Press" in South Australia, aged 87.
—Wrecked in the Gothenburg, the Hon. Thos. Reynolds, aged 57; Judge Wearing, aged 58; Mr. L.J. Pelham, aged 67; Mr. Richard Wells, Mr. J.J. Whitby, Dr. Milner, Thomas Radford.
March 26.
—At Lower Mitcham, Henry Parker Robinson, aged 71, a colonist of thirty-seven years.
April 7.
—Mr. J.N. Blackmore, aged 39, Under Treasurer, an able and painstaking civil servant, twenty-one years in Government employ.
May 28.
—Suddenly, of heart disease, Mr. Alexander Lorimer, J.P., a pioneer colonist who came out in 1839; for many years manager of the Murdock estate, near Nairne.
June 1
.—At Gawler, Dr. M.H. Lewis, a highly esteemed medical man, and magistrate of that town.
July 13.
—Mrs. Esther Soloman, at Norwood, aged 100 years and 6 months. 23.—Carl George Balk, J.P., a zealous Freemason.
August 26.
—Mr. W.J. Cunningham, Assistant Superintendent of Telegraphs, aged 39.
Sep. 9.
—Mr. David Shannon, J.P., aged 53. Thirty-three years in the colony, an able magistrate, and formerly M.P. for Light.
—Mr. J. Stead, aged 94. Came to the colony in 1838; a successful fruit and vine grower.
Sep. 27.
—Dr. Carl Bosch, aged 43, a skilful physician and genial colonist.

—Telegraphic cable successfully laid between Kangaroo Island and the mainland.
—The Colony, divided into four educational districts, with an inspector over each.
—A Commission appointed to inquire into the whole subject of colonial defence.
—A bonus of £5000 offered for the first 500 tons of sugar grown and manufactured in the Northern Territory before the 30th of September, 1879.
—Several attacks were made by natives upon peaceable settlers in the Northern Territory, and considerable alarm prevailed.
—There were ninety-four vessels in the harbour, and, throughout the month, a greater number than at any previous period in the history of the colony.
—A gas rate of twopence in the pound sanctioned by the citizens at a public meeting in Adelaide Town Hall.
—Burning of several shops at the comer of Acland and Pirie streets.
—Victoria Mill at Gawler destroyed for the third time by fire.
—Mr. W.A.E. West-Erskine having resigned the Commissionership of Public Works, the Hon. J.P. Boucaut assumed that office.
—To meet a demand, it was determined that the survey staff should be increased so that 150,000 acres of land, instead of 100,000, should be put upon the market monthly.
4, 5.
—Extensive bush fire on the Bundaleer ranges, Gulnare Plains, and Yorke's Peninsula North, thirty miles from north to south.
Feb. 5.
—Greatest heat of season; 109° in the shade, 156° in the sun.
—The New Zealand-Australia Cable successfully laid and completed, and communication opened to the public on the 15th of February.
—Accident on the Northern Railway near Burra through rain making breaches in the embankment; three men killed.
—Coalition Ministry formed by Mr. Boucaut.
—Completion of the first part of St. Peter's Anglican Cathedral, at a cost of £14,000.
—Arrival of Rev. W.R. Fletcher, M.A., to become pastor of the Stow Memorial Church.
—Public funeral of Sir Richard Hanson.
—Glenelg New Baths formally opened by the Mayor.
—Hon. S.J. Way, Q.C., accepted the office of Chief Justice in succession to Sir R. Hanson, deceased.
—Census of aborigines taken. Males, 2203; females, 1750 = 3953.
—Census taken. Population, 213,271; 110,491 males, 102,780 females.
—The actual work of the University commenced, although the public opening had not taken place.
April 27 and 28.
—The Parliamentary "blackmail case", Hailes v. White, tried in the Supreme Court. Verdict for the plaintiff, £1800.
May 18.
—Public breakfast to the Rev. J. Way, Bible Christian minister, in celebration of the jubilee of his ministry. The Chief Justice, his eldest son, presided.
—The telegraph line to connect Adelaide with King George's Sound completed from Port Lincoln and Streaky Bay, and the line surveyed to Eucla.
—Native fight near Palmerston, Northern Territory. Nalunga, chief of the Sarrakeeyah tribe, killed, and several others wounded.
June 1.
—The new Training School for Teachers opened.
—Formal opening of the Kent Town Brewery, erected by Mr. R.T. Smith at a cost of £17,000.
—Foundation-stone of the Glenelg Wesleyan Chapel laid by Mr. J. Colton, J.P.
—Heavy snowstorms: from five to six inches fell at Mount Rufus.
—On one afternoon two men obtained six ounces of gold at the Echunga diggings.
—Mr. G.F. Angas gave twenty acres of land at Angaston for a Recreation Park.
—Stranding on Troubridge Shoals of the ship Lightning, with 406 immigrants on board. They were transferred to Port Adelaide, and on the 9th of July the ship was floated off. The captain's certificate was suspended on the ground of carelessness and drunkenness.
—Yorke's Peninsula Rifle Association organized at Port Wallaroo.
—Severe hailstorm. Six inches of hail lay on the ground at Goolwa.
—Total wreck of the barque Agnes on the Carpenter Reef, between Port MacDonnell and Guichen Bay.
—New tariff came into operation, reducing duty-paid articles from 669 to 377.
—Announcement of Hon. W. Parkin's gift of £10,000 to endow a Theological College for Congregationalists.
—A town acre in Wakefield Street sold for £5000.
—The telegraphic cable between Port Darwin and Java, broken on the 17th of April, was repaired and communication restored.
Aug. 8.
—A sea-tiger, ten feet long and weighing six hundredweight, captured at Port Elliot.
—Adelaide and Cape Borda Telegraph completed.
—Resolutions passed at a public meeting in the Town Hall, supporting a Bill for restricting the liquor traffic, and for closing public-houses on Sundays.
—Mr. Ernest Giles successfully accomplished the return journey from Western Australia, and reached the Peake Telegraph Station. Sep. 22.—First exhibition of the South Australian Poultry Society in the Town Hall.
—Public welcome to Mr. Ernest Giles, the explorer.
Oct. 13.
—Mr. G.F. Angas presented £1000 to the funds of the Union College.
—Redhill Bridge over the Broughton formally opened to public traffic.
—The Yacka Bridge opened.
—The Governor and Lady Musgrave left on a visit to Sir George Bowen, Governor of Victoria.
—The Katharine River was traced down for 240 miles by Mr. G.R. McMinn, senior surveyor at the Northern Territory, and found to be identical with the Daly. Country poor to south and west, except a block of six or seven hundred square miles of basalt and limestone country with rich black soil.
—Severe duststorm, unparalleled in the north. Extensive bush fires at Southern Yorke's Peninsula.
—Cricket-match on City Oval; All England Eleven and twenty-two Australians. All England, 153 in one innings; South Australia, 107 in two innings.
—Parliament prorogued by the Governor.
A turtle caught at Lacepede Bay, weighing six hundredweight, and measuring eight feet across the flippers by six feet from snout to tail.
Nov. 24.
—Foundation-stone of the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb Asylum at Brighton laid by Miss Townsend.
—Sir Anthony Musgrave received official information of his appointment to Governorship of Jamaica.
—Arrangement with the Netherlands India Steam Navigation Company for a mail service between Adelaide, Batavia, and intermediate ports. Steamers to leave Batavia five times a year, and call at Port Darwin, Sydney, and Melbourne on both outward and inward journeys.
—Fort Pirie and Gladstone Railway, thirty-two and a half miles long, opened by Sir Anthony Musgrave.
—Penny postcards first issued. Three hundred and ninety dozen sold at the General Post Office on that day.
—First pile of the Tipara Lighthouse fixed in its place.
—Extreme heat; 114° in the shade, 162° in the sun.
—Many buildings unroofed at Georgetown, Riverton, Fort Pirie, Melrose, etc, by violent storms of dust and wind.
—Messrs. Magarey & Co.'s steam flour mill and office at Port Pirie destroyed by fire. Estimated loss, £9000.
—Fortieth anniversary of the proclamation of the colony. Over 20,000 persons travelled on the Glenelg Railway.
Jan. 14.
—In London, Lieutenant-Colonel F.G. Hamley, who administered the Government of South Australia for one year prior to arrival of Sir James Fergusson, Bart.
March 4.
—Suddenly, of heart disease, at Mount Lofty, Sir E.D. Hanson, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in his seventy-first year. He came to the colony in 1846, and was for five years connected with the press. In 1851 he was appointed Advocate-General, in 1856 Attorney-General, and from 1857 to 1859 also Premier. In 1861 he succeeded Sir Charles Cooper as Chief Justice, and in 1859, during a visit to England, was knighted by the Queen. In the first half of 1873 he was Administrator of the Government till the arrival of Governor Musgrave.
—Dr. C.G. Everard, aged 82. One of those who heard the proclamation read on the 28th of December, 1836.
April 26.
—Mr. Henry Todd, for thirty years a resident at Port Adelaide.
—Lady Kingston, wife of the Hon. Sir G. S. Kingston, Speaker of the House of Assembly.
Aug. 10.
—Mr. W. Harcus, J.P., aged 53, a prolific writer, and author of an admirable work, "South Australia; its History, Resources, and Productions", published by authority of the South Australian Government.
—Rev. C.W. Evan, some time co-pastor with Rev. T.Q. Stow. He died on board the Torrens just as she was entering the port of London.
Sep. 24.
—At Glen Osmond, aged 79, Mr. Osmond Gillies, first Colonial Treasurer, and one of the best-known and most useful of the pioneer colonists.
Oct 19.
—Mr. H.R. Wigley, S.M., the first police magistrate, Commissioner of Insolvency, and the first presiding magistrate of the local court in the colony, aged 82.
Dec. 2.
—Mr. Buxton Forbes Laurie, S.M., aged 52. Twenty-three years a magistrate at Fort Elliot.
Dec. 12.
—Mr. Johannes Odewahu, naturalist and collector.

—In 1876, 7400 Government immigrants, exclusive of infants, arrived in the colony.
—At Port Darwin, during the forty-eight hours ended January 1, 7.8 inches of rain fell; at Southport, during the same period, 9.5 inches, equal to two-thirds of the rainfall at Adelaide during the year 1876.
—Foundation-stone of the Kapunda Hospital laid.
—The Willunga, steam dredger (said to be the largest steam hopper dredger in the world), started working at the outer bar in the presence of the Governor and many other visitors.
—Arrival of the ship Herschell with 302 German immigrants on board.
—Kingston and Narracoorte Railway, fifty-two and a half miles in length, opened by the Chief Secretary.
—New palm house in the Botanic Gardens opened by Lady Musgrave.
—Governor Musgrave left South Australia to take up his appointment as Governor of Jamaica.


{Page 275}

Jan. 31.
—Mail steamer Tanjore completed fastest trip from Galle to Glenelg on record; sixteen days twenty-two hours.
—Hon. A. Blyth sent as Agent-General to London in the place of Hon. F.S. Dutton, deceased.
Feb. 6.
—Steam dredger Willunga (cost £28,000) run down by the steamer Victorian and sunk.


{Page 276}

March 31.
—Steam dredger Willunga floated and steamed to Port Adelaide after fifty-three days' submersion.
April 3.
—Rabbit Meat Preserving Company commenced operations.
—The Adelaide Bridge across the Torrens opened by Sir W.W. Cairns, almost his only public act.
May 3.
—First Annual Commemoration of the Adelaide University took place; about seventy degrees conferred on gentlemen who had graduated elsewhere.
—New organ placed in Adelaide Town Hall.
—Mr. Arthur Blyth, Agent-General in London, knighted.
—Brig Emily Smith wrecked on west coast of Kangaroo Island. Thirty-five lives lost; three escaped.
—Departure from South Australia of Sir W. W. Cairns, in consequence of ill-health.


{Page 276}

June 8.
—Banquet given by 230 leading South Australians to Mr. Samuel Davenport, in acknowledgment of his services as South Australian Commissioner to the American Centennial Exhibition.
—First meeting of the Senate of Adelaide University. Dr. William Gosse elected Warden.
July 2.
—North Adelaide Model School opened.
—Public luncheon to Mr. King, proprietor of the South Australian Advertiser, in recognition of the freedom of the press, he having been tried for libel at the instance of Messrs. Cullen and Wigley, and acquitted.
July 16.
—Telegraph from Port Augusta to the western boundary of the colony completed, 760 miles; cost, £67,500.
Aug. 20.
—Tipara Lighthouse first lit up.
Sep. 10.
—Purse of 200 sovereigns presented to Captain Wm. McLean, in the Town Hall Exchange. in appreciation of his long connection with the intercolonial steam navigation service.
—Public school at Mount Barker opened by Hon. E. Ward.
—First shipment of cattle from the colony to New Caledonia; two shorthorn bulls sent by Mr. J.H. Angas.
and five following days.—Copious rains; at Narridy, on the 24th, an inch and a quarter in forty-five minutes.


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Oct. 8.
—New public school at Willunga opened by the Governor.
—Waterville Bridge across the Torrens opened.
—Arrangements made by Adelaide University Council for conferring medical degrees.
—Glenelg Institute opened by the Governor.
—First rail of the Adelaide and Suburban Tramway laid by the Governor.
—Thirty-six medals from the Philadelphia Exhibition distributed to South Australian competitors.
Nov. 10.
—Remarkable meteor seen at Streaky Bay at one o'clock p.m., which left a straight trail resembling smoke, and was followed by a deep rumbling noise, heard for thirty miles round.
Nov. 14.
—Bonus of £10,000 voted by Assembly for the discovery of a payable coal-field in the colony.
Dec. 1.
—Completion of overland telegraph to Eucla; 2046 miles of line available between Adelaide and Perth (Western Australia).
—South Australian contributions to Indian Famine Fund, £11,445.
—Opening of the Angas Recreation Park and Cricket Oval at Angaston by Mr. J.H. Angas.
—Both Houses of the Legislature united in giving a banquet to Mr. E.T. Smith, on his departure from the colony. For over twenty years he had been identified with civic affairs, and almost every philanthropic institution was benefited by him. He was styled "the Father of South Australian tramways."
—In London, Mr. F.S. Dutton, three times in the Ministry of South Australia, and for many years Agent-General.
—Rev. M.H. Hodge, aged 71, one of the oldest Congregational ministers in the colony.
Feb. 23.
—Mr. E.W. Andrews, aged 65, one of the proprietors of the South Australian Register.
April 5.
—At Victoria Square, Adelaide, Dr. Lloyd Herbert, of Moonta, aged 49. Served on British medical staff through the Crimean War.
July 6.
—Dr. Benson, a popular surgeon, aged 39. A fountain was erected to his memory on ground given by the Roman Catholics ol Norwood and Kensington.
Sep. 7.
—Mr. Peter Ferguson, an old colonist, who explored and stocked a large tract of country north of Chambers' Creek, including within the range the river Margaret, Peter's Hill, and Mount Hamilton.
Oct. 9.
—Mr. George Wyatt, iron-founder. Came to the colony in 1838.
—Dr. A.C. Kelly. Well-known vigneron.
Nov. 3.
—Mr. Alfred Hallett, J.P., aged 63. Forty years in colony; a Lands Title Commissioner; also connected with various mining and other enterprises.
—Mr. Marshall McDermott, J.P., aged 86. Twenty-two years in the array; at Cephalonia knew Lord Byron, and for him carried three last cantos to London; came to Western Australia, 1830; to South Australia, 1846, to manage the Adelaide branch of the Bank of Australasia. He materially aided the social development of the colony. In 1855 he was placed in the Legislative Council by Governor MacDonnell. Afterwards elected to the Assembly, and was Commissioner of Crown Lands in the Torrens Ministry. A magistrate from 1859 to 1869, when he retired on the usual allowance.
—Mr. E. Castle, S.M., aged 59. Came to the colony in 1839; special magistrate nine years.

Jan. 1.
—Consecration of St. Peter's Cathedral, Adelaide, by the Bishops of Adelaide, Melbourne, and Ballarat.
—Sir W.F.D. Jervois turned first sod of the Port Augusta Railway (being the first instalment of the Transcontinental Railway).
—The Governor opened the Gladstone Extension Railway.
—Overland telegraph wire injured in several places by aborigines.
—Jervois Bridge across Port Adelaide Creek opened by the Governor.
March 10.
—Tremendous bush fires in Yorke's Peninsula.
—New Theatre Royal, Hindley Street, opened.
April 16.
—Waterhouse wing of the Prince Alfred College completed.
—Foundation-stone of the main building of the Bushmen's Club laid by Mr. J.H. Angas, J.P.
May 10.
—Burra and Hallett Railway opened by the Hon. G.C. Hawker.
—The Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Institution established at Brighton.
July 5.
—New model school at Hindmarsh opened by the Minister of Education.
Aug. 16.
—Sir William Jervois returned after six months' absence in Europe.
—Foundation-stone of the Albert Bridge at Frome Crossing laid by Mayor of Adelaide. September.—Hon. John Colton resigned his seat in the House through ill-health.
—Arrangement made with New South Wales to renew the Border Duties Convention for twelve months upon the terms of the present agreement, £35,000.
—Port Adelaide Market Company successfully floated.
—Very rich gold found at Pine Creek, Northern Territory.
Oct 9.
—Port Wakefield and Kadina Railway opened by the Governor.
—Railway from Kapunda to the North-west Bend opened by the Governor.
Nov. 11.
—Intercolonial Athletic Festival at the Exhibition grounds; 7000 persons present.
—Two Wells Institute opened by Mr. Wentworth Cavanagh, M.P.
—New Council Chamber at Gawler opened.
—New City Model Schools opened by the Governor.
—Extraordinary scoring at Glen Osmond rifle range by Private James Morcom with an Allport match rifle, at 500 yards, out of five shots, four bull's-eyes and a centre; at 600 yards, out of seven shots, seven bull's-eyes.
Dec. 9.
—Tramway between North and South Adelaide opened by the Governor.
—Bushmen's Club opened by the Governor.
—Sunday kept as a day of mourning for Princess Alice; churches draped in black; special services.
Jan. 14.
—Mr. Thomas Plummer Addison. Came to the colony in 1836; in Government service thirty years.
Feb. 24.
—Handasyde Duncan, M.D., aged 66, Health and Immigration Officer, Port Adelaide.
—Joseph May, aged 92. Came to the colony in 1832.
—Mr. Thomas Moody Walker. Came out in 1838; left thirty-seven descendants living.
April 30.
—Mr. Charles Hensley, of Cairn Bank. Came out with Governor Gawler in 1838.
July 4.
—Mr. William Kyffin Thomas, senior proprietor of the South Australian Register. Came to the colony in 1836; helped to set up type of the first number of the Register in 1837. Was many years head of the printing department, and became one of the proprietors in 1853. A philanthropic and much-respected colonist.
—Mr. James Frew, aged 74. Came out as a merchant in 1839; afterwards a well-known agriculturist.
—At West Mitcham, Mr. John Penley, late of Theberton, aged 100. Came out in 1838.
Aug. 1.
—At Felixstowe, Mr. John Hyndman, City Surveyor and Engineer.
—Dr. Maurau, aged 52.
—Mr. Thomas Neill, aged 76, a pioneer. For many years in a responsible position under the South Australian Company.
Aug. 22.
—J. McMillan, aged 89.
Sep. 17.
—Mr. Justice Stow, Third Judge of the Supreme Court. Born 1828; came to the colony with his father 1837; articled to Bartley and Bake well, solicitors, in 1847; subsequently the leading partner in firm of Stow, Bruce, and Ayers; Q.C. in 1865; four times Attorney-General. In March, 1875, succeeded Judge Wearing, who was drowned in the Gothenberg.
Oct. 31.
—Mr. Edward Wadely, Clerk of the Court, Strathalbyn. Twenty-three years in Government service.
Nov. 9.
—Mr. A.H.F. Bartels, J.P., one of the oldest German colonists. Twice Mayor of Adelaide.

Jan. 6.
—Banquet at the Town Hall to Alderman McArthur of London.
—Mr. W. Travers, of Queenstown, travelling in Northern Territory with stock, murdered when alone in camp by natives.
—Mr. Yelland and two sisters, and Miss Crocker of Adelaide, drowned by a boat accident on Lake Alexandrina.
—Disastrous bush fires in the south-east and in various other parts. Estimated damage, £5000.
—Messrs. Malcolm & Co.'s Adelaide Mills burnt down.
—Opening of the new "Christian Brothers'" School, Adelaide.
—Green Plains Railway Station burnt down.
28 and 29.
—Large bush fires near the Waterfield Gully, at Carey's Gully, and in the Willunga district.
Jan. 29.
—Redhill Institute opened by Hon. C. Mann.
—Mr. T. Matthews sent by Government to California to procure a diamond drill for boring artesian wells.
—Libel action commenced against the South Australian Advertiser by the landlord of the City Hotel for damaging the reputation of his establishment.
—Cricket-match. Australian Eleven and South Australian Eighteen. The home team scored 115 and 59; the visitors, 88 and 66.
Feb. 1.
—The attempt of Messrs. Martin and Co. to force their 300 men to work nine hours instead of eight led to a general strike of all the employés in the iron foundry, machine manufacturing, and wheelwright trades at Gawler.
—Opening of the Adelaide, Unley, and Mitcham Tramway.
—Althorpe Island Lighthouse completed and lighted for the first time.
—Port Adelaide negatived by a popular vote the proposal for a twopenny rate for street watering.
—Inspection by Ministers of the completed high level reservoir, North Adelaide.
—Heavy floods in the Northern Territory, breaking down telegraph line, washing out Chinamen, and doing other damage.
—Extensive bush fire from Mount Gambier to the Eastern boundary of the colony. Damage, £6000.
—Joint Commissioners from both Houses appointed to inquire into the working of the laws regulating the sale of intoxicating liquors.
—Adelaide lighted for a time with kerosine.
—Large meeting at the Adelaide Town Hall, in support of the Gawler strike of workmen.
—Goolwa Model School opened by the Governor.
March 14.
—Murder by natives of two civilized native boys, enticed away in the night from Mr. Giles's camp at Temple Bar.
—Professor Tate, who had been engaged to report on the practicability of boring artesian wells in the desert country north of the Great Australian Bight, returned from an unsuccessful search.
—Extensive bush fires in the Mount Gambier district. Great destruction of property.
—The Murray Bridge opened for traffic.
—Termination of the Gawler strike by the concession of the eight hours' system.
April 2.
—Adelaide University conferred its first degree (other than ordinary) on Thomas Ainslie Caterer, who, after matriculation and study at the University, had passed the B.A. examinations.
—Presentation to the South Australian Institute by Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar of an old map of Australia and certain books from the library of Queen Adelaide.
—Foundation-stone of Kingston Public School laid.
—Nuriootpa Flour Mill burnt down.
—Adelaide decided by a poll of the ratepayers to borrow £15,000 for public works and other purposes.
—Nearly 40,000 tons of stone and earth upheaved by five tons of powder and seventy-five pounds of dynamite, in connection with the Port Victor Breakwater.
May 7.
—The new Albert Bridge over the Torrens opened by the Mayoress (Mrs. W.C. Buik).
—Erection of west wing of the Adelaide Institute commenced by Messrs. Brown and Thompson. Contract, £36,395.
—Mount Gambier and Rivoli Bay Railway opened by the Governor.
—Adelaide and Nairne Railway commenced.
May 22.
—Port Adelaide and Semaphore Railway opened.
—South Australian Tattersall's Club formed.
—Foundation-stone of Kadina Public School laid by the Mayor.
—First section of railway opened to Gordon's on Port Augusta line.
—Survey party sent to define the boundary between South Australia and New South Wales from the 29th parallel of latitude to the 26th on the 141st meridian, and then on the same parallel to the 138th meridian.
June 2.
—Academy of Music in Rundle Street opened.
—Bridge over the Light near Hamley opened by Mr. H.E. Bright, M.P.
—Benson Memorial Fountain handed over to the municipal authorities of Norwood.
—Public meeting at Town Hall on state of the labour market, Resolutions passed affirming the desirability of executing in the colony, as far as possible, all works required for the public service.
—Foundation-stone of new Institute Buildings laid by the Governor.
—Public meeting in the Town Hall to protest against the proposed alienation of about fifteen acres of Park-lands for sewage purposes.
—Strike of the Adelaide bootmakers.
—Company formed to promote coffee taverns.
July 4.
—Foundation-stone of Burra Anglican Church laid by the Bishop of Adelaide.
—German Club House, Pirie Street, formally opened.
—Rev. G.H. Farr resigned head mastership of St. Peter's Collegiate School.
—Gold casket, filled with sovereigns, presented to the Rev. Canon Farr, M.A., late Head Master of the Collegiate School, by members of St. Peter's Collegiate Association.
—Foundation-stone of the Adelaide University laid by Sir William Jervois, in presence of 2000 spectators. Addresses by the Chancellor (Dr. Short, Bishop of Adelaide), his Excellency, and Hon. T. King, Minister of Education.
Aug. 18.
—Public meeting at Town Hall, condemning Government for proposing to spend £50,000 on immigration.
24 (Sunday).
—The museums and reading-rooms of the Adelaide and Port Adelaide Institutes opened for the first time on Sunday.
—Foundation-stone of Tanunda Institute laid by Miss Von Bertouch.
Sep. 8.
—Sir William and Lady Jervois left for the Sydney International Exhibition; returned October 2nd.
—Telegraphic communication with Blyth established.
Oct. 7.
—Government Advanced School for Girls opened.
—Foundation-stone of Milicent Anglican Church laid.
—Large meeting of laymen at the Town Hall, and formation of the Church of England Association for suppressing Ritualism.
Nov. 1.
—South Australian Club House, Pirie Street, opened.
—Enfield Institute opened by the Hon. T. King.
—Foundation-stone of the west wing of the new Institute Buildings laid by the Governor.
—First exhibition of the Public School Floral Society.
—Last rail of the Hamley Bridge and Balaclava Railway laid.
Dec. 10.
—Cheque for £500 and purse of sovereigns presented to Mr. J. Souttar, J.P., late manager to the Bank of Adelaide, prior to his departure for Europe.
the year
—Great influx of Chinese into the Northern Territory.
—Exploring party, organized by the Queenslander newspaper, reported discovery of fine pastoral land, and that an easy route waa practicable for a Trans-continental railway.
—Mr. Alexander Forrest, leader of the Western Australia exploring expedition, arrived safely at a point fifty miles north-east of the Katherine Telegraph Station.
Jan. 23.
—Mr. Montague Philippson (Barry and Philippson).
—Mr. James Stewart, formerly M.P. for Noarlunga.
April 29.
—Wilhelm Oehm, a Prussian soldier at Waterloo. Thirty years in colony.
May 11.
—Dr. R.G. Jay. Thirty years in colony.
—At Lindsay House, Angaston, Mr. George Fife Angas, aged 90. He was one of the Fathers and Founders of the Colony; the originator of the South Australian Company, the Bank of South Australia, the National Provincial Bank of England, and the Union Bank of Australia; his foresight and shrewdness won for Great Britain the possession of New Zealand, etc. (See "George Fife Angas", by Edwin Hodder: London. 1891.)
—Mr. John Howard Clark, editor and a proprietor of the South Australian Register. A fund was raised to endow a Clark scholarship at the Adelaide University.
June 19.
—Mr. J.H. Clarke, from 1855 to 1877 Superintendent of Locomotives.
—Rev. G. Taplin. Thirty years in colony; missionary at Point MacLeay; wrote a book about the natives.
July 2.
—Mr. James Lewis, Collector of Customs. Came to colony in 1839; for some years Postmaster-General; in Government service thirty years.
Aug. 17.
—Mr. John Brown. Arrived in colony before the first Governor, and heard the proclamation read, December 28, 1836. He took a very active part in the early affairs of the colony: was a constant contributor to the South Australian, and for several years editor of the Times; for some years manager of the Adelaide Life Insurance Company.
—Mr. David Sutherland, at Magill, aged 77. Old colonist, well known in public affairs; served on hospital, emigration, and other boards; nine years M.P.
Sep. 3.
—Mr. Thomas Phillipson, banker, treasurer of the Children's Hospital and Young Men's Christian Association.
—Dr. J.H. Rawlings, Adelaide Hospital.
Nov. 2.
—Mr. John Hayward, Town Clerk of Brighton. Came to the colony in 1839.
Dec. 4.
—Rev. W.G. Robinson, M.A., aged 26, chaplain to the Bishop of Adelaide.
—Rev. Dr. Loessel, of Lobethal, author of several religious works.
—Mr. F. bis Winckel, one of the oldest, most useful, and popular of the German colonists.

Jan. 13.
—Hindley Street Pioneer Coffee Tavern opened by Sir William Jervois.
—Hamley Bridge and Balaclava Railway opened by the Hon. G.C. Hawker, Commissioner of Public Works.
—Burnt Anglican Church opened by the Bishop.
—Thermometer 113.5° in the shade; 172° in the sun. The latter the maximum on record.
—Completion of duplicate telegraph cable between Banjoewangie and Port Darwin.
—Caltowie Institute opened.
Feb. 2.
—Magnificent comet in south-west, which in a week extended from horizon to about 25° of the zenith, but soon afterwards became invisible.
Feb. 20.
—Total wreck of the barque Lady Kinnaird, with cargo valued at £10,500, on the rocks at Cape Bull, Spencer's Gulf.
—An Act passed extending the jurisdiction of local courts.
—Foundation-stone of Mannanarie (Anglican) Church laid.
March 11.
—Enfield Public School opened by Hon. T. King.
—Mr. R.E. Holmes, landlord of Collett's Creek Hotel, Northern Territory, murdered by blacks.
—Professor Cavill swam from Glenelg to the Semaphore, ten miles, in nine hours fifty minutes.
13, 15, 16.
—Cricket-match on the Oval; the Australian Eleven v. sixteen South Australian players. Won by the latter.
—Captains MacIntosh and Jepsen drowned at MacDonnell Bay while endeavouring to reach the shore in an open boat.
—Large meeting in Town Hall passed resolutions in favour of colonial manufactures and stone being used for public works.
April 4.
—St. Paul's Church at Orroroo opened.
—Railway accident on City and Port line near Bowden, caused by part of train running off the line. Five passengers severely injured.
—Echunga Institute opened by Mr. G.W. Goyder.
—Wirrabara Telegraph Station opened.
May 17.
—Garner's Theatre opened.
—Teatree Gully Post-office and Telegraph Station opened by Mr. W. Haines, M.P.
—Foundation-stone of Unley Town Hall and Institute laid.
—Foundation-stone of Unley Wesleyan Church laid by Hon. J. Colton.
June 11.
—Foundation-stone of St. Barnabas Theological Training College laid by Bishop of Adelaide.
—College Park Congregational Church opened by Rev. James Jefferies, LL.B., of Sydney.
—Chinese quarters at Palmerston, two stores and forty huts, burnt down; loss, £2500. July 16.—Heaviest snowstorm for twenty years at the Flinders Range.
—Large Town Hall meeting for restricting Chinese immigration.
—Large Town Hall meeting in support of opening public-houses on Sunday.
Aug. 9.
—Meeting of ratepayers in the Town Hall authorized City Council to expend £30,900 for the construction of Torrens Dam.
—Hindmarsh Bridge opened by Hon. G.C. Hawker.
Sep. 3.
—Orient steamer, Sorata, 4014 tons, foundered off Cape Jervis on her passage from Glenelg to Melbourne. Got off on November 13th, her rents being stopped with 150 tons of clay packed in bags in the hold.
—Double line of railway to Port Adelaide opened.
—Bank of Adelaide's new premises opened.
—Glenelg Congregational Church opened.
—Port Adelaide Dock opened by Hon. W. Morgan.
—Foundation-stone of Home for Incurables at Fullarton laid by Lady Jervois.
Oct. 2.
—Big guns at Fort Glanville fired for the first time.
—Large meeting in Town Hall condemning Legislative Council for rejecting Chinese Poll-Tax Bill.
—Port Elliot Institute opened.
—Violent thunderstorm at Jamestown. Eighty tons of iron railing struck and scattered in all directions.
—Adelaide and Hindmarsh Tramway opened.
Nov. 19.
—New Town Hall at Unley opened.
26, 27, 29.
—Fifteen members of the South Australian Cricket-Match Association defeated by the Australian Eleven in a cricket-match at the Adelaide Oval.
Dec. 1.
—New regulations enforced requiring members of the Civil Service to continue their duties an hour later in the day.
—The additional duties upon spirits, wine, and tobacco imposed, as agreed upon at the Intercolonial Conference held at Melbourne.
—First "Go-as-you-please" tournament in the Exhibition Building, First prize to Edwards; 172 miles in 48 hours.
—Town Hall meeting, presided over by the Governor, for establishing a foundling and maternity hospital.
—Hallett and Terowie, and Jamestown to Yongala, Railway opened by Sir William Jervois.
—Public meeting in Town Hall, censuring the City Council for accepting a foreign tender for enclosing the city squares with ornamental iron fencing.
Jan. 13.
— Mr. E.B.W. Glandfield, aged 56. Took an active part in early colonial politics.
March 31.
—Mr. J.R. Robertson, Narracoorte. Pioneer colonist.
April 9.
—Captain John Duncan, Wallaroo.
June 18.
—Mr. J. Monck. Old colonist; came out in 1836.
—Rev. W. Dawson, Wesleyan minister at Unley.
—Mr. Charles Dinham (Dinham and Harvey). Came out in 1838.
July 9.
—Mr. Bryan (Bryan, Humphries, and Co.), one of the creators of the Land Titles Act (Torrens Act).
—Captain Charles Harvey Bagot, aged 92. He came out in 1841 and settled at Kapunda. In 1842 his son discovered the Kapunda Mine and Captain Bagot secured the land, in co-operation with Mr. F.S. Dutton, afterwards Agent-General. To this discovery Captain Bagot owed his fortune, and to the same cause is to be attributed the rise of the flourishing town of Kapunda, the rapid settlement of that part of the country, and the growth of mining enterprise. Captain Bagot was for several years a member of the Legislative Council, both under the old nominee system, and also after the establishment of responsible government. He distinguished himself by opposition to royalties on minerals. State aid to religion, and other unpopular measures. He was also a leader in the Temperance movement.
Aug. 3
—Mr. William Sanders, of Glenelg, aged 79. Arrived in 1838. Died through hurrying to catch a train.
—Rev. John Bach, for several years incumbent of St. Mary's Church, South Road.
—Rev. Father Aloysius Kranewitter, the first Jesuit missionary who landed in Australia. Arrived in 1849 with a colony of German immigrants.
—Rev. H.L. Tuck, Baptist minister at Stockport, aged 60.
—Mr. Judah Moss Solomon, familiar with Australia and Polynesia before the foundation of the colony. Came to Adelaide in 1838. After settling for a time at Moreton Bay (now Brisbane) he returned to Adelaide and became well known commercially as well off in municipal and political life. He was Mayor of Adelaide in 1869 and 1870, and he did great public service in connection with the Drainage Act and the Public Health Act.
Sep. 27.
—Mr. T. Hinckley, J.P., accidentally killed by his own gun when crossing a fence.
Nov. 13.
—Mr. W. Quin, for some years a prominent working-class member of the Legislature.
Dec. 13.
—Mr. W. Ross. Old colonist, identified in early days with the education of the aborigines. For many years in the Education Department.
—Mr. W.M. Letchford, at Glenelg, aged 56. Took part in obtaining the Constitution Act.
—Mr. O. Rankin, at one time prominent in municipal affairs.

Jan. 9 to 12.
—Heavy rains; 2.492 inches at the Observatory.
—St Mary's (Anglican) Church, Caltowie, opened.
—Dean Russell laid foundation-stone of St. Peter's Church, Glenelg.
—John Duthrie killed by dynamite explosion on the Nairne Railway Works.
—Extensive bush fire in the hundreds of Hall, Blyth, and Everard.
Feb. 18.
—Plympton Public School opened by the Hon. T. King.
—Mr. Justice Gwynne resigned office as Judge of the Supreme Court on a pension of £1300.
—Glenelg Public School opened by Hon. T. King.
March 9.
—Hon. R.B. Andrews, Q.C., appointed Judge of the Supreme Court.
—Hon. C. Mann appointed Crown Solicitor in place of Hon. R.B. Andrews, Q.C.
—An Act passed for the Reform of the Upper House. Number of members increased to twenty-four.
April 3.
—Census taken. Total population, 279,615, exceeding the estimate of the Registrar-General by over 8000.
—The Adelaide University building formally opened by Sir William Jervois.
May 11.
—Terowie and St. Petersburg Railway opened.
—Mr. and Mrs. William Chapman and Mr. Granger drowned in Shoal Bay, Kangaroo Island, by the capsizing of a boat.
—Macclesfield Institute opened.
—Visit of their Royal Highnesses Prince Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales.
—National Art Gallery opened by H.R.H. Prince Albert Victor in presence of about 3000 people.
July 1.
—Torrens Dam completed and the sluices closed.
—Great Northern Railway from Hawker to Beltana opened.
—Adelaide Exhibition opened by Governor, and visited the same day by 17,254 persons.
—The Torrens Lake formally opened by a procession of boats, and named by the Governor.
—Steamer Hungarian, 984 tons register, arrived from Foochow, being the first of Messrs. G.E. Stephens and Co.'s line of steamers plying between China and Port Adelaide.
Aug. 12.
—The Governor presided at a public breakfast in the Town Hall on behalf of the funds for building the new wing of Prince Alfred's College.
—Hindmarsh new Institute Hall opened by the Mayor.
Sep. 19.
—Streets of Port Adelaide first lit with gas.
—Seventh blast of rock fired at Granite Island in connection with the Port Victor Breakwater works; about 50,000 tons of stone displaced.
Oct. 1.
—Strathalbyn Roman Catholic Church consecrated by Bishop Reynolds.
—Town Hall meeting in favour of Bible reading in State schools.
—Mr. Marshall Wood's cast of his statue of the Queen erected on the north end of King William Street.
Nov. 8.
—Dr. Short resigned the Bishopric of Adelaide.
—Orroroo and Petersburg Railway opened by Sir William Jervois.
—St. Barnabas Theological College, North Adelaide, opened by Bishop Short.
—Mr. E.T. Smith elected, without opposition. Mayor of Adelaide for the third time.
Dec. 1.
—First election of aldermen under the provisions of the Electoral Act of 1880.
—Poll of citizens to decide the question of continuing King William Street through Victoria Square. For the proposal, 4327; against it, 1040; majority for the scheme, 3287.
—First regatta on the Torrens Lake.
—Bishop of Adelaide (Dr. Short) resigned his position as Chancellor of the University.
23, 24, 26.
—Cricket-match between All England Eleven and fifteen South Australian players. South Australian, first innings, 244; All England, 294; South Australians' second innings, 28 for two wickets. Drawn game.
—Address of the Standing Committee of the Church of England Synod presented to Dr. Short on his retirement from the office of Bishop of Adelaide.
—Major John Adam Fergusson commissioned to visit India with a view to arranging for the introduction of coolie labour into the Northern Territory.
Jan. 15.
—At Kensington Terrace, Kensington, Mr. Stephen King, one of the pioneers and "makers" of the district of Gawler.
Jan. 18.
—Thomas Battersby, aged 76. Came out in 1838.
—George Brandis, aged 74. Forty-three years in colony.
Feb. 6.
—In England, Sir E.G. MacDonnell, sixth Governor of South Australia.
—Captain Tapley, of the Marine Board. Many years in the service of the Government of British India, and took an active part in the second Burmese War.
March 4.
—Mr. W.F. Gray, of College Town. One of the first organizers of the Adelaide Chamber of Manufactures.
—Mr. J. Bristow Hughes, aged 64, drowned whilst bathing. Arrived in 1840; was in the old Legislative Council in 1855; took part in forming the New Constitution. His budget speech whilst a member of a short-lived Ministry, in 1857, was a remarkably able one. He was one of the founders of St. Peter's College, and afterwards denounced its management. An active politician and a strong anti-Ritualist.
May 8.
—At Mount Gambier, Mr. Robert Anderson, through whose exertions the town of Mount Gambier was founded.
—Mr. Henry Brown (Brown and Thompson), one of the contractors for the Town Hall, General Post Office, University, etc.
July 2.
—Dr. Hawkins, F.R.S., formerly well known in London hospitals.
—Mr. Peter Cumming, aged 85. Highly esteemed citizen and man of business.
—Professor Davidson, aged 49, the first Hughes Professor of English Language and Literature. His wife was a daughter of the celebrated geologist, Hugh Miller.
—In the Red Sea, on board the John Elder, the Rev. J.E. Tennison-Woods, author of "History of Australian Exploration."
July 30.
—J.M. Tapley. Forty-three years in the colony.
Aug. 4.
—J.T. Walters. Old colonist; well-known builder.
—James Allen, aged 65. Came out in 1839. A well-known political agitator and newspaper correspondent.
—Mr. W. Christie Gosse, Deputy Surveyor-General. He was born in 1842, at Hoddesden, Herts. Came to the colony with his father, Dr. William Gosse, in 1850. He entered the Surveyor-General's department at the age of seventeen, and remained till 1872, when he took charge of the Western and Central Exploration Expedition. In recognition of his services he was appointed to the office of Deputy Surveyor-General, which he held till his death.
—Lady Ayers, wife of Sir Henry Ayers.
—Rev. James Pollitt, of St. Luke's Church, Adelaide.
—Mr. John Thomas Dyke, aged 66. Colonist forty-one years; twelve years telegraph station-master at Victor Harbour.
Sep. 1.
—Rev. Henry Cheetham, Congregational minister, aged 80. Formerly a soldier, and was present at Waterloo. Entered the ministry in 1830; came to the colony in 1848; preached at the Burra, then at Kensington, and finally at Milang.
—Thomas Newman, aged 65 years. A colonist forty-one years. Took an active part in political agitation at the framing of the Constitution.
Oct. 3.
—Mr. Archibald Johnson, at Toorak. One of the earliest settlers in the colony.
—Mr. John Hemmingway, of Thebarton. One of the prime movers in connection with the National Temperance League.
—At Norwood, Mr. E.B. Heyne, a careful writer on the floriculture of South Australia and author of "The Amateur Gardener."
—At Auburn, Mr. John Bowden, one of the active promoters of the Northern Agricultural Society.
Nov. 24.
—At Port Victor, Mr. James Jolly, for forty years a successful teacher under the Education Board, and a constant contributor to the press.
—At Port Adelaide, aged 70, John Anthony, chief wharfinger at the port, an old and faithful servant of the South Australian Company.
—At sea, while on a Voyage to India, Sir George Strickland Kingston, founder of the township of Kingston, and for many years Speaker of the House of Assembly. He arrived in the colony with Captain Hindmarsh, and throughout his long career was "identified with every movement to advance colonial interests; a politician and a reformer of the highest school."
Dec. 15.
—At Hindmarsh, Mr. Robert Stockdale, M.P., of Robe. A large dealer in stock, and a notable figure and exhibitor at horse shows.
—Mr. Charles Massey, scenic artist of the Theatre Royal.
—Mr. J. Gilbert, aged 82, one of the most widely known of the old colonists.

Jan. 5.
—Address to Dr. Short, Bishop of Adelaide, prior to his departure for England.
—First pile of Largs Bay Jetty driven by Mr. W. Everard.
—First stone of Brompton Salvation Army Church laid.
—Intense heat; 112° in shade, 180° in sun—highest on record.
Feb. 5.
—New Presbyterian church. Port Adelaide, opened.
—Marriage of Miss L.C. Jervois, second daughter of the Governor, to Rev. W. Pusey-Cust.
March 7.
—Appointment of a Bishop of Adelaide delegated by Diocesan Synod to the Archbishop of Canterbury and a number of other bishops.
—Crowded meeting in the Town Hall to express abhorrence of McLean's attempt on the Queen's life.
—Destructive fire at Marshall's, Rundle Street. Estimated loss, £70,000 to £80,000.
—Town Hall meeting in aid of distressed farmers. Committee appointed.
23 to 25.
—Destructive bush fires at Port Elliot, Goolwa, Wellington, and various other places.
May 17.
—Great Northern Railway to Government Gums opened by Sir William Jervois.
—Mayor of Adelaide (Mr. E.T. Smith, M.P.) invested with the gold mayoral chain and presented with the silver mace.
June 8.
—Accident on the Glenelg Railway, at the South Road crossing. A teamster, W. Griggs, seriously injured, and died June 16; his three horses killed.
—Adelaide Young Men's Art Loan Exhibition opened in the Town Hall by Sir William Jervois.
June 21.
—Presentation of a service of plate to Mr. S. Davenport at Government House, in recognition of his services to the colony as Commissioner at the London, Philadelphia, Sydney, and Melbourne International Exhibitions.
July 2.
—Foundation-stone of All Saints' Church, Port Augusta, laid by Dr. Reynolds, Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide.
—Port Pirie Roman Catholic Church consecrated by Bishop Reynolds.
—Mr. Archibald Forbes gave his lecture on "The Internal Life of a War Correspondent", at the Town Hall.
Sep. 7.
—Large meeting in Town Hall, protesting against the erection of the new Parliament Houses at the corner of North Terrace and King William Road.
—Corner-stone of the Wakefield House of Mercy laid by Dr. Reynolds, Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide.
—60,000 tons of stone removed by one blast (10,750 lbs. of explosives) at the Glen Osmond Quarry Company's works.
Oct. 5.
—National Picture Gallery opened.
—Telegraph cable laid between Edithburg and Troubridge Lighthouse.
Nov. 4.
—Disturbance in Rundle Street re, the Early Closing Movement.
—Adelaide to Walkerville Tramway opened.
—Gawler Exhibition Building opened by Sir William Jervois.
—Strike of 1000 labourers on the Nairne Railway.
10 and 11.
—Cricket-match on the Oval, between Hon. I. Bligh's team of eleven English players and fifteen South Australian players. Score: first innings, English players, 153; South Australians, 128 for seven wickets.
—Market gardeners' first annual picnic at the Grange. Procession of vehicles two miles long.
Nov. 17.
—Strike of from 600 to 700 "lumpers" at Port Adelaide, for increased wages.
—Purse of two hundred guineas presented to Mr. Matthew Burnett, the temperance advocate, on his departure from the colony.
—Torrens Lake Rotunda opened by the Mayor of Adelaide.
Dec. 2.
—Full-length portrait of Mr. E.T. Smith, Mayor of Adelaide, presented to him at the Town Hall, and by him to the City Council.
—Picnic at the Grange, given by the Mayor to 3000 children from the city public schools.
—Foundation-stone of Roman Catholic church at Thebarton laid by Dr. Reynolds.
Jan. 14.
—Mr. James Dawson, J.P., one of the "makers" of Gawler.
—Mr. W. Colman, J.P., Mayor of Strathalbyn, and one of the "makers" of that little town. He was one of the crack cricketers of the colony.
—Karl F.W. Eggers, aged 66. For some years editor of the South Australian Deutsche Zeitung, and contributor to other Adelaide journals.
—Rev. J.B. Austin, aged 83. Arrived in 1843; Congregational minister and zealous worker in conjunction with the Rev. T.Q. Stow; formerly a tutor and scientific lecturer in England; an enthusiastic microscopist. He imported the first binocular into Adelaide. His wife was a daughter of the celebrated John Howard Hinton.
—At Bombay, Olive, Lady Fergusson, second wife of Sir James Fergusson, eighth Governor of South Australia.
Feb. 1.
—Rev. Joseph Rock, Kadina, an eminent Bible Christian minister, who arrived in the colony in 1853.
Feb. 7.
—Mr. Solomon Mocatta, aged 65. Thirty years in the colony; well-known shipper and merchant.
—The Rev. Dr. Forrest Tappeiner, S.J., Superior of the Maurese Residence at Norwood, one of the most learned men in South Australia. Thirty-six years in colony.
—Mr. Edward Kirk Horn, J.P. Old colonist.
—Mr. H.H. Thomas, manager of Union Bank, Port Adelaide.
April 19.
—Mr. M.J. Leonard, of the Saracen's Head Hotel, Adelaide. One of the best marksmen in the colony.
—Mr. W.T. Shepherd, Auditor-General.
July 22.
—Mr. Charles Simeon Hare. Arrived in 1836; was at first settled on Kangaroo Island in the employ of the South Australian Company, afterwards contractor and farmer; was a member of the first Legislative Council under the mixed system; was for some time a railway commissioner; Superintendent of Yatala Labour Prison; then Manager of Railways, and often drove a train till he capsized one containing the Governor, Sir Dominick Daly, his Ministry, and a large party. He retired without compensation; went to Fiji, and met with reverses. Subsequently M.P. for Wallaroo; mining prospector in Yorke's Peninsula; sub-editor of the Farmer's Messenger.
July 23.
—Mr. H.L. Hurst, superintendent of the letter branch in the General Post Office. In General Post Office service since 1853.
Aug. 11.
—At Auckland, New Zealand, the Right Rev. Lord Abbot Alcock, sometime in charge of Catholic mission at Gawler, South Australia.
—At Childers Street, North Adelaide, Adam Gustave Ball, C.E. and artist, one of the few good drawers of characteristic scenes and scenery of South Australia.
Sept. 5.
—Mr. W. Rankine. Came out in 1839; was one of the original proprietors of the Angas special survey near Strathalbyn; father of Hon. J. Rankine, M.L.C.
—Mr. T.W. Lawton, of Bowden. Thirty-six years in colony.
—At Unley, John Clark, "tailor and politician." An active member of the Odd Fellows Society, and an earnest political agitator. Thirty-two years in colony.
Oct. 25.
—Mr. T. Goode, J.P., of Goolwa, aged 66. Took an active part in developing the Murray trade via Port Victor.
—Mr. W. Townsend, M.P. Chairman of Committees, M.P. for Onkaparinga 1857 to 1871, and from then till his death M.P. for Sturt. In July, 1863, was Commissioner of Works in the short-lived Dutton Ministry. Subsequently served in Cabinets under Mr. Hart and Mr. Blyth. Was active in municipal affairs, and presided as Mayor of Adelaide at the opening of the new Town Hall. Was energetic and liberal in all philanthropic movements; one of the originators of the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb Asylum; an able popular lecturer. At the announcement of his death both Houses adjourned till after the funeral.
Nov. 4.
—Mr. Walter Duffield, J.P. Forty years in the colony; M.P. for Barossa 1857 to 1868, and again in the Assembly in 1870, and for some years after 1873 in the Legislative Council. A most useful and estimable colonist, largely engaged in the wheat export trade, milling, and pastoral pursuits.
—Mr. U.N. Bagot. Old colonist; had held various civil service appointments.
Nov. 9.
—Mr. Reginald Sheridan. Old colonist.
Dec. 24.
—Mr. David Culley, aged 75. Pioneer colonist; art patron; one of the founders of the Adelaide Art Society. Left forty descendants living in the colony.
—Mr. Victor Dumas, aged 76. Well-known classical teacher at Mount Barker.

Jan. 3.
—Fire at General Post Office; slight damage.
—Farewell luncheon to Sir William Jervois.
—The Governor, Sir William Jervois, embarked at Glenelg on board the Clyde, en route for New Zealand.


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Feb. 9.
—Mr. J.E. Redmond, M.P., addressed a crowded meeting at the Town Hall on the Irish National League.


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Feb. 20.
—Inauguration of the Old Colonists' Association.
March 1.
—Gawler Agricultural and Horticultural Society's Autumn Show opened by new Governor, Sir William Robinson.
—Arrival of Dr. Kennion, Bishop of Adelaide. Enthroned on March 7th in St. Peter's Cathedral. Public welcome in the Town Hall on the 8th.
—First section of Intercolonial Railway opened, Adelaide to Aldgate, twenty-two miles.
—Mr. A.N. Chambers, accompanied by Mr. E. Coat as and a party, set forth to select a travelling route to the Warburton Ranges and the country beyond.
—Border Town and Tatiara Railway opened by Sir W. Robinson.
April 14.
—Military farewell at Glenelg by the Volunteer Military Force to Major Fergusson, late Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General, on his departure for England.
May 14.
—Government Telephone Exchange opened.
—St. Peter's Church, Glenelg, consecrated by Bishop Kennion.
—Clayton Congregational Church, Glenelg, opened.
—Zoological and Acclimatization Society's Gardens opened by the Governor.
June 11.
—Sturt Street State School opened by Hon. J.L. Parsons.
—First spike of Glenelg and Brighton Tramway driven by the Governor.
—Kadina Institute opened by Sir W. Robinson.
July 3.
—Collision on Holdfast Bay Railway at Plympton; several persons injured.
—Rev. W. Roby Fletcher appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University.
—Kensington and Norwood Town Hall opened by the Governor.
Aug. 15.
—Adelaide ratepayers, by large majority, vetoed city loan of £16,500 for Town Hall improvements and other purposes.
—Mission Church, Pirie Street, opened by Roman Catholic bishop.
Sep. 1.
—Foundation-stone of Southwark Baptist Church laid by Mr. C. Wilcox, J.P.
—Telephone Exchange opened at Port Adelaide.
—Foundation-stone of North Adelaide Institute laid by the Governor.
—Large Town Hall meeting (Mr. Fuller, Mayor, in the chair), urging the pushing forward of public works, checking immigration, and imposing a land tax.
Oct. 11.
—Railway collision at Pichirichi Pass. Several hundred sheep killed. Damage, £4000.
—Competition trial of hay-harvesting machines at Salisbury. First prize to the "Walter A. Wood" machine.
Oct 27.
—Foundation-stone of the Morphett Street Overway Bridge laid by the Governor.
Nov. 1.
—Foundation-stone of the Y.M.C.A. Hall laid by Mrs. A. Hay. Estimated cost, £27,000.
—New City Baths opened by Mr. Fuller, Mayor.
—Foundation-stone of Holy Cross Church, Goodwood, laid by Roman Catholic bishop.
—Inaugural banquet of the Northern Territory Association at Town Hall. Hon. R.D. Ross, M.P., President, in the chair.
—Second section of the Intercolonial Railway, from Aldgate to Nairne, with the Mount Barker branch line, opened by the Governor.
—New road in continuation of King William Street, through Victoria Square, opened by the Mayor.
—Mr. W. Whitfield Mills and party journeyed across the centre of the continent from Beltana to Northampton in Western Australia.
—Visit of the Marquis of Normanby, Governor of Victoria (till December 16th).
—Adelaide and Paradise Tramway opened to Payneham.
—An exploring party, with camels and horses, under command of Mr. Charles Winnecke, completed a successful journey through a large portion of the interior.
Jan. 6.
—M. Louis E. Bourraud, aged 45. Formerly in the French navy, and was present at the bombardment of Sebastopol. Commanded a regiment at the siege of Paris and its Commune by the National Assembly. Since 1875 had been promoting (under Government authority) the wine-growing industry in South Australia, and in blending and treating wines was the cleverest expert in the colony.
Jan. 15.
—Mr. Alexander Stewart, Noarlunga, Very old colonist.
—Rev. G.W. Patchell, M.A., of Goolwa, of apoplexy, during session of Conference. For several years editor of the Wesleyan Magazine.
Feb. 4.
—Dr. Robert T. Fisher, of Teatree Gully. Well known socially and professionally.
April 4.
—Mr. Rees Jones, aged 91. Saw much service in Spain under Wellington, and was in the reserves at Waterloo. Forty years a colonist.
—Mr Robert G. Thomas, Secretary of the Central Board of Health. One of the first colonists. He arrived in the Rapid in August, 1836, and was engaged under Colonel Light in some of the first surveys taken. He afterwards returned to England to complete his education as a civil engineer and architect. He practised in Wales for some years, and came back to Adelaide in 1860. He was Government architect from 1866 to 1870, and designed the Supreme Court buildings and several others. From 1874 to his death he was Secretary of the Central Board of Health. In his private practice he carried out the erection of the Port Adelaide Institute and numerous other buildings.
—Mr. Archibald Cooke, aged 68 years. A colonist forty-six years. First engaged in timber traffic; then in farming; then in exploration. He discovered water on the plains at East Wellington, which bear his name, and, in conjunction with his brother and Dr. Rankin, turned that district into a sheep-run, where he resided the last thirty-five years of his life. He formed the first commercial settlement at Lacepede Bay in 1857.
May 4.
—Mr. Charles Banbury, M.A., aged 76. Forty years in colony. For many years valuator to the Adelaide Corporation. One of the best mathematicians in the colony.
—Mr. Joseph Keynes, J.P., aged 73. Came out in 1839 under engagements to the late Mr. G.F. Angas.
—Captain G. McKay, Port Adelaide, aged 83. Forty-five years a colonist.
—Mr. Joseph Elliott, J.P., editor and proprietor of the Southern Argus, Strathalbyn.
July 20.
—W. Gosse, M.D., F.E.C.S., aged 70. Colonial surgeon from 1853 to 1857; first Warden of the Senate from the starting of the University till his death. Well known in connection with various hospitals, asylums, and other institutions.
—Rev. Frederick Searle, Congregational Minister at College Park Church.
Aug. 2.
—Mr. George Hamilton, ex-Commissioner of Police. Forty-four years in the colony. He brought the mounted police force to a high state of efficiency.
—Mr. Benjamin Boothby, C.E. For some years a superintending surveyor of roads; also Manager of Waterworks. In 1872 he superintended the construction of the Glenelg Railway, of which line he remained general manager and engineer till 1879.
Oct. 21.
—Dr. Robert Gething, Health Officer at Port Adelaide. Thirty-three years in the colony.
—Sir William Morgan, at Brighton, England. Came to South Australia 1849; entered Parliament 1867; Chief Secretary in the first Boucaut Ministry 1875. After greatly aiding the Public Works policy he resigned through pressure of private affairs in 1876; re-elected to Council at the end of his ten years' term in 1877; Chief Secretary in the third Boucaut Cabinet in October, 1877. On Mr. Boucaut's elevation to the Judicial Bench in 1878, Mr. Morgan re-constructed the Ministry, which remained strong and popular till June, 1881, when he had again to retire through the urgent pressure of private affairs. He was knighted by the Queen on the eve of his departure for England. When the news arrived of his decease both Houses adjourned out of respect for his memory.

Jan. 7.
—Academy of Music and part of premises and stock of Messrs. Castle, McLean, and Co., Rundle Street, destroyed by tire. Estimated damage, £10,000.
—Greatest heat of season: 110.2° in shade, 162.7° in sun.
—Working Men's Club, Rundle Street, opened by Governor.
—Town Hall. Banquet to the Earl of Rosebery. Sir Henry Ayers in the chair. Long congratulatory speech from the earl.
—Minimum temperature, 45.1°. Lowest January temperature in Adelaide.
—Portrait of Dr. Schomburghk unveiled in the Museum of Economic Botany. Album and address presented to him by Governor in recognition of eighteen years' services as Curator of the Botanic Gardens.
Feb. 22.
—Intercolonial cricket-match. Eleven South Australians, 563; eleven Victorians, 564, with four wickets to fall.
—Glenelg Institute clock (from Mr. T. Bang, M.P.) unveiled.
March 3.
—Cowell Brothers' timber-yard, Norwood, and adjoining premises burnt. Damage, £20,000.
March 6.
—Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society's Show. Challenge cup, value £50, to Mr. —J.H. Angas for best hundred bushels of wheat grown by exhibitor from three different seasons crops, to each of which first-class diplomas were awarded at three annual Shows. Weight of exhibit, 69 lbs. 9 oz. per bushel.
—Foundation-stone of St. Paul's Church, Gambier, laid by Roman Catholic bishop.
—Chance's Jam Factory, Elnley Road, burnt. Damage, £10,000.
—Hon. J.L. Parsons appointed Government Resident in the Northern Territory, vice Mr. E.W. Price, resigned.
—Foundation-stone of Blumberg Institute laid by Hon. R.D. Ross.
—Semaphore Institute opened by the Governor.
April 2.
—Meeting of ministers of religion and others at the Church Office, Leigh Street, passed resolutions in favour of Bible reading and teaching in State schools.
—Telegraphic information received of an abundant supply of water in an artesian well bored 1200 feet deep at Tarkaninina, 265 miles north of Adelaide.
—Inauguration of South Australian Lodge of Freemasonry. Brother S.J. Way (Chief Justice) Grand Master.
—Largs Bay Fort opened by practice with large guns.
May 3.
—First Annual Regatta on Torrens Lake, under patronage of Governor and City Council.
—Heavy rains in north. At Wilmington 6.110 inches in twenty-four hours.
—Pulsford and Co.'s timber-yard and stock, Grenfell Street, burnt. Damage, £20,000.
(till June 7).—Industrial Exhibition of the Chamber of Manufactures opened by Sir W. Robinson.
May 25.
—Church of Holy Cross, Goodwood, opened by Roman Catholic bishop.
June 2.
—Gladstone and Laura Railway opened.
—Duke of Manchester arrived by the Messageries steamer Sydney from Marseilles.
—Botanic Park carriage-drive opened by Sir W. Robinson.
—St. Ardan's Anglican Church, Payneham, consecrated by Bishop Kennion.
—Poll of citizens for renewing permission for Glenelg Railway trains to pass along King William Street. Ayes, 1092; noes, 544.
—Inaugural address of University Shakespeare Society by E.V. Boulger, M.A. The Chief Justice (as Chancellor) presided. Governor and Duke of Manchester present.
July 2.
—Hon. W.H. Bundey, Q.C., appointed third Judge of the Supreme Court, vice Mr. Justice Andrews, deceased.
—Y.M.C.A. Hall, Grenfell Street (in which divine services had been held the previous evening), opened by Sir W. Robinson, Intercolonial conference of delegates and members on four succeeding days.
Aug. 16.
—Ethelbert Square opened by Dr. Rees, Mayor of Hindmarsh.
—New Post-office, Brighton, opened by Mr. A. Marval, Mayor.
Sep. 3.
—Murderous attack by blacks on camp of copper miners at Daly River; three whites killed.
—Branch line of Southern Railway, Adelaide to Strathalbyn, opened.
—Dunn Memorial Wesleyan Church, Mount Barker, opened.
—Foundation-stone of Port Adelaide Wesleyan Church laid by Hon. J. Colton.
—Arrival of the gunboat Protector: the nucleus of the South Australian navy.
Sep. 30.
—Sir Thomas Elder gave £10,000 for the endowment of a medical school in connection with the Adelaide University. Mr. John Howard Angas gave £6000 for endowing a Chair of Chemistry.
Oct. 8.
—Thomas Kennedy Pater, S.M., appointed Judge for Northern Territory.
—Gosse Ward of the Home for Incurables opened.
—Timber-yard of Elrincke and Gaetjens, near Hindmarsh Square, burnt. Damage, over £6000.
—Salvation Army demonstration on visit of "Colonel" Ballington-Booth and "Major" Howard.
—Morphett Street Overway Bridge opened by Mr. W. Bundey, Mayor of Adelaide. Length, with approaches, 1148 feet; cost, £39,000.
—Five days' cricket-match. Fifteen South Australian players scored, in two innings, 361. English Eleven beat, with three wickets to spare.
Nov. 1.
—Anglican Church, All Souls', East Adelaide, opened.
—North Adelaide new Post-office opened.
—Hindmarsh Baptist Church opened.
—Goodwood Bible Christian Church opened.
—Timber-yard of Mr. T. Hack, Port Adelaide, burnt. Damage, £20,000.
—Premises of Messrs. Gay, Smith, and Parker, Mallabone, Parker, Everett & Co., in Rundle Street, and premises in Twin Street burnt. Damage, £60,000.
—Petersburg Mission Church of St. Anacletus opened by Roman Catholic bishop.
—Alberton and Queenstown Mission Hall opened.
Dec. 2.
—Young Women's Christian Association formally inaugurated.
—Salisbury Institute Hall opened.
Dec. 4.
—Foundation-stone of the chancel and transept of St. George's Church, Gawler, laid by Mrs. Kennion.
—Foundation-stone of Snowtown Institute laid by Mr. E.W. Hawker. M.P.
—Foundation-stone of Port Pirie Institute laid by Chief Secretary (Hon. J. Colton).
13 to 17.
—Cricket-match. Eleven Australians, in two innings, 434; Shaw's English eleven, 436, with eight wickets to fall.
—Central branch of St. John's Ambulance Association established.
—Goolwa and Milang Railway opened.
—New Library and Museum of the Adelaide Institute opened by the Governor.
Feb. 17.
—William McMinn, architect, the designer of the University building.
—Mr. John Stokes, of Emu Bay, Kangaroo Island, aged 76. Old colonist. He landed on the island in 1837, and remained there till 1881, when, being afflicted and in some degree destitute, he was brought to Adelaide and properly cared for.
April 25.
—Mr. John Skelton, editor and proprietor of the Northern Territory Times.
—Captain Henry Simpson, aged 69. at Ridge Park, Glen Osmond. He arrived in the John Pirie in 1836. Was well known as a shipowner and coal importer.
May 10.
—Mr. W.K. Mortlock, aged 64. An old colonist and large sheep farmer. Many years in Parliament.
June 2.
—David Fisher, aged 72. Sent out wrongfully as a convict to Van Diemen's Land in 1827. Proved innocent by the deathbed confession of his accuser in 1860, and pardoned. He had come to Adelaide previously (in 1847), and founded the firm of Fisher Brothers. Was five years in the House of Assembly, and well known in municipal and commercial affairs.
June 2.
—Mr. W. Mullett, Kent Town, aged 71 years. In colony thirty-five years.
—Mr. Hugh Cameron, a pioneer, aged 88 years. Forty-six years in colony.
—Mr. J.F. Wigley, aged 53, son of one of the earliest pioneers. One of the principal brokers and speculators in Adelaide.
—Mr. C.A. Wilson, pioneer. Thirty-eight years in Government employ. Celebrated as an entomologist, and was one of the earliest members of the Adelaide Philosophical Society.
—Mr. Justice (K.B.) Andrews, Judge of the Supreme Court. Was in early life a solicitor in England. Arrived in 1853; called to the bar at the Supreme Court in 1855. He was several times elected M.P., and in 1863 became Attorney-General in the Dutton Ministry, and afterwards in several other cabinets. In 1870 he was appointed Crown Solicitor and Public Prosecutor, and in 1881 was raised to the Bench in succession to Mr. Justice Gwynne.
July 30.
—Mr. William Gerrard, the pioneer breeder of blood stock in South Australia. His stock of thoroughbreds sold off in 1880 consisted of 58 lots, and sold for £11,360.
Aug. 14.
—Rev. James Way, a well-known Bible Christian minister, father of Mr. S.J. Way, Chief Justice and Lieutenant-Governor. Was President of Conference in 1847; came to Adelaide as colonial missionary in 1850. He was very successful in several circuits, especially at the Burra "Revival" of 1859.
—Sir R.R. Torrens, G.C.M.G. He was born at Cork in 1814; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he took M.A. degree. Came to South Australia in 1840; soon afterwards made Collector of Customs at Port Adelaide, and in 1841 a J.P. He was (through his office) a member of the old Legislative Council, and in 1852 was Treasurer and Registrar-General. When responsible government was introduced in 1856 he was elected one of the representatives for Adelaide, and was a member of the first Ministry under the new regime. He devoted himself energetically to introducing a new system for the transfer of landed property, once universally known as "Torrens' Act", but since called the Real Property Act. He was strongly opposed in this measure by the legal profession, but after great difficulty the Bill passed both Houses, and received the Governor's assent in 1858. The principle of this Act is explained in our historical narrative. Sir R.R. Torrens subsequently induced other colonies to adopt the Act, and during a visit to England (1862-64) he enlightened the home country on the subject. After finally leaving the colony, he was M.P. for Cambridge from 1868 to 1874 In 1872 he received the honour of knighthood, especially in recognition of his Real Property Act. He was the author of sundry works on such subjects as "Transportation", "The Effect of the Gold Discoveries on the Currency", and "The Condition of South Australia."
—Mr. John McDonald, aged 67. Came out in 1839; one of the oldest inhabitants of Glenelg. About 1854 he improved the almost impassable road to Adelaide, and subsequently started omnibuses along it. He sunk the first three wells in Glenelg, and supplied the township with water.
Sep. 27.
—Mr. Abraham Wallis, one of the earliest pastoral pioneers of the colony.
Oct. 4.
— Mr. J.B. Hack, aged 79. Came out in 1837 in failing health. Occupied numerous municipal offices, and was the first public works contractor to the Government in the colony.
—Mrs. Helen Finlayson, aged 73. Came out in 1837, six weeks after the proclamation; well known in charitable and philanthropic works.
—Mr. F.W. Andrews. Thirty years a collector for the Adelaide Museum. He had a profound knowledge of the fauna of South Australia.
Nov. 24.
—Mr. K.W.E. Henning, M.P. for Albert. Came out in 1849.
Dec. 6.
—Dr. W.E. Moore, M.E.C.S., aged 64. Was from 1858 to 1869 colonial surgeon.
—Mr. W. r. Kleinschmidt. Born at Bremen in 1810; came to the colony in 1836. He endured great hardships on Kangaroo Island, and was afterwards the founder of Lobethal.
—Hon. T. English, M.L.C., aged 65. Came out in 1850. Prior to his election to the Council he was one of the firm of English and Brown, who built the Town Hall, Post-office, and several other of the finest buildings in the colony. He was at one period Mayor of Adelaide.

Jan. 3.
—Academy of Music, Rundle Street, again destroyed by fire.
—Tannert's basket-shop, etc., Rundle Street, burnt. Damage, £3300.
—Two Salvation Army soldiers fined £10 and costs, or three mouths' imprisonment, for playing brass instruments in a procession at Strathalbyn on Sunday.
Jan. 15.
—Bush fires near Adelaide; Black Hill enveloped in flames.
—Admiral Tryon, commander of the Australian station, arrived.
—Terrific gale. Damage to shipping and property near Port Pirie.
—Town Hall meeting in favour of annexing New Guinea.
Feb. 2.
—System of shipping supplementary intercolonial mails at Glenelg commenced.
—Church of England Institute inaugurated.
—Roseworthy College of Agriculture opened.
Bunyip newspaper office, Gawler, burnt.
March 6.
—New South Wales Contingent, en route for the Soudan, greeted en passant off Kangaroo Island by about 200 persons from Adelaide, and presented with twenty tons of fruit, periodicals, etc.
—Foundation-stone of Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, at Dawson, 163 miles north of Adelaide, laid by Dr. Reynolds, Roman Catholic bishop.
—Crowded anti-taxation meeting at the Town Hall.
—Foundation-stone of Goodwood Dominican Convent laid by Roman Catholic bishop. April 19.—St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church, Mount Gambier, dedicated by Dr. Reynolds. Offertory, £1080.
—St. Columbia Anglican Church, Penneshaw, Kangaroo Island, opened by Bishop Kennion.
May 6.
—Foundation-stone of Adelaide Arcade laid by Mr. Bundey, Mayor.
—Brigadier-General J.F. Owen, R.A., arrived as commandant of local volunteer forces.
—Memorial-stone of Thebarton Town Hall laid by Mrs. E.J. Ronald, Mayoress.
May 25.
—Foundation-stone of St. Peters Town Hall laid by Mr. Bertram, Mayor.
29 and 30.
—Aborigines from Point MacLeay gave a corrobboree on the Oval, Adelaide. Jane 3.—Water found at Stephenson through use of the divining rod of Mr. Gerber.
—Barque Fanny M. stranded off Kingside, Kangaroo Island, and on the 17th caught fire and was burned to the water's edge.
—Barque Mars, 487 tons, totally wrecked at West Bay, Kangaroo Island; nine seamen saved.
—Mallala Institute opened by Hon. J. Martin.
—Globe Hotel, Mount Gambier, burnt. Damage, £3250.
July 6.
—Large anti-immigration meeting at the Town Hall.
—Foundation-stone of St. Alban's Church, Port Victoria, laid by Bishop Kennion.
Aug. 1.
—Mr. G.A. Sala lectured on Russia at the Academy of Music. Left on 15th.
—Foundation-stone of Anglican Church of St. Agnes laid by Bishop Kennion.
—Mr. E.T. Smith's Jubilee Exhibition scheme approved by Town Hall meeting.
—New Institute Hall, Terrowie, opened.
—First load of silver ore (165 bags) arrived at Port Pirie from Silverton.
—Crowded Town Hall meeting for revision of the tariff to encourage colonial manufactures.
Sep. 23.
—Uraidla Institute opened by Mr. E. Rees, M.P.
Oct. 15.
—Mr. G.L. Barrow, editor of the South Australian Times, sentenced to six months' imprisonment for libelling the Hon. S. Tomkinson, M.L.C. Released December 31st.
—Murray River steamer Shannon burnt at Morgan.
—Inaugural meeting of the South Australian Branch of the Geographical Society of Australasia held in the Town Hall. The Governor presided, and Sir Samuel Davenport gave the inaugural address.
Oct. 23.
—South Australian Free Trade League inaugurated.
—Mr. J. Carroll's premises, Mount Gambier, burnt. Damage, £5000.
Nov. 14.
—Valuable picture stolen from Art Gallery. On the next day A.H. Wistrand gave it up, and said he took it to prove insecurity of Gallery. Fined £2, and to pay damage done.
—Strike of 300 bootmakers to resist reduction of wages. Settled by compromise on the 22nd.
—Large Town Hall meeting in favour of Saturday early closing.
—First sod turned of railway from Mount Gambier to Narracoorte.
—Farmers' Home Hotel, Hamilton, burnt. Damage, £1800.
Dec. 5.
—Hackney Bridge opened by Mr. E.T. Smith, M.P.
—Adelaide Arcade opened by the Governor.
—Conflagration in Grenfell Street East. Coombe's timber-yard, Burford's soap and candle factory, and other property destroyed. Damage, about £20,000.
—Annual Commemoration of Adelaide University. Bust of Sir W.W. Hughes unveiled by Governor.
—Port Pirie Institute opened by the Governor.
—Crooke's and Brooker's premises. Port Adelaide, burnt. Damage, over £34,000.
Jan. 16.
—Mr. Thomas Breakell, aged 56, formerly of Manchester. Came to Adelaide in 1850; well known in connection with mining enterprise.
Jan. 17.
—Mr. J.M. Woolley, Semaphore, aged 70. Came to Australia 1839; in South Australian public service in the Customs and other departments since 1850.
—Rev. E. Baker, aged 78. In the colony forty years; formerly a missionary in Madagascar, and printed the Bible in Malagasy; afterwards editor of the Sentinelle in Mauritius.
March 1.
—Mr. S. Saunders, Mitcham, aged 60. Contractor for bridges; old colonist.
—Mr. H. Taylor, Mitcham, aged 71. Over forty-five years in colony.
—Mr. F. Symonds, J.P., aged 90. Came out in 1848; active in district affairs and amongst the Bible Christians.
—Mr. Alexander Mackay, aged 60. One of the earliest settlers in Port Augusta, of which he was once Mayor.
—Mr. J. Pile, J.P., aged 85. Formerly a member of the Gawler Corporation.
April 4.
—Mr. E.J. Catlow. Thirty years in the colony. An accomplished Latin, German, and French scholar; was successively master of several schools; a frequent contributor to South Australian journals.
—Rev. B.N. Fernie, popular preacher. Nine years Congregational minister at Kapunda.
—John Hill, who hoisted the flag at Glenelg when the colony was proclaimed, aged 77.
—Mr. H.C. Ford, aged 65, of the Koyal Arms Hotel, Port Adelaide. Colonist thirty-five years.
May 5.
—Captain Thomas Anthony, J.P., at Kurilla Mine, aged 55. A Cornishman. He came out in 1862 to manage the Blinman Company's mines; afterwards had charge at different times of the Yelta, Wallaroo, and Kurilla mines.
—(Buried) Mr. W.R. Squibb, Houghton, aged 79. Came to colony in 1839; well-known preacher and teacher.
May 13.
—K W. Hitchin, J.P., late Under-Treasurer, aged 61. Nearly forty years in the Government service.
June 7.
—Rev. F. Coghlan, B.A., Incumbent of St Bride's, Semaphore.
—Mr. John Davis, civil service, aged 56 years. Formerly a member of McKinlay's exploring party, and wrote a narrative of the expedition. He was afterwards in the Escape Cliff expedition, and remained till death in the employ of the Government.
July 1.
—Dr. Charles Gosse (son of the late Dr. William Gosse), from the result of a carriage accident. Born in the colony, December 26, 1849. Studied in England, where he took his degree of M.D. On his return, in 1873, became associated with his father's practice, and himself soon took a foremost place in the medical circles of Adelaide.
—Mr. W. Oldham, the virtual founder of Kapunda, aged 75. Came out in 1838; was for a time Protector of the Aborigines, and in that capacity compiled a grammar of the Adelaide black fellows' language. As a schoolmaster, mine manager, architect, surveyor, Congregational minister, magistrate, and in other functions, he was admirably successful and universally esteemed.
—Captain W.L. O'Halloran, aged 79. Saw active service and earned distinction in India. Arrived in 1840, acted as private secretary to Governor Grey and as Clerk of the Executive Council; held the important position of Auditor-General for fourteen years, from June, 1851, to 1868, discharging his duties faithfully and fearlessly.
—Mr. John Frame, a Mount Barker pioneer, aged 86. Came out in 1839; took the gold medal for Mount Barker wheat at the 1851 Exhibition.
Aug. 13.
—Mr. W.A. Barnes, the first Roman Catholic to land in the colony. Came to Holdfast Bay in the Coromandel in January, 1837, two weeks after the proclamation.
—Mr. George Birrell. Old colonist and public servant; came to colony in 1839.
Sep. 3.
—Mr. William Bartley, late senior solicitor to the Lands Titles office, aged 86. Arrived in 1839.
—In London, Alexander Lang Elder, aged 70. Arrived in colony in 1839, and founded the well-known firm of Elder and Co. Universally esteemed and respected.
Oct. 30.
—Mr. Samuel Raphael. Arrived in 1848; City Councillor.
—Mr. W. Tyrack, the Semaphore, aged 92. Came to the colony in 1840.
—Mr. J.T. King, J.P., Mayor of Port Adelaide, aged 69.
—Mr. E.W. Pitts. Old colonist; several years in Government service; then, as a sheep-breeder, acquired world-wide fame for his merino wool.

Jan. 3.
—Messrs. Dowle's Tannery at Bowden burnt. Damage, £18,000.
—Temperature in sun, 162.7°; in shade, 112.4°. Several cases of sunstroke.
—Fire near Auburn. Three thousand acres of grass, many miles of fencing, haystacks, standing corn, and heaps of wheat destroyed.
—E.S. Hall's baking-powder premises. Hackney, burnt. Damage, £2000.
Feb. 2.
—Anglican Church of St. Paul at Hahndorf consecrated by Bishop Kennion.
—Commercial Bank of South Australia stopped payment.
March 1.
—Silver cup presented to W.J. Peterswald, J.P., Commissioner of Police, at a dinner given by the Police and Register Rifle Clubs.
12, 13, 15.—Ninth intercolonial cricket-match at the Oval. Eleven South Australian, 466; eleven Victorian, 406.
—Last plate laid of Overland Railway between Murray Bridge and Border Town.
April 5.
—Meeting of shareholders resolved that the Commercial Bank of South Australia should be wound up by liquidation.
—First number of the University Shakespeare Journal published.
—Erection of the International Exhibition commenced.
—Two brothers Arnold killed by a dynamite explosion in a well at Terrowie.
—Fatal railway accident on the Hergott and Strangways Springs Line, caused by a number of cattle crossing the line and precipitating several trucks down the embankment. Five navvies killed.
—Railway accident on Southern Line, sixteen and a half miles from Adelaide. Engine-driver fatally injured.
May 1.
—South Australian section of the intercolonial railway from Adelaide to Border Town formally opened for traffic.
—Dean Russell died suddenly from the effects of a fall on the Town Hall stairs at the annual festival of his church, St. Paul's, Pulteney Street. (See Obituary, p. 326.)
—Railway accident at Islington Railway workshop by locomotive breaking away. Damage to rolling stock and plant, £2200.
June 14.
—Hindmarsh Institute and Exhibition of Works of Industry, Arts, and Manufactures opened by Sir William Robinson.
—Foundation-stone of International Jubilee Exhibition laid by Sir W. Robinson. Twelve thousand spectators.
June 29.
—Cleland and Son's bonded stores, Port Adelaide, burnt. Damage, £12,000.
July 16.
—Artesian well at Cowards Springs, ten miles south of Lake Eyre, completed. Depth, 308 feet; estimated daily supply, 1,000,000 gallons.
—German steamer Lalier, 1893 tons, the first packet of the German Government Mail Line, arrived from Bremen.
Sep. 1.
—Semaphore Art and Industrial Exhibition opened by the Governor.
—Intercolonial Trades Union Congress in Town Hall banqueting-room.
Oct. 5.
—Teetulpa Gold-field discovered by Thomas Brady and Thomas Smith.
—Town Hall organ reopened after enlargement.
—Cricket-match on Oval. Eleven English, 329 in one innings; fifteen South Australians, 259 in one innings and eight wickets of the second innings.
Nov. 2.
—Violent hail and thunder storm in North, with heavy rain. Beetaloo Dam destroyed, "Hailstones as large as hens' eggs." Much damage to buildings, crops, and railroads. Galvanized iron roofs pierced with holes three or four inches in diameter.
—Foundation-stone of enlargement of St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral laid by Dr. Reynolds, Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide. £985 laid on stone.
Dec. 6.
—Stamp Act came into operation.
—Foundation-stone of St. John's Mission Church, Moore Street, laid by Bishop Kennion.
—Academy of Music and adjoining premises of Messrs. U.C. Castle and Co. and Mr. A. Cunningham burnt. Damage, £60,000. Two firemen, Gardner and Clark, lost their lives.
Jan. 18.
—Captain Killicoat, aged 77. A Cornishman and experienced in mining pursuits, when he was engaged in 1848 by John Schneider and Co. to come to the Burra and purchase ore for his employers. As an expert in mining matters he was in the front rank.
—Mr. Patrick Auld, in New Zealand, aged 75. Came to South Australia in 1841; a successful vigneron, and very energetic in introducing Australian wines to the English market.
Feb. 3.
—Mr. Joseph Blake, Smithfield. Thirty-five years in colony.
—G.B. Scott, S.M., at Mount Gambier, aged 62. Old colonist and useful public servant. He came to the colony in 1846, was for some years Inspector of Police, subsequently Stipendiary Magistrate in various districts, and from 1873 to 1876 was Government Resident in the Northern Territory, where he worked successfully for the improvement of the district, and on his departure was entertained at a farewell banquet by the residents in appreciation of his services.
March 10.
—(Buried) Mr. H.L. Vosz, old colonist, aged 74. Arrived in 1848; gradually established one of the largest businesses in the colonies. A great authority on artesian wells, for which he imported the newest machinery and appliances. Through the troubles of 1848 he had been bankrupt in Germany, but the Hamburg Reformer in February, 1860, announced that Mr. Vosz had sent to all his German creditors their claims in full, with interest at ten per cent.
—Mr. John Whinham, founder of Whinham College, aged 82. A successful teacher in England in early life, but became financially involved, and began life afresh at Adelaide in 1852. He had a successful scholastic career.
—Mr. Charles Price, of Hindmarsh Island, aged 81. Came out in 1853; one of the first settlers on the island, where he introduced Southdown sheep, and subsequently some fine pedigree Hereford cattle.
—Mr. John Coles, aged 72. Arrived in 1837 with Lieutenant (afterwards Sir George) Grey to explore north-west coast of New Holland, and also accompanied the Swan River expedition in the following year. In company with Grey he endured terrible hardships when walking 300 miles to Perth. In 1840 Coles came to Adelaide and volunteered for the Eyre expedition. He was subsequently Crown Lands Ranger, and acquired considerable landed property.
—Mr. R. MacClure, aged 66. Forty years in colony; well-known Government contractor for roads, etc.; also, under the signature of "The Far Man", a popular writer in The Border Watch.
—Alexander Russell Russell, Dean of the Cathedral Church, aged 61. Died suddenly from a fall on the Town Hall stairs. An intimate friend of Frederick Denison Maurice. Came to Adelaide in 1854 Was at St. Andrew's, Walkerville, six months; in 1855 at St. John's, Adelaide, a parish which was afterwards subdivided, when St. Paul's was built for Mr. Russell. In 1857 he was appointed Canon and Rural Dean, and in 1869 Dean of the Cathedral Church; in 1878 Vicar-General of the Diocese. He was identified with most of the charitable and literary institutions of Adelaide. He published many sermons, etc., wrote occasionally for the daily press, and published two volumes of poems, "The Seeker" (1881), and "Voices of Doubt" (1884).
—In London, Mr. John Richardson. Came out with Lord Goderich in 1839. Returned to England in 1871, and with his family wrecked on the coast of France.
—Mr. Septimus Herbert, aged 79. Arrived in 1839.
—Mr. Archibald Hay, J.P., Harrogate. Born in the colony in 1840; one of the most successful sheep farmers in the southern district.
—(Buried) Mr. Matthew Elliott. Forty-eight years' colonist.
—Dr. Wyatt, at Kurraita, Burnside, aged 82. One of the oldest colonists. He purchased several town acres at the first land sale. May 27, 1837. On August 7 of the same year was appointed by Governor Hindmarsh Protector of Aborigines and City Coroner, and during the remainder of his long life was prominently connected with educational and philanthropic affairs.
—Mr. J.F. Hillier. Came to the colony in 1837; for some time publisher of the Register and Observer.
Aug. 2.
—Mr. E.M. Bagot, aged 63. Very successful in pastoral pursuits; well-known stock and station agent; one of the founders of the Northern Territory Society. Son of Captain C.H. Bagot, the discoverer of the Kapunda Mine.
—Mr. Charles Jacobs. Came to South Australia in 1842.
—Dr. D.B. Tennant, at the Kimberley Goldfields. One of the earliest pioneers in the Northern Territory; leading promoter of many enterprises.
—Mr. John Murray, of Murray Vale, celebrated as a breeder of pedigree merino sheep. He invariably carried off prizes at the agricultural shows in the colonies, and obtained medals at London in 1862, and at Philadelphia in 1876.
Sep. 9.
—Rev. J. Roberts, Bible Christian minister, aged 76. One of William O'Bryan's first converts.

Jan. 19.
—First express trains between Adelaide and Melbourne run each way under auspices of the Government of each colony. Time, 18 to 19 hours; distance, 510 miles.
Feb. 19.
—Steamer Palmerston, 430 tons, bound from Franklin Harbour to Port Lincoln, with 2000 bags of wheat, etc., stranded on Secret Rock.
March 16.
—Brock's first pyrotechnic display at the Oval; 10,000 spectators.
—Dunn and Co.'s Flour Mill, Port Adelaide, burnt. Damage, £7000.
April 4.
—Colonial Conference met in London, South Australia being represented by Mr. J.W. Downer, Premier, and Sir Arthur Blyth, Agent-General.
9 to 11.
—Militia and volunteers in camp near Belair; attendance, 71 officers and 686 men.
—First Naval and Military Masonic Lodge under the South Australian Constitution consecrated. General J.F. Owen, K.A., installed as Master.
May 12.
—Three fishermen, named Pope (father and son) and Spence, loft Port Vincent in an open boat, and were not heard of afterwards.
—Foundation-stone of St. John's, Halifax. Street, laid by Bishop Kennion.
June 3.
—Jubilee of South Australian journalism; fiftieth anniversary of publication of the South Australian Register.
—Election for return of two candidates for Legislative Council (Central District), Seven candidates. Votes—Hon. A.M. Simpson, 2562; Hon. J.H. Angas, 2399, who were declared duly elected.
July 2.
—Banquet in the Town Hall by the Victorian Commissioners of the Jubilee Exhibition to the Governors of South Australia and Victoria, and 120 other distinguished guests.
—First locomotive engine of the Palmerston and Pine Creek Railway formally named "The Port Darwin" by Mrs. T.K. Pater, wife of the Resident Judge, in presence of a large number of spectators.
—Banquet by the Ministry in the Concert Hall of the Jubilee Exhibition to Lord Carrington and the Parliamentary Ministers from New South Wales.
Aug. 3.
—Unusually cold weather; snowstorms in the hilly districts to two hundred miles north of Adelaide.
—New western aisle of St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral dedicated by Archbishop Reynolds.
—Adelaide Intercolonial Chess Congress opened by Governor. First prize, £50 and championship, gained by Mr. H. Charlick on the 26th.
—Adelaide Intercolonial Medical Conference opened by Governor; inaugural address by the President, Dr. Verco.
Sep. 1.
—Congregational Jubilee; 3000 Sunday-school children on Adelaide Racecourse.
Norwegian barque Guldax, 556 tons, from Gothenburg, laden with timber wrecked near Normanville.
—Dr. Dale's first sermon in Adelaide in Stow Memorial Hall.
—Congregational Jubilee Intercolonial Conference.
—Archbishop Reynolds invested with the pallium by Cardinal Moran in St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral.
Sep. 13
to 15.—International Temperance Convention and public demonstration.
—Railway from Cockburn to Silverton opened.
—Corner-stone of the tower of St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral blessed and laid by Cardinal Moran, assisted by the Bishops of Hobart, Dunedin, and Perth, and Archbishop of Adelaide.
Oct. 5.
—First Intercolonial Conference of the Chamber of Manufactures.
—St John's Church, Halifax Street, consecrated by Bishop Kennion.
—Bishop Barry lectured at the Town Hall on "The New Britain of the South; its Prospects and its Duties."
—Explosion in the Artillery Store at Fort Glanville, caused by the incautious firing of a friction tube.
—Federal Branch Bank opened in King William Streets.
—Cricket-match on Oval; G.F. Vernon's English Eleven, 395; eleven South Australians, 324.
Nov. 17.
—Orient steamer Ormuz arrived from Plymouth in 27 days 22 hours, being quickest passage on record to date.
—Intercolonial eight-oared race on Port Adelaide river between eight Williamstown and eight South Australian rowers; won by former; 3½ miles in 24 minutes 11½ seconds.
—Large public meeting in Town Hall. Resolutions passed expressing that the influx of Chinese was detrimental to the moral, social, and industrial interests of the colony, and calling upon the Legislature to take steps for suppressing it.
—Explosion of boiler at Burford and Sons' Soap and Candle Manufactory. One workman killed; damage, £3000.
Jan. 1.
—At Fancourt, Chertsey, England, aged 83, Sir Walter Watson Hughes, founder of Adelaide University; a colonist of 1842.
—Mr. J. Cherry, Official Receiver of the Adelaide Insolvency Court. In the South Australian Civil Service since 1853.
—Captain Jacob Sanderson, well known in connection with the Elder line of ships. For thirteen years Surveyor to the Adelaide Underwriters' Association.
—Mr. W.F. Coglin, J.P., aged 68. Forty years resident in the Burra. For many years Crown Lands Ranger, and a useful man in the Burra Corporation and in other public capacities.
—Mr. John Rendall, aged 74. Arrived in February, 1837.
Mr. Charles Giles, senior. Grove Hill, Magill. Arrived in 1839, and became foremost cultivator of fruit and flowers in colony.
Richard Joshua, aged 81. One of the earliest Adelaide residents.
March 20.
—Mr. George Stephens, at Glenelg, formerly of Gawler, where he was twenty-six years in business, and ten years Councillor.
April 2.
—Mr. W.G. McCullagh, S.M. for the Mount Barker circuit. In Civil Service since 1862.
—Hon. John Crozier, M.L.C., aged 73. Arrived in 1838; born August 12, 1814, near Hawick, Roxburgh. From his arrival till 1846 he was successively manager of the Redesdale Estate and of the Sand Hills Station. He then engaged in squatting pursuits till 1867, when he purchased Oaklands, and resided there till his death. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1867, and again in 1876. His straightforward though cautious policy in the Council and his good-humoured, outspoken speeches won him general esteem. At the hustings he never flattered the electors, and yet was always popular. He could remember riding on George Stephenson's first passenger railway between Stockton and Darlington before it was opened for traffic.
April 25.
—Rev. Mother Mary Liquori, Superioress of the Convent of "Our Lady of Mercy", Angas Street.
—Mr. A. Watherston, senior, at Port Lincoln, aged 78. Came out in 1839 in charge of the first imported bull sent out by the South Australian Company. He was one of the first to cross the Murray.
—Mr. E.J. Hodgkinson, aged 51. Well known in connection with the Savings Bank for twenty-three years.
May 17.
—Herr Kischner, Master of Modern Languages at St. Peter's Collegiate School. Formerly a lieutenant of Uhlans during the Franco-German War.
—At Sydney, Mr. James Band Moffat. Formerly a journalist in Adelaide for about twelve years.
—At Bath, England, Sir Charles Cooper, first Chief Justice of South Australia. 23.—Mr. Harold Field Downer, well-known solicitor, and youngest of three brothers all eminent in South Australian public life.
—Mr. J.A. Holden, aged 53. One of the founders of the Chamber of Manufactures; Commissioner for South Australia at International Exhibitions at London, Paris, Melbourne, Sydney.
—Mr. John Weymouth, senior, Coromandel Valley, aged 85. Colonist forty-nine years.
—Mr. T.R. Daniel, Henden Farm, aged 71. Arrived in February, 1837.
—Mr. W. Pederick, Woodbury, Gawler River, aged 83. Pioneer colonist.
—Mr. J. Varley, S.M., aged 57. In Government service thirty-three years; a frequent contributor to the press.
—Mr. J.L. Tuxford, aged 75. Came out in 1838, and was associated with early development of agriculture in the colony. The first citizen who paid rates to the Corporation of Adelaide. Tuxford Brothers were the first importers of agricultural machinery. Deceased was also particularly interested in the Yelta and other mines.
July 14.
—Mr. C.C. Dutton, Rabbit Inspector of the Paratoo District.
—Mr. E.E. Flint, at Alice Springs, Senior and Inspecting Officer of the Southern Section of the Telegraph Line from Adelaide to Port Darwin. Sixteen years in the department. Was one of the first party of operators sent to the interior during the construction of the line in 1871. At Barrow Creek in 1874 he was severely speared in the thigh during an attack by natives, when the station-master (Mr. Stapleton) and the cook (Franks) were speared to death.
—Mr. John Rainsford, formerly messenger and crier at the Supreme Court, Adelaide. Arrived in 1837. Many years in Government employ.
—Mr. Frederick Hodding, at Kent Town. Arrived in 1840; lost much capital in pastoral pursuits; for some time an officer in the Victorian mounted gold escort; for some years previous to his death employed by South Australian Government in the Engineer-in-chief's department.
—Rev. C. Goodenough Taplin, at Port Lincoln. Ordained by Bishop Short, 1869, and successively incumbent at Wallaroo, Franklin Harbour, Woodville, and Port Lincoln.
July 24.
—Mr. H.A. Edin, prominent young journalist.
—Mr. James Gordon Young, local manager of the National Insurance Company of Australasia.
—Mr. W.S. Whitington, aged 76. Came to colony in 1839; began business as a merchant in Rundle Street, and was the first person to bring a steamer to Port Adelaide; afterwards engaged in agricultural pursuits, and was subsequently largely connected with mining operations. He was the first to import into the colony a blood entire racehorse and mare, of which the progeny were so well known in after years in the Hon. John Baker's racing stud. He also imported pedigree bulls and cows, as well as numerous game, including deer, pheasants, hares, etc.
Sep. 3.
—Mr. Charles Stacey, Brompton, aged over 90 A colonist forty-seven years.
—Mr. Samuel Frearson, aged 42; of Frearson and Brothers, proprietors of the Pictorial Australian. Arrived in 1853.
Oct. 23.
—Mr. Samuel Cornish, aged 60. Old colonist; for many years a partner in Harrold Brothers.
—Mr. John Daniels, aged 69. Old colonist; came to the colony in 1845, having previously been sergeant in a regiment in charge of convicts at Norfolk Island; a prominent Freemason.
—Mrs. George Melrose, formerly Thomson. Came to the colony in 1839; the first white woman who went up the Murray, causing great excitement among the blacks, who came from fifty miles round to see her; widely known for the first thirty years of her life at her husband's hospitable homestead, Rosebank, near Mount Pleasant.
Nov. 1.
—Mr. John Carruthers, aged 81. Colonist forty-seven years; at first agriculturist.
—Mr. James Morecott Holder, aged 63. Arrived in 1849; teacher under the Education Department till 1865; after that in the Civil Service.
—At Hampstead, London, Mr. John Ridley, aged 81. Came to South Australia in April, 1840, and set up steam mills at Hindmarsh for grinding corn. He invented the celebrated reaping machine that bears his name, and in 1853 returned with his wife and two daughters to England. Before leaving he was presented with complimentary addresses from the Adelaide Corporation and from the Agricultural and Horticultural Society. After several years of travel he settled near Hexham, and finally near Hampstead, where he spent his time and means mainly in disseminating his earnest views "as to the final restitution of all things and the total annihilation of all evil."
—Mr. C.B. Newenham, at Bath, England, aged 94. Came to South Australia in 1837, and was appointed Auditor-General of the Province. He dwelt with his family in a tent, and afterwards in a wooden cottage with vine-covered roof, where now stands the Adelaide Club, Afterwards moved to Mitcham, and built his residence, Springfield, in which he lived as the first Sheriff of South Australia till 1854, when he returned to England. Hisj daughters all married in the colony, the eldest to Sir Charles Cooper, the first Chief Justice of South Australia.
—Mr. W. McNamara, aged 59. Came out in 1852; a well-known contractor. He laid the first gas mains and the water mains in Adelaide; he was also engaged upon the Strathalbyn and Goolwa railway and bridges. which occupied three years; and in making roads in the Northern Territory for four years. Returning to Adelaide, he constructed the road through Victoria Square, and was partner with Mr. Chandler in the £100,000 contract for the deep drainage pipes. He was an active member of the Oddfellows, Druids, and Catholic Benefit Societies.
Dec. 7.
—Mrs. George Gray. Came out in 1840; she was the maker of the wax models of South Australian fruit so much admired at the Indian and Colonial and various other Exhibitions. Specimens are still to be seen at the Royal Colonial Institute, London.
—Sir Robert Dalrymple Ross, K.B., Speaker of the House of Assembly, aged 59. He came to South Australia in 1862, and was placed in charge of the Commissariat Department, afterwards aide-de-camp to Governor Daly and private secretary. In 1864-66 served in the New Zealand War; in 1869 visited England and advocated through the press and in other ways a depot for horses at Port Darwin, telegraphic communication between England and Australia viâ Port Darwin, and a transcontinental railway on the land-grant system. After military service in Ireland and at Manchester he left the army in 1871, and returned to settle in South Australia, at Highercombe, in the Mount Lofty ranges, an estate which he had purchased in 1866. Here he lived, prominent in all public movements, and actively interested in vine and olive culture, fruit-drying, wine-making, and other productive industries. He entered Parliament for Wallaroo in 1875, and was returned for Gumeracha in 1881, and represented that district till his death. He was Treasurer in the Colton Cabinet of 1877, and on the death of Sir George Kingston in 1881 was unanimously chosen as Speaker of the Assembly, He was knighted in May, 1886. He took a prominent part in the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition and many other public movements.
Dec. 27.
—Mr. J.S. Bagshaw, who came out in 1838 in the Eden, and founded the well-known "Pioneer" works for agricultural and other implements. He was connected with the building of some of the first water, steam, and wind mills in the colony.
—Rev. A. Sells, junior, aged 30. Anglican clergyman.

Jan. 6.
—Great destruction of property by bush fire in Mount Gambier district.
—Barque Saturn, laden with wheat, destroyed by fire at Port Pirie.
—International Jubilee Exhibition closed. Attendance, 766,880.
—Duke of Manchester opened the Cockburn and Broken Hill Railway. Length of line, 26 miles.
—Sir William Robinson presided at banquet to official representatives and exhibitors of Jubilee Exhibition.
—Rev. James Haslam elected President of Wesleyan Conference.
—Telegram received announcing that the title of K.C.M.G. had been conferred on Mr. E.T. Smith, Mayor of Adelaide.
—Government holiday in celebration of centenary of first settlement of Australia.
29, 30.
—Bicentenary of birth of Swedenborg celebrated at the New Church, Hanson St.
Feb. 10.
—Arrival of Earl and Countess of Carnarvon by express train from Melbourne. Left on 13th for London.
Feb. 13.
—Collapse of a crane at Kapunda marble quarries. Two men killed, several injured. Damage to machinery, £2000.
—Intercolonial cricket-match. Scores: South Australia, 407 in one innings; Victoria, 294 in two innings.
—Public farewell to Bishop Kennion prior to leaving for Pan-Anglican Synod in England.
March 1.
—Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society's autumn show held in buildings and grounds of old Exhibition.
—Demonstration in honour of St. Patrick's Day.
—The last of the Ocean Mail steamers, the Carthage, called at Glenelg.
—Return of Major-General Downes to resume command of the military forces.
—Encampment of military at Keswick, near Adelaide.
—Banquet at Wallaroo to commemorate the introduction into the district of water from the Beetaloo Waterworks.
—Arrival in Adelaide of Mr. David Lindsay, explorer, after his second transcontinental journey. Left Palmerston in September, 1887.
April 10.
—Agricultural Bureau established. Chairman, Mr. F.E.H.W. Krichauff.
—Opening of Columbia Skating Rink in Exhibition Building. 800 skaters; 6000 spectators.
—Chrysanthemum show in Town Hall.
—Bush fires from Highercombe to Montacute and the Torrens Gorge.
—Railway collision at the crossing of the Hills Railway line and the Glenelg Road.
May 3.
—Summer drought broken up by copious rains in settled districts.
April 5.
[sic] —First election of members of Legislative Council for Central District under the Amended Electoral Act. Dr. Magarey and Mr. Colton returned.
—Shock of earthquake at Hahnsdorf.
—Thunderstorm with hail "as large as pigeons' eggs."
—Second session of twelfth Parliament opened by Sir William Robinson.
June 15.
—Intelligence of death of German Emperor, Frederick III., received on the evening of the day of its occurrence.
—Rev. Nundo Lall Doss, native Indian missionary, preached his first sermon in colony in the Stow Memorial Church.
27 and 28.
—First sales by auction of pastoral leases falling due. 21,000 square miles taken up at annual average rental of 38s. per square mile.
—Opening of Royal Exchange, King William Street, by Sir W. Robinson.
—Breakage of both lines between Port Darwin and Java. Telegraphic communication with Europe suspended until July 18.
July 7.
—First football match between an English and an Australian team played on the Oval. Result: South Australia, 8 goals, 9 behinds; English, 5 goals, 9 behinds.
—Total wreck of the Star of Greece off Willunga while on her passage from Adelaide to London, The captain (H.R. Harrower) and eighteen of the crew drowned; nine saved.
—Death of King Pulhem, principal chief, and long recognized as Rubulle or King of the Narruiyeri tribe of aborigines on the Murray Lakes. At one time he had the command of 500 fighting men.
—Inauguration of the Woman's Suffrage League.
—Destruction by fire of the Murray steamer Britannia at Craigie's Creek, 150 miles above Morgan. Estimated loss, £6000.
July 25.
—Boiler explosion at Mr. Finck's Flour Mill, Greenock. Two deaths.
Aug. 7.
—Total destruction by fire of Harrison's Steam Flour Mill at Port Adelaide. Damage, £30,000.
—Explosion of a shell during the firing of an 80-pounder gun at Largs Fort, thereby cracking the gun and rendering it useless.
—Termination in the Supreme Court, Northern Territory, of an action for trespass, Macpherson v. Smith and Macaush, extending over eleven days. Verdict for plaintiff; damages, £10,300.
Sep. 3.
—Public holiday and annual demonstration in connection with the Eight Hours' Movement.
—The South Australian National Rifle Association held its annual matches at the Port Adelaide ranges.
—The Northern Volunteer Corps commenced a week's encampment at Bruce. Oct. 6.—International Bicycle Carnival on Adelaide Oval.
—Public School Drill Demonstration on Montefiore Hill; 546 boys present.
Nov. 16.
—Picnic at Torrens' Park, near Mitcham, of 2793 teachers and children of city public schools, through liberality of the Mayor, Sir Edwin Smith.
—St. Andrew's Day celebrated by banquet in Caledonian Society's Hall.
Dec. 1.
—Municipal elections in all the municipalities.
—Annual cricket-match, 11 M.P.'s and 11 Pressmen. Result: Parliament, 93, all out; Press, 144, no wickets down.
—Farewell demonstration to Sir Edwin and Lady Smith.
—Commemoration Day, Adelaide University. Degrees of LLB., etc., conferred upon a lady and eighteen gentlemen candidates.
Dec. 28.
—Nearly 20,000 persons visited Glenelg to celebrate fifty-second anniversary of proclamation of the colony.
Jan. 6.
—At Kapunda, Father Edmund O'Brien, one of the priests of St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral—the only South Australia-born priest.
—At her residence in Pirie Street, Mrs. Charles Mann, wife of the Hon. C. Mann, Q.C., Crown Solicitor.
—Samuel Morcom, aged 41, "Sam Morcom", the well known South Australian cricketer.
Feb. 5.
—Mr. R.J. Winter, for over thirty years connected with the Order of Foresters in the colony.
—At Uraidla, James Cobbledick, aged 78. A colonist of fifty years' standing, and a hard-working member of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society.
—Mr. John Stewart Turner, aged 78. Arrived in colony in 1839.
—Mr. Henry Giles, son of Mr. William Giles, first manager of the South Australian Company.
—Dr. Charles Davies, an old colonist, aged 74.
—Mr. Charles Farr, contractor and builder, aged 75. Arrived in the colony in the Eden, 1839.
March 3.
—Mr. H.C. Salter, Superintendent of Fire Brigades, aged 27.
—Mr. John Martin, aged 88. Arrived in the ship Anne Robinson in 1839.
—Mr. John Norton Martin, J.P., traffic manager of the South-Eastern Railway System, aged 53.
—Rev. Cornelius McCloskey, aged 61. For some time laboured in connection with St. Lawrence's Church, North Adelaide.
March 26.
—Mr. G.B. Wilkinson, aged 69. For many years contributor to the Register and Observer; came to colony in 1839; author of one of the earliest books on "South Australia" and its resources.
April 4.
—Mr. Emanuel Spiller, Government printer, aged 64. He was conductor and secretary of the old Adelaide Philharmonic Society and a general friend to the progress of music in the colony.
—Mr. Joseph Pritchard, aged 74. Arrived in the ship Hooghly in 1839.
—Suddenly, the Rev. Edmund Jenkins, incumbent of St. Matthew's Church, Kensington, aged 66.
—Mr. Joel Roberts, aged 70. Arrived in brig Arab in 1843; one of the earliest licensed brokers under the Real Property Act.
May 5.
—At North Adelaide, Rev. Samuel Hebditch, pastor of the Congregational Church, Brougham Place. Took a prominent part in religious, philanthropic, and educational work.
—Mr. Charles Conway Ferors, aged 79. He had been on Australian shores for sixty years. Came out as sailor to Botany Bay in 1828; was engaged in sealing on Kangaroo Island before the proclamation of the colony.
—At North Adelaide, Mr. R.L. Mægraith, aged 87. For thirty years Superintendent of Mercantile Marine, of whom the Marine Board recorded "that they had never known him to make a mistake."
—Mr. George James, aged 77. For many years landlord of the Norfolk Arms, Rundle Street; arrived in the ship Royal Admiral, January, 1838.
—Mr. C.G. Teichelman, aged 81., Lutheran German missionary sent out under the auspices of Mr. G.F. Angas, and arrived in colony in 1838. He was the first missionary to the aborigines.
June 20.
—Mr. Nathaniel Oldham, aged 71. Occupied responsible financial and banking position in colony for over a quarter of a century.
—Captain William Wells, of the Semaphore, aged 63. Widely known in shipping circles.
—Mr. R.J. Turner, aged 71. One of the oldest and best-respected stipendiary magistrates of South Australia.
July 19.
—Mr. James Windebank, aged 71. Came out in Africaine in 1836; "a typical English gentleman."
—Mr. James Hosking, Inspector of Schools, aged 66. A colonist of thirty-three years' standing, and all his life associated with educational pursuits.
Aug. 4.
—Mr. E.W. Wright, aged 64 A well-known architect. "There is hardly a street in the city in which there is not a building designed by him." He was president of the South Australian Institute of Architects.
—Mr. Elliot Aitchison, aged 71. Brought stock overland in 1842, and then settled in the colony.
—Mr. William Jacka, the well-known landlord of Hammond Hotel, aged 57. "A strong supporter of the Wesleyan Church."
Sep. 7.
—Mr. Thomas Chalwin, aged 57. One of the best-known veterinary surgeons in the colony. "Contributed largely to medical literature in this line."
—Mr. Samuel Walkley, aged 82. A colonist of fifty years' standing; came to the colony in Royal Admiral in 1838.
—Mr. Samuel Bakewell, aged 73. Merchant and philanthropist.
—Mr. R.H. Wigg (R.H. Wigg and Sons, well-known merchants of King William Street), aged 66.
Sep. 27.
—At Port Lincoln, Mr. J.S. Browne, S.M., aged 72. An old colonist and a valued civil servant.
—At MacLaren Flat, Mr. J.B. Wilson, aged 83. Came out in ship Sir Charles Forbes, 1838. Left three sons, seven daughters, sixty grandchildren, and thirty-six great-grandchildren.
—Mr. George Joseph Linn, aged 53. A well-known and respected pioneer farmer.
Oct. 6.
—Miss L.A. Paqualin, secretary of the Young, Women's Christian Association, aged 47.
—At Brisbane, suddenly, Sir Anthony Musgrave, a former Governor of South Australia, aged 60.
—Mr. J.S. McClory, aged 36. Proprietor and editor of the Sentinel.
—Mr. Robert Cleland, aged 68. For many years connected with the shipping business of Port Adelaide.
—Mrs. Philip Lee, aged 74. Arrived in the Tam o'Shanter, 1836. She and her husband were the first settlers of the Jewish faith who landed in South Australia.
Nov. 1.
—Mr. William Malcolm, of Gawler, aged 48. Founder of the well-known Gawler Ostrich Farming Company.
—Mr. Jacob Bowden, aged 79. Arrived in the Royal Admiral, 1838; medical herbalist.
—Rev. W. Jenkin, aged 50. A much-respected Primitive Methodist minister and a colonist of thirty-one years.
—Mr. F. Oberlin Bruce, aged 49. A well-known city lawyer.
—Mr. Henry Hammond, aged 62. For many years a builder in North Adelaide; an ardent philanthropist, especially on behalf of the blind.
Dec. 12.
—Mr. George Wills, aged 77. A colonist of forty-eight years' standing; he gave the site on which the Goodwood Institute is built, and liberally endowed it.
—Mr. Thomas Dallison, an old colonist and Portonian, aged 89.
—At Edwardstown, Captain Emmanuel Underwood, aged 82. Led a wildly adventurous career. In his little schooner of seventeen tons he explored every nook in both gulfs and the coast line as far as to Melbourne Heads.
—Mr. Francis Duffield, aged 88. Arrived in colony in 1839; for many years Chairman of the Onkaparinga Council.
—Rev. Morgan Lloyd, Minister of the Baptist Church, Alberton, aged 38.
—Mr. Thomas Ward J.P., late City Coroner, aged 73.
—Mr. A.J. Jamieson, aged 51. Many years connected with the Bank of South Australia.
—At Koolunga, Mr. Daniel Cox, aged 77. Came out in the Africaine, 1838; a thrifty and able farmer.
—At Kent Town, William Kelly, aged 84. Arrived in colony in 1838; a prominent member of the Wesleyan Church.

Jan. 1.
—Unusually heavy rainfall throughout the colony.
—First Julien electric traction car, manufactured by Messrs. Duncan and Fraser, successfully employed on the Hindmarsh line.
—A troupe of Maori dancers made their first appearance on the Adelaide Oval.
Feb. 12.
—A meteor, unusually brilliant, passed horizontally from south-west to south-east.
Feb. 16.
—Mr. F. Cowan conducted his cantata, "Sleeping Beauty", in the Exhibition Building.
—Formal opening of telephonic communication between Gambier, Adelaide, and Port Adelaide.
—Fearful thunderstorm and high wind. Much damage done at Crystal Brook. Two children of Mr. W. Brook, with the horses they were riding, struck dead at Eudunda.
March 5.
—Sir Wm. Robinson left Adelaide for Victoria.


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—Destruction by fire of the Coffee Palace, Hindley Street. Fatal accident to Mr. F. W. Taplin, Superintendent of Point MacLeay Aborigines Mission Station, while attempting to save a woman from the flames.
—Return from England of Bishop Kennion, after an absence of thirteen months.
April 1.
—Heavy rains in all the settled districts. Great floods in the north.
—Public welcome to Bishop Kennion on his return to Adelaide.
—Sudden death of Mr. William Bundey at a wedding festival held in the North Adelaide Institute.
—Arrival of the new Governor, the Earl of Kintore, who was sworn in at the Town Hall, in the presence of an unusually crowded assembly.


{Page 346}

—Mr. John Dillon, M.P. for East Mayo, Ireland, lectured in the Town Hall on "The Irish Question."
April 13.
—First levée of new Governor at Government House; 719 attended.
—Thunderstorms. Hail at Border Town two inches in diameter. Tremendous rain. Three lives lost and great damage done to property.
—Easter encampment of military forces at Keswick.
May 4, 9,
11.—Autumn Race Meetings on Morphettville course of South Australian Jockey Club.
—Completion of artesian well at Dry Creek Smelting Works. Fresh water struck at depth of 258 feet, yielding 30,000 gallons per hour.
—Arrival at Largs Bay of H.M's flagship Orlando and H.M.S Calliope.
—Twenty-fifth Synod of the Church of England opened in the cathedral of St. Peter.
June 5.
—Mr. C. Santley, the English baritone, sang in the "Elijah" at Town Hall.
—Fourth session of twelfth Parliament opened by the Earl of Kintore.
—School of Mines and Industries opened by the Earl of Kintore in eastern annexe of Exhibition.
—Inauguration of Annual Arbor Day. 761 trees planted by children of the public schools on the south-eastern Park-lands.
—The Playford Ministry defeated on a motion of "No confidence", moved by Dr. Cockburn, and carried by a majority of three.
—Great church parade of Friendly Societies.
July 13.
—Call to arms of the military defence forces. 726 attended.
—Severe frost in Mount Lofty ranges. Ice an inch thick.
Aug. 9.
—Violent earth-shock at Beltana.
—Mr. J.M. Stuart appointed Crown Solicitor, vice Hon. C. Mann, deceased.
Aug. 24.
—Review of military forces on North Park-lands by Major-General J. Bevan Edwards. 1377 officers and men present.
27 and 30.
—South Australian National Rifle Association held annual matches at Port Adelaide Ranges.
Sep. 1.
—Eight Hours' Demonstration. Public holiday.
—Offices of South Australian Register, Evening Journal, and Observer first lighted by electricity.
—The Earl of Kintore laid foundation-stone of St. Giles' Presbyterian Church, Parade, Norwood.
Oct. 18
and 19.—Public Schools Floral and Industrial Exhibition held in Town Hall.
—Opening demonstration of South Australian Yacht Club in the Port River.
—The Earl of Kintore presided in the Victoria Hall at the forty-fourth anniversary of the South Australian Auxiliary of the British and Foreign Bible Society.
—The Earl of Kintore installed Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons by Lord Carrington, Governor of New South Wales.
Nov. 3.
—Bishop O'Reilly laid foundation-stone of the Convent Schools at Port Pirie.
—Inauguration of the South Australian Branch of the Imperial Federation League. President, Chief Justice Way; Vice-President, Mr. C.H. Goode.
—Mr. Lewis Cohen, M.P., nominated and returned as Mayor of Adelaide, unopposed.
Dec. 6.
—Parliament prorogued by Earl of Kintore.
—Great demonstration in Town Hall to denounce the alleged sweating system in Adelaide.
13, 17.
—Intercolonial cricket-match played on Oval. Scores: Victoria, 523; South Australia, 541.
Dec. 19.
—University Commemoration Day celebrated in Town Hall.
—Second University eight-oared boat-race between Victoria and Adelaide, rowed on Port Adelaide river. Won by three lengths by Adelaide crew.
—German barque Apollo stranded on western shore of Spencer's Gulf.
—Fifty-third anniversary of the proclamation of the colony.
Jan. 10.
—Mr. A.J. Solomon, aged 63. A colonist of forty years' standing; for many years "reader" in the Adelaide Synagogue.
—At Port Victor, Mr. Thomas Good, aged 66 (of the firm of Good, Toms, and Co.). Came to the colony in 1849.
—Mrs. Caroline Wylde, aged 65. Beloved by all the poor of North Adelaide and the Semaphore.
—Mr. Herman Oelmann, aged 48. A leading member of the Adelaide Liedertafel.
Feb. 3.
—Mr. John Walter Bushell, aged 68. Arrived in colony in 1840; one of the first carriers on the road between the city and Port Adelaide.
March 3.
—Mr. Lewis Thomas, aged 80. An intrepid boatman and first coxswain of the pilot boat at the Semaphore Station.
—At Noarlunga, Mr. James Clark, aged 60. One of the "Fathers" of that district; a colonist of fifty years.
—Mr. John Hatchett, solicitor, aged 70. Was secretary of one of the first building societies in Adelaide.
—Mr. F.W. Taplin, superintendent of the Point MacLeay Mission Station. A true friend to the aborigines; greatly respected.
—Mr. William Kay, J.P., aged 60. Arrived in colony in 1850; a most valuable colonist and citizen.
April 2.
—At North Adelaide, while attending a wedding festival, ex-Mayor Bundey, aged 63.
—Mrs. Margaret O'Leary, aged 83. Arrived in colony in 1838.
—Mr. John Lindsay Paterson, aged 76. One of the pioneers of Gawler.
May 5.
—Mr. James Milton, aged 79. A colonist of forty-nine years, and formerly caretaker of old Government House.
—At Plympton, Mr. William Parkin, J.P., aged 88. Arrived in colony in 1838; one of the first proprietors of the South Australian Advertiser; ten years member of Legislative Council; a great philanthropist, who handsomely endowed "The Parkin Trust" and "The Parkin Institute."
June 7.
—Mr. E.P. Pearce, accountant of the Savings Bank of South Australia. Thirty-two years in colony; well known in financial circles.
—At Angaston, Mr. Samuel Smith, aged 74. One of the oldest wine-growers in the colony; a man greatly esteemed and respected.
—Mr. D.H. Weidenhöfer, aged 71. "An independent, upright, and thoroughly representative German colonist."
—Mr. F.S.C. Driffield, aged 64. For some time Secretary of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society, Secretary of Adelaide Chamber of Commerce, and other offices.
—Mrs. Benjamin Boothby, widow of Mr. Justice Boothby, aged 82. She was one of the first in the colony to practise homœopathy in her own household, and rendered important service to her neighbours in her philanthropic labours.
—At Bournemouth, England, Mr. H.H. Turton, aged 57. Many years accountant at the Savings Bank.
June 30.
—Mr. William Easther, aged 75. A pioneer colonist, and for many years a prominent member of the theatrical profession in Adelaide.
July 7.
—The Hon. Charles Mann. Q.C., Crown Solicitor, aged 52.
—Rev. A.J. Bogle, aged 45. The first Wesleyan missionary in the Northern Territory and founder of the Palmerston Wesleyan Mission in 1873.
—At the Semaphore, Captain William Begg, Lloyd's surveyor at the port, aged 68.
—Mr. J.A. Kirkpatrick, aged 49. For many years organist at the Glenelg Congregational Church.
Aug. 3.
—Mr. William Nitschke, of Hackney, aged 72. The first South Australian who is known to have manufactured ice.
—Mr. Henry Stodart, aged 57. A well-known accountant and auditor.
—Rev. W. Vizard Smith. A much-respected Baptist minister.
—Mr. Adolph Witt. A leading member of the Adelaide Stock Exchange.
—Mr. David Lithgow. A prominent member of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society.
—At Kallara Station, River Darling, Captain Thomas Johnstone, aged 64. One of the pioneer navigators of the Murray and Darling rivers.
—Mr. W. Everard, J.P., aged 70. Arrived in Africaine in 1836; took a prominent part in politics; one of the best-known citizens of South Australia.
—Mr. James Phillis, aged 92. Arrived in colony in 1839; was the first settler at Mount Pleasant. He left 194 descendants.
Sep. 6.
—Mrs. Carmichael, wife of the Rev. J.C. Carmichael. Secretary of the Congregational Union.
Sep. 10.
—In Adelaide Hospital, "Dick", king of the Warramunga tribe of aborigines. The faithful attendant of Mr. Lindsay, the explorer.
—Mr. Ames Armour, of Mitcham, an old colonist, aged 69.
—At Port Victor, Mr. Benjamin Davies, well known in literary, masonic, and military circles in the city and at Port Adelaide, aged 39.
—Suddenly, Mr. W. Christie, of Port Adelaide. A colonist of thirty-four years and an enthusiastic supporter of yachting.
Oct. 1.
—Mr. James Calder, aged 72. Arrived in colony in 1852; founder of the City Steam Biscuit Factory in Twin Street.
—At Norwood, Mr. Thomas Clarke, aged 59. A colonist of forty years, owner of "Clarke's Vineyard".
—Captain Henry Roach, aged 81. Many years connected with the Burra mines.
—Mr. David Harvey, aged 71. A colonist of forty-seven years.
—At Sydney, Rev. J.E. Tennison Woods, aged 56. Author of "Explorations in Australia".
—Mr. Charles James Coates, Secretary of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society, aged 69. Highly respected.
—Mr. C.B. Morrison, aged 75. Arrived in Buffalo in 1836; one of the first policemen in the colony.
—At Jamestown, Mr. Robert John Tilbury, aged 56. For thirty years connected with the shipping at the port.
—Mr. Thomas Edward Acraman, aged 62. One of the best valuators in South Australia.
Nov. 5.
—At Mitcham, Colonel P. Egerton Warburton, aged 76. An honoured Australian explorer.
—Mr. William Beer, aged 72. A colonist of thirty-live years.
Nov. 18.
—At Marryatville, where she had resided for forty-five years, Mrs. Reed.
—Mr. H.S. Price, an old colonist and a well-known pastoralist, aged 65. (His widow died a few days later.)
Dec. 5.
—At Riverton, Mrs. Gambier, aged 89. Colonist of forty-three years.
—At Unley, Mr. J.C.F. Grutzmacher, of H.M. Customs, aged 53. An active Good Templar.
—Mr. R.N. Gault, aged 62. Well-known draper of Rundle Street.
—Mr. G.C. Fry, aged 54. One of the leading contractors in the colony.
—Mr. William Barnet, sen., of Gawler, aged 90.
—Mr. Alfred Wilson, aged 70. A colonist of 50 years; held a commission in the first Volunteer force.
—The Hon. Philip Santo, aged 72. "One of the best and most respected citizens." He served in six Ministries.

Jan. 1.
—Regatta at Port Adelaide. Champion fours won by a Williamstown (Victoria) crew; champion sculls won by South Australia.
—Intelligence received that the honour of knighthood had been conferred on the Hon. J.C. Bray.
—Visit to Adelaide of Sir Samuel W. Griffith, the leading politician of Queensland. Left on the 6th.
—Departure of Lord Kintore on visit to New Zealand. Mr. Justice Boucaut Administrator.
—Threatened labour trouble at Port Adelaide—working men v. shipowners and stevedore companies.
—The Premier (Dr. Cockburn) and the leader of the Opposition (Hon. T. Playford) appointed delegates to the Federation Convention in Melbourne, and to the Federal Council.
Jan. 17.
—Singular railway accident on Northern Line. A kerosene lamp burst, and the burning oil fell upon the Hon. J.G. Ramsay, M.L.C., causing his death.
—Stranding of the barque Glenrosa near MacDonnell Bay, laden with 1300 tons of general cargo.
—Public funeral at Mount Barker of Hon. J.G. Ramsay, attended by the Ministers of the Crown, members of the Legislature, and large numbers of citizens.
—A deputation waited on the Premier with a petition bearing 2250 signatures, praying for a commutation of the death sentence passed on "Jackey", an aboriginal Sentence commuted by acting-Governor (Mr. Justice Boucaut) to imprisonment for life.
—Estimated population of colony, exclusive of aborigines, 319,166.
Feb. 20.
—The Civil Service Commission reported on the Public Works Department, and recommended changes effecting a saving of £5660 per annum.
—Picnic at Balhannah, given by the Mayor of Adelaide (Mr. Lewis Cohen, M.P.) to the inmates of Asylums for Blind, Deaf, and Dumb, as well as to a large number of citizens and their friends.
—Mr. J.R. Cox, an Irish member of the House of Commons, delivered several addresses at Adelaide and the Port on Home Rule.
—A parcel post established between Adelaide and New Zealand.
—Agitation against proposed capitation grant to private schools.
—Russian influenza made its appearance in South Australia.
March 4.
—Visit of the Maharajah of Ulwar and his suite to Adelaide.
—Strike of 500 men at Wallaroo mines—members of the Australian Miners' Association.
—Return of Lord Kintore after two months' absence in New Zealand.
—House of Assembly dissolved by the Governor.
—Mr. B.A. Moulden resigned his office of Attorney-General owing to his opposition to the Government proposal for a progressive land-tax.
—Arrival in Adelaide of Sir Harry Parkes, Premier of New South Wales, en route for Broken Hill.
—Mr. J.F. Turner, Solicitor to the Registrar-General of Deeds Department, temporarily appointed Attorney-General.
—Daring robbery of £2644 in notes from a clerk who was paying in the amount at the Commercial Bank.
April 2.
—Departure from Adelaide of Mr. H.R. Hussey, chief of the Sales Department of Messrs. Gibbs, Bright, and Co.
—Mr. J.E. Brown, Conservator of Forests, accepted appointment as Director-General of Forests in New South Wales.
—Departure of the Maharajah of Ulwar, after spending a month in Australia.
—(Easter Monday) 12,000 persons attended the Onkaparinga Races. £8770 passed through the totalizator.
—Foundation-stone of schoolroom in connection with the Anglican Church of St. Michael laid by the Countess of Kintore.
—The first locomotive made in the colony (by Messrs. J. Martin and Son) started at Gawler. It was the first instalment of a contract entered into in 1888, for the supply of fifty-two locomotives within seven years to the Railway Department. Lord Kintore drove the engine with a special train down to Adelaide.
April 14.
—The Hon. T. Playford, speaking on Australian Federation, contended that it was desirable, as it would lead (1) to intercolonial free trade; (2) to union for purposes of defence; and (3) to the establishment of an Australian Court of Appeal.
—Great meeting, under presidency of the Governor, to aid completion of the Anglican Cathedral. £27,000 required; £11,200 promised at the meeting.
—Arrival in Adelaide of Mr. Henry George, author of "Progress and Poverty", on a lecturing tour.
—Reports received that the wool trade for the season 1888-89 had been, in every branch, of an exceptionally satisfactory nature.
—Mr. H.E. Downer, M.P., sworn in as Attorney-General in succession to Mr. B.A. Moulden.
—With a view to the disposal of the assets of the Commercial Bank of South Australia an "Art Union" was formed. The Government took steps to quash this proceeding, and a body of police took possession of the offices and arrested all the clerical staff on duty. They were committed for trial for breach of the Lottery and Gaming Act.
—Departure of Mr. H.Y.L. Brown (Government Geologist) for the far north, to make a geological survey of the MacDonnell ranges.
—Epidemic of influenza severely raging in South Australia.
—Discussions on immigration. "There is now almost a universal concensus of opinion among the Colonial Governments unfavourable to the systems hitherto known as those of free and assisted immigration."
—At the New Zealand Exhibition, twelve exhibitors from South Australia forwarded ninety-two samples of wine and obtained eighty-five awards, including seven special and fifty-one first class awards.
May 7.
—A "World's Fair" held in the Exhibition Buildings in aid of the Industrial School for the Blind, resulted in receipts amounting to £2551.
—The brigantine L'Avenir went ashore in Spencer's Gulf.
—Intercolonial Postal Conference in Adelaide to consider proposal of Chancellor of Exchequer to reduce postage from Great Britain to Australia to 2½d., etc.
—Visit to Adelaide of Professor Drummond, author of "Natural Law in the Spiritual World", who delivered several lecturer privately to University students.
—Eight hundred thousand trees distributed gratuitously by the Forestry Department to farmers and others.
—Total value of staple exports of the colony during this year to end of April, £1,435,346.
—Intercolonial Postal Conference closed.
—A wealthy syndicate formed in Melbourne to test a portion of the southern end of Yorke's Peninsula for petroleum and coal.
—First session of the thirteenth Parliament opened by Lord Kintore, who spoke on the growth of the Australian Federal spirit, the Postal Conference, and the increasing prosperity of the colony.
—Foundation-stone of new wing, the gift of the Hon. J.H. Angas, to the Semaphore Convalescent Hospital laid by Mrs. Kennion, wife of the Bishop of Adelaide.
—Wreck of the s.s. You Yangs, an old intercolonial trader, off Kangaroo Island. No lives lost.
—The Mayor entertained the Governor, Ministers, and members of both Houses of the Legislature at a banquet in the Town Hall in honour of the Queen's Accession.
June 24.
—The Governor left Adelaide on a visit to Tasmania.
—A Royal Commission recommended that a line of railway be constructed from Roseworthy to Angaston. Estimated cost, £165,000.
—A Bill granting 25 per cent. subsidy from the State revenue to Corporations and District Councils, instead of from public-house license fees, carried in the Assembly.
—Select Committee appointed to inquire into the probable effect of Intercolonial Free Trade.
—The Payment of Members Bill, permanently adopting the principle of payment to legislators and fixing the remuneration at £200 per annum, adopted by Legislative Council without amendment.
—Return of Lord Kintore from Tasmania.
—Mr. J.E. Browne, late Conservator of Forests, left Adelaide to take up a similar appointment in Sydney. Mr. Walter Gill appointed his successor pro tem.
—Resignation of Hon. J.H. Howe, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
—Agreement proposed that all the traffic to and from the mines of the leading Broken Hill companies should be carried over the South Australian railways for a period of eight years.
—Agreement proposed that all the traffic to and from the mines of the leading Broken Hill companies should be carried over the South Australian railways for a period of eight years.
—The Hon. J.H. Angas brought forward, in the Legislative Assembly, a motion "That it is desirable that a Railway Conference be held at as early a date as possible to consider the question of a uniformity of gauge on the main lines in Now South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and South Australia, and that the Government be requested to take immediate action to give effect to this resolution." Carried.
July 10.
—Thirty-one members of the Adelaide Ministerial Association waited upon the Treasurer to urge the abolition of the law preventing ministers of religion from sharing in all the political rights of citizens.
—Both the cables from Port Darwin to Banjoewangie and from Roebuck Bay to Banjoewangie suddenly broken, and telegraphic communication between Australia and Europe cut off. Communication restored on July 20.
—Debates on the progressive land-tax proposals of the Government. The Treasurer urged that the pressing need of the colony was the distribution of the large estates among a farming population.
—Hours of tram-drivers reduced to ten per diem, the men consenting to a small reduction in their wages, and the Adelaide and Suburban Tramways Company to a loss of £1400 per annum.
—In the Hundreds of Noarlunga (fifteen miles from Adelaide) a rich discovery made of chlorides of silver.
—Visit of Sir Charles and Lady Hall, who gave a series of concerts in Adelaide.
—The Rev. Joseph Robertson, M.A., of Sydney, became pastor of Stow Memorial Church.
—Mr. J.G. Ashton appointed Accountant of Insolvency vice Hon. L. Glyde, deceased.
—Arrival of Mr. J.L. Toole, comedian, for a short dramatic season.
—The House of Assembly rejected the Government proposals for a progressive Land-Tax Bill by a majority of four in a very full House.
Aug. 10.
—Return to the colony of Mr. Burnell, inventor of the wool-scouring machine, having sold the British patents for the machine for £40,000.
—A strike of steamship officers owing to a dispute between the Mercantile Marine Officers' Association and the Steamship Officers' Association.
—Arrival of the Right Hon. the Earl of Hopetoun, accompanied by the Countess and suite, on a visit to the Governor.
.—Swearing-in of the new Government. A fortnight's adjournment granted.
The Playford Government—

Premier—Hon. Thomas Playford, colloquially known as "Honest Tom." He first took office in the seventies, eight years after he was sent into Parliament, and this Ministry was the eighth of which he had been a member.

Chief Secretary—Sir J.C. Bray, who was born in Adelaide in 1842. He first took office as Minister of the Crown in the Blyth Ministry, March, 1875, and during nineteen years of parliamentary life occupied for six years a seat on the Ministerial benches.

Attorney-General—Mr. Robert Homberg, who had served six years in Parliament, and was one of three Ministers who now for the first time took office under the Crown.

Commissioner of Crown Lands—Hon. W. Copley, who had been only three years in the Legislative Council.

Commissioner of Public Works—Mr. W.B. Rounsevell, Had three times served in the Ministry.

Minister of Education—Mr. D. Bews, An excellent debater, and one of the strongest in opposition to the retiring Ministry.
Aug. 19.
—Calico ball at Government House in honour of the Earl and Countess of Hopetoun.
—The shipping strike extending, and paralysing all business.
—Foundation-stone of a new city school to accommodate 1000 children laid by the Earl of Kintore.
—Sir Thomas Elder, G.C.M.G., proposed an exploring expedition to fill up the blanks still left in the map of Australia, and undertook to bear the entire cost.
—Departure of Earl and Countess of Kintore on a visit to Crystal Brook, Port Augusta, Port Lincoln, and the Poonindie Mission Station.
—Great meeting of employers in the Town Hall to consider the question of the shipping strike.
—A resolution unanimously passed by the Church of England Board of Education concerning the proposed introduction of Free Education as unwise, and tending to lessen the sense of parental responsibility.
—At the show of the Royal Agricultural Society in Adelaide the exhibition of stock, implements, and produce was exceptionally satisfactory, while the collection of dairy produce and appliances was such as had never been seen before in the city.
—At Port Adelaide the Colonial Sugar Refining Company commenced the erection of sugar refining works. Estimated expenditure, £50,000.
—Great Temperance Demonstration in Adelaide as a protest against the Licensing Bill brought in by the Government, especially as regarded the compensation clauses.
—A grand bazaar held in the Jubilee Exhibition Building for providing free beds in the private hospital. North Adelaide.
Sep. 1.
—Public holiday. "Eight Hours' Commemoration Day." The procession of Trades Unions was the largest ever seen in the colony.
—Parliament reassembled. The Hon. T. Playford announced the intentions of the Government, viz. public works, to cost about £3,500,000, including a railway to the Queensland border; an increase of the tax on incomes from property of twopence in the pound, and from trades of a penny; also to tax absentees by an extra fourpence in the pound. It was further proposed to appoint two new Ministers, one of Agriculture and Labour, and the other a Minister without portfolio.
—Bill introduced by the Government to provide for Free Education in State Schools.
—Return of the Earl and Countess of Kintore from Poonindie, etc.
—Foundation-stone of a block of seven new Cottage Homes for the Aged and Infirm laid at Brompton Park by the Countess of Kintore.
—The ship Cathcart, bound from Port Adelaide to Valparaiso, struck on the reef at Cape Jervis. Brought back in safety to the port.
—Closing of all the Broken Hill mines owing to the continuance of the intercolonial shipping strike.
—Select Committee appointed to inquire into the expediency of offering export bonuses for the promotion of the agricultural, fruit, dairying, and wine industries.
—The Hon. T. Playford brought forward his Budget. Estimated surplus for the current half-year, £68,595.
—Mr. J.L. Toole vacated the Adelaide stage in favour of Mrs. Brown-Potter and Mr. Kyrle Bellew.
—Messrs. H.C. Swan, S.M., and C.E. Taplin gave in the result of their inquiries into certain charges of alleged ill-treatment of natives made by the German missionaries of Hermannsberg Station against the police and the settlers. They found that no such barbarities and immoralities had been committed as alleged.
—Arrival of Dr. Saumarez Smith, the new Bishop of Sydney, and head of the Anglican Church in Australia.
—Foundation-stone of the nave and towers of St. Peter's Cathedral at North Adelaide laid with full Masonic honours by the Earl of Kintore.
—First boat-race (on the Port river) between crews representing the railway departments of the various colonies. Victorians won by six lengths.
Oct. 1.
—A Bill, brought in by Mr. Caldwell, for conferring upon women taxpayers the right to vote at elections for the Legislative Council, was carried by an absolute majority of the Assembly, in spite of the opposition of the Government. The main clause was, however, considerably altered in Committee.
—Return of Mr. H.Y.L. Brown, Government geologist, from an extended trip to the MacDonnell ranges. He reported favourably on the gold-bearing prospects of the country.
—The Governor left for Renmark to visit the Murray Irrigation Colonies.
—Successful trials of the Westinghouse brake on the Northern Line witnessed by numbers of members of Parliament.
—Messrs. A.E. Webb and Harold Michael drowned at the Semaphore by the upsetting of their canoes.
—The Salvation Army held a so-called "Council of War", inaugurating the work of the Prison Gate Brigade.
Oct. 17.
—Annual drill demonstration of the public schools. Six hundred boys attended in uniform and carried carbines.
—Ten thousand men took part in an immense demonstration at Adelaide to show sympathy with the shipping strike.
—Lady Kintore and her son, Lord Inverurie, left Adelaide for Europe. On the previous day about 1500 guests attended a farewell garden-party at Government House.
—The Jubilee of Municipal Government in Australasia celebrated in Adelaide, where municipal institutions were inaugurated, November.—The Bill to allow ministers of religion to sit in Parliament was rejected on the second reading in the Assembly by a majority of two.
—Tenders were called for by the Railway Commissioners for the construction in South Australia of ninety-two locomotive engines within five years from March, 1891. The fifty-two engines contracted for by Messrs. Martin and Co., of Gawler, were found to be insufficient to meet the growing traffic.
—Arrival of Madame Patey under engagement to sing for the Adelaide Musical Association.
—Mr. L. Cohen, M.P., re-elected Mayor of Adelaide for another year.
—Opening of an exhibition of British works of art brought to the colony by arrangement with the Royal Anglo-Australian Society of Artists for periodical exhibition of British works of art in Australia.
—Tremendous storm in St. Vincent's Gulf. Six yachts wrecked at Glenelg and great damage done to shipping.
—The Women's Franchise Bill not meeting with an absolute majority of the House on the third reading, was lost.
Nov. 13.
—Visit of a large number of members of the Legislature to Angaston, Tanunda, and neighbouring settlements, to investigate the utility of the projected railway from Roseworthy to Angaston.
—The "great strike of 1890, which for three months threw into disorder the commercial and industrial operations of Australia", came to an end, the men belonging to the various Unions practically abandoning the contest and accepting the employers' terms.
—Departure of Major-General Downes and other military men for Albany, to take part in the Defence Conference.
—Arrival of Sir W.C.F. Robinson, Governor of Western Australia, and, on November 24, of General Sir Henry Norman, Governor of Queensland, on a visit to Lord Kintore.
—During the week ending November 22, 1300 visitors paid for admission to the British Art Gallery.
—The Legislative Council rejected the Free Education Bill by eight votes to seven.
—The Women's Franchise Bill replaced on the notice paper.
—Mr. H.M. Gooch (of Messrs. H.M. Gooch and Co., Melbourne) reported before the Committee of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society in the most highly satisfactory manner on the position of South Australia as a wine-producing country, viz. champagne, best in the colonies and equal to any imported brands; Muscat and Frontignac, of exceptional value; light red wines, of unsurpassed excellence; port, equal to Spain and Portugal, and for invalids better. This, from an expert of a neighbouring colony. with nothing to prejudice him in favour of South Australian wines, was considered very high and valuable praise.
—Report of Select Committee on agricultural bonuses, in favour of the State giving bonuses on exported butter, and of providing cool air trucks and central freezing chambers for the railways.
—Local Option and Deceased Brother's Widow Marriage Bill shelved.
—A parcel of 17 cwt. of splendid specimens of mica brought to Adelaide from the MacDonnell ranges.
—Forty members of the Legislature and others went to Millbrook to inspect a scheme for conserving 2,555,000,000 gallons of water from the river Torrens.
—University Commemoration Day and unveiling bust of Sir Thomas Elder, G.C.M.G.
—A Loan Bill passed for £1,532,913 for railways, public works, etc.
—The Federal Council Bill, providing for South Australia remaining associated with the Australasian Federal Council for another year, finally shelved by the Legislative Council.
—The Largs Jetty sold to Mr. Edward Kay for £15,000.
—Two thousand children entertained with Christmas fare in the Jubilee Exhibition Building.
—Parliament prorogued by Lord Kintore.
(Sunday).—Fifty-fourth anniversary of proclamation of the province. On Monday, a public holiday, 30,000 persons visited Holdfast Bay, and picnicked on the beach near where Governor Hindmarsh read the famous proclamation.
—Chief Justice Way left Adelaide for England on twelve months' leave of absence.
Dec. 31.
—The 2½d. ocean postal rate came into operation.
Jan. 4.
—Mr. John Neill, J.P., of Port Adelaide, aged 63. Came to the colony in 1839; for fourteen years in service of South Australian Company; at the time of his decease Warden of the Marine Board.
—Mr. H.P. Hilton, aged 65. Arrived in 1840; well known to early colonists.
—In a railway accident (see p. 354) the Hon. J.G. Ramsay, M.L.C.
—Mr. J. Gaskell, one of the oldest and most respected Kapunda residents. Arrived in colony in 1848.
—Mr. George Avey, an old and well-known resident of Mount Gambier, aged 68. A colonist of thirty-five years.
—At Gambier East, Mr. Duncan Buchanan, one of the oldest residents of that district, aged 71.
—Mr. P. Rowland, a colonist of thirty-six years, aged sixty-three.
Feb. 11.
—At Victor Harbour, Mr. C. Draper, aged 79. Well known to old colonists as a merchant and exporter.
—At Salisbury, Mr. William Urlwin, a well-known exhibitor of dairy produce, aged 64.
March 7.
—At Mitcham, Captain Alexander Tolmer, K.T.S., aged 75. One of the most enterprising and adventurous of pioneer colonists (see his "Reminiscences of a Chequered Career", in two volumes, published in London by Messrs. Sampson Low, Marston, and Co.).
—At O'Halloran Hill, Mr. Thomas S. Porter, aged 60. An ardent pastoralist, agriculturist, and an excellent colonist.
—Mr. C.G. Doughty, aged 74. A well-known squatter of the south-east.
April 1.
—Mr. C.F.O. Michael, aged 61, late post-master of Gawler.
—At North Adelaide, Mr. John Williams, aged 66. Well known in connection with pastoral pursuits, and as a member of the House of Assembly.
—Mr. Benjamin Nash, aged 61. Arrived in colony in 1855; one of the representatives of West Torrens in the House of Assembly.
—Suddenly, at Angaston, Dr. Henry Ayliffe, aged 71. Came out in 1838; a man greatly beloved and respected.
—Mr. H.J. Andrews, Under-Secretary. A valuable and trustworthy official for nearly forty years.
—Mr. Arthur Leake, J.P., of Tasmania, to whom the citizens of Adelaide are largely indebted for the restoration of the belt of Park-lands around the city.
May 6.
—Mr. W.R. Wigley, S.M. Closely identified with the colony, almost from its earliest history.
—Of influenza, Mr. E.G. Beechmore, J.P., of Auburn, in which township he was born.
—Captain Lewis, harbour master of Port Germain.
—Mr. Samuel Churchward, B.A., second master at Prince Alfred College. A scholarly man and greatly esteemed.
July 15.
—Mr. J.G. Greer, aged 55, merchant. For nine years a member of the Unley Corporation, and for three years Mayor.
—Mrs. Haining, widow of Rev. Robert Haining, first pastor of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church. Came to the colony in 1840.
—Mr. J.R. Knuckey, aged 44. Inspector of Telegraph and Telephone Lines.
—Killed in an accident on the Northern Line of railway, near Dry Creek, Mr. James Cowan, member of the Assembly for the district of Yatala; and Mr. Mark Bullimore, a well-known electrician.
July 28.
—Rev. John Hannay, J.P., aged 68. Minister of the Baptist Church at Angaston, and afterwards of the Union Church of that town; greatly beloved and respected.
—Hon. Lavington Glyde, aged 67. He was in every Parliament from the first to the tenth inclusive.
Aug. 6.
—Mr. Thomas Maslin, aged 81. Arrived in the Tam o'Shanter in 1836; one of the oldest pioneers.
—Mr. J. Puxton, aged 85. An old and respected resident of Glenelg; arrived in the colony in 1851.
—At Narridy, Mrs. Thomas Roberts. Arrived in colony in 1839 by ship Sir Charles Forbes.
—At St. Kilda, Melbourne, James White, of Kapunda, aged 70. A colonist of forty years.
—At Gumeracha, aged 81, Mr. William Hicks, J.P.
Oct. 5.
—Mr. E.B. Edgecombe, aged 72. Arrived in the ship Hooghly in 1839.
—At Angaston, the Rev. J.R. Kelly, the popular and talented minister of the Congregational Church in that town.
—Mr. J.M. Sinclair, a very old resident of Port Adelaide, and an esteemed colonist. For many years Mayor of the Port.
—Mr. A. McCulloch, of Princess Royal and Yongala Stations, aged 80. Came out in the Oriana in 1836; held in universal respect, and famous for his liberal hospitality.
Oct. 20.
—Mr. Joseph Edmunds, aged 87. He was the originator of the incorporated town of Kensington and Norwood; the first to drive a team of six bullocks over the hills from Adelaide to the Murray.
—Suddenly, Mr. Ralph Raphael, aged 70. A colonist of forty years, and held in high esteem, especially by the Jewish community.
30.—Mr. Fraser S. Crawford, Government photo-lithographer since 1867. Well known throughout Australia as an experienced entomologist.
Nov. 4.
—Rev. Hans Mack, aged 59. For thirty-nine years Wesleyan Minister.
—Mr. J.R. Murray, aged 64 One of the promoters of the Holdfast Bay Railway Company, and a director of the Company from its starting to the time of his death.
Dec. 7.
—Suddenly, Mr. E. Holthouse, aged 77. Arrived in colony in 1838.
—At Gawler river, John Dawkins, J.P. A colonist of fifty years; assisted in constructing the first reaping machine at Ridley's works.

Dec. 7.
—At Eastbourne, England, aged 68, Sir Arthur Blyth, K.C.M.G., Agent-General for South Australia for fourteen years. A colonist of 1839.

Nov. 7.
—Sir John Morphett, K.C.M.G., a colonist of 1836, a member of the first Legislative Council, and subsequently Speaker. Was Chief Secretary in 1861, and in 1865 succeeded Sir J.H. Fisher as President of the Council, retiring in 1875.

{Page 371}



[VOL. II. pp. 70, 93.]

THE University of Adelaide was established by Royal Letters Patent, dated March 22, 1881, to grant the several degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Bachelor of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Laws, Bachelor of Science, Doctor of Science, Bachelor of Music, and Doctor of Music. The degrees so granted or conferred on any person, male or female, were declared to be recognized, and to be entitled to rank, precedence, and consideration in the United Kingdom, the British Colonies and Possessions throughout the world, as fully as if granted by any University in the United Kingdom.

The Acts upon which these Letters Patent were issued were: I. The Adelaide University Act No. 20 of 1874, which contains, as a schedule, a deed of gift by Mr. W.W. Hughes of £20,000, and the appointment of the Rev. H. Read, M.A., as Professor of Classics and Comparative Philology and Literature, and of the Rev. John Davidson as Professor of English Language and Literature, and Mental and Moral Philosophy. The deed is dated December 24, 1872. The sixteenth clause of the Act provides that the Governor may grant and convey 50,000 acres for an endowment, and live acres on North Terrace as a site for the University buildings. On November 6, 1874, the lion. Thomas Elder executed a deed of gift of £20,000 for maintaining the University.

II. Act 172 of 1880 provides that women who have fulfilled all the conditions prescribed may be admitted to any degree at a meeting of the Council and Senate.

In the year 1879 the Hon. J.H. Angas founded the "Angas Engineering Scholarship" to "encourage the training of scientific men, especially civil engineers, with a view to their settlement in South Australia." The scholarship is tenable for three years, and is of the annual value of £200. The candidates must have graduated in Arts, Science, or Engineering at the Adelaide University, and have passed prescribed special studies to qualify them to be civil engineers. The award to be determined by special examination in mathematics, physics, geology, chemistry, and mechanical and engineering drawing. The successful candidate to proceed to the United Kingdom when directed by the Council, and spend the whole of his time, there or elsewhere, as prescribed, in special studies. Within five years of gaining the scholarship and obtaining his diploma or certificate, and after settling in South Australia, on writing to the approval of the Council a report of his proceedings and engineering work, the scholar to receive a further sum of £100 towards his travelling expenses.

Mr. Angas also founded and endowed by a gift of £6000 a Chair of Chemistry, the Professor of which to be called the Angas Professor of Chemistry. The first Professor selected for this important Chair was Professor E.H. Rennie, M.A., D.Sc., whose scientific and practical services have been of great value to the Colony.

The South Australian Scholarship, of the value of £200 per annum, tenable for four years, was offered by the Department of Education, and awarded on the recommendation of the Council of the University. Candidates to be under twenty-one years of age on the 31st of December in the year in which the scholarship is awarded. The successful candidate required to pass in Classics and Mathematics up to the first examination for the degree of B.A.; and as soon as possible after successful examination to proceed to some European University approved by the Minister of Education. This scholarship was established in 1879, but was discontinued in 1886.

The Department of Education also offers annually for competition three University Scholarships, each of the value of £50 per annum, and tenable for three years. Candidates must be under eighteen years of ago. Successful competitors must become students at the University, and pass the annual examination for the degree of B.A. or B.Sc.

The two John Howard Clark Scholarships are tenable for two years, and are each of the annual value of £30 per annum. Candidates must be matriculated students of the University, who at the next preceding ordinary or supplementary ordinary examination have completed the first year of their course for the B.A. degree.

The two Star Prizes are of the value of £15 per annum, and are for undergraduates studying for the LL.B. degree in the third term in each academic year. Every undergraduate in Laws, who at each of the first, second, and third examinations, shall win a Star Prize, shall receive a gold medal and be styled the "Star Scholar".

The Commercial Travellers' Association Scholarship is awarded to any matriculated student, being a son or daughter of a member of the said Association, and nominated by its committee of management. The holder of this scholarship to be exempt from payment of all University fees up to and including the degrees of B.A., B.Sc. and B.M.

The Gilchrist Scholarship is of the value of £100 per annum, tenable for three years, open to natives of the Australian Colonies, or to persons who have resided in either of them for five years immediately preceding the examination. Candidates to be between sixteen and twenty-two years of age, to present themselves at the January Matriculation of the University of London. Local examinations are held in Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney. Scholarship to be awarded to the candidate who is highest at the examination, and passing either in the honours or the first division.

The Everard Scholarship was founded by the late Hon. W. Everard, M.L.C., who left £1000 to found a scholarship of £50 per annum to the student who is placed first in the class list of the final examination for the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery. Successful candidate to be styled "Everard Scholar".

The St. Alban Scholarship, founded by the Masonic Lodge of St. Alban, is worth £15 per annum, and is awarded by the University to any matriculated student, being a son or daughter of a worthy past or actual member of the Fraternity, nominated by the Lodge.

{Page 374}



[VOL. II. p. 94.]

THERE is no more interesting question to British investors and Colonial borrowers than that of the security upon which Australian loans are raised. During the past few years, great prominence has been given to it in the leading English financial papers, and much unnecessary uneasiness, not to say alarm, as to the soundness and security of Australian colonial investments has been created. The essential difference between the National Debt of Groat Britain and Colonial Loans is often imperfectly perceived, and sometimes entirely overlooked. This difference was aptly and clearly pointed out by the Earl of Rosebery, in a speech made by him at a banquet given in his honour in Adelaide some years ago. He pointed out that the British National Debt had been incurred and the money Lad all been expended in "gunpowder and glory", while the debts of the Australian colonies were to construct railways, bridges, roads, wharves, jetties, to erect great public buildings and lighthouses, to deepen harbours, and to carry out national works, most of which were directly reproductive and were available as assets, and all of which had given a largely increased value to the public lands.

In a History of South Australia it would be out of place to discuss the general question of Australian loans, or the financial position of the other colonies. But it may be interesting to the readers of this work to have briefly placed before them what are the facts connected with the indebtedness of South Australia. We will take the facts and figures for 1891.

The total bonded debt, including the Northern Territory, is £21,657,300. The Northern Territory amount is £1,756,400. The security for the latter sum is 335,116,800 acres of land, a railway of 148 miles from Port Darwin to Pine Creek, a splendid jetty at Port Darwin constructed at a cost together of £1,200,000. The total debt of South Australia proper is £19,900,900. The security for this is the 243,244,800 acres which the Colony comprises, of which only 7,026,522 acres have been sold, at a cost to the holders of the fee simple of £9,022,745. There are, therefore, 236,218,278 acres unalienated, which are a direct asset. 1,096,570 are covenanted to be sold on deferred payments, however, for which the State has yet to receive £1,413,372. 112,036,384 acres are leased at an annual rental of £184,684. On the sold and leased lands there are depastured 7,000,000 sheep, 359,000 cattle, and 187,000 horses.

Of the, say, £20,000,000 which have been borrowed, £14,500,000 have been spent on railways, telegraphs, and other directly remunerative public works, which yielded for the year 1891, over working expenses, £704,000, thus paying the full interest of 4 per cent. upon £17,600,575 of the bonded debt, leaving interest on only £2,300,325 to be mot out of the general revenue. The difference between such a balance-sheet as this, and that of Great Britain, is very apparent; and the figures themselves are, or ought to be, sufficient to satisfy the veriest pessimist of Capel Court, without referring further to the public buildings, the forest reserves, and what may be termed the unenumerated public property of the Colony. Of course, the prudent and far-seeing public men of South Australia are fully alive to the evils of too rapid borrowing, and the criticism and checks which somewhat avaricious syndicates have originated will no doubt tend to greater caution in the future.

{Page 375}



[VOL. II. p. 72.]

IN 1892 the Australasian, a Melbourne paper, published an article on "Phantom Cabinets". Although a somewhat exaggerated description, there is much truth in the article, from which we append an extract. It is beyond question that South Australia has long been in need of a powerful and settled Government.

"There is some subtle and undetected quality in the political atmosphere of South Australia," says the Australasian, "which forbids its Governments to attain old age. They all die young. Few reach the knickerbocker stage; none attain manhood; most of them perish before they are weaned. In the thirty-six years of its constitutional history South Australia has had forty-one Cabinets—a long procession of phantom-like Governments that have flitted across the political stage and vanished, unwept, into mere darkness. Six South Australian Cabinets stand recorded in history as having been in existence for less than three weeks each! One lasted for slightly more than a fortnight; another ended its tender life in less than a fortnight; yet another managed to maintain a gasping and dubious existence for exactly nine days, and then expired! One absurd result of this state of things is that the South Australian Parliament resembles an American militia regiment, and consists principally of officers. Its benches, that is, are crowded with Ministers of the Crown in all tenses—past, present, and to come. It would be difficult to discover a South Australian member of Parliament who has not been in office, or reasonably expects to be there some day. They are all officers, in fact, and no privates. It cannot be pretended that this state of things is either natural or wholesome. Efficient administration, even, becomes impossible. A Government that was born yesterday and expects to die to-morrow has no time to remedy abuses or even grasp the details of official work. It is easy, after all, to discern the cause of the political levity which so painfully afflicts the public life of South Australia. One cause is common to all the colonies. There is, with us, no deep gulf parting party from party and class from class. We have, in fact, no party politics in the English sense among us. Our politicians, therefore, do not stand in known, confessed, and sworn allegiance to rival political creeds; and sides are easily changed where the dividing-lines are so faint. But there is one special and obvious cause of political levity in South Australia, which is, fortunately, unshared by the other colonies. South Australia has abandoned the ancient and wholesome rule which requires a Minister of the Crown on accepting office to go before his constituents for re-election. The electors, that is, do not keep the key of the door of office, and until Parliament dissolves and a general election arrives members are safe. Office is thus made easy and safe for everybody, since the road to it does not lie through the ballot-box. We grumble at the inconvenience and delay which is sometimes caused by the rule requiring a Minister on accepting office to go before his constituents. But the South Australian experiment demonstrates the worse mischief caused by the opposite plan."

{Page 377}



[VOL. II. p. 142.]

IT will be very apparent to the English readers of this History that the four great industries of South Australia are:—

1. The Pastoral, of which the live stock statistics have already been given. Considering the enormous area of the Colony, and the great expenditure incurred and courageous enterprise shown by the pastoralists, the number of sheep, horned cattle, and horses should be larger. Severe and long-continued droughts, and also rash and unwise legislation in resuming pastoral country for agriculture, account in part for this. But as the question of water supply yearly receives closer attention, and boring for artesian supplies is being carried out on more scientific principles; and as also the uselessness of attempting to grow wheat where a sufficient rainfall is not known to exist, is now recognized, the flocks and herds will increase, and new country will be taken up and stocked.

2. The Agricultural interest is of great importance to the Colony. The latest statistical returns show that 2,864,877 acres are under cultivation of some kind. The wheat grown in the dry atmosphere of South Australia has for many years commanded the highest price in Mark Lane, and though the sharp competition of the United States, Canada, and India have heavily reduced the price of wheat in the European markets, there is little doubt that South Australia will be able to hold her own. Much more attention, too, is now being given to vine-growing, wine-making, fruit culture, canning, and also dairying, so that the settlers on the soil may expect to receive a considerable increase to their incomes.

3. The Mining industry has come to the rescue of South Australia in more than one period of depression. Particulars of the celebrated copper mines at the Burra, Kapunda, and at Wallaroo and Moonta, have been given in other pages. Gold has been found over a wide area of country, but not in such rich quantities as in New South Wales, Victoria, and New Zealand. At the present time the Wadnaminga Field is attracting attention, and experts confidently expect that the yield of gold will greatly expand. A seam of coal of phenomenal thickness has been bored through at Leigh's Creek, about one hundred and eighty miles north of Port Augusta, and boring operations are being carried on near Port Victor with fair prospects of success.

4. The Manufacturing interests are receiving increasing attention from investors. However heretical, from a free-trade point of view, it may be, the fiscal policy of the colony is strongly in the direction of the encouragement of local industries. Heavy import duties are levied on moat of the articles that can be manufactured in South Australia. Factories for leather goods, clothing, tobacco, soap, pickles, preserves, confectionery, furniture, tin ware, Portland cement, have been successfully established. Locomotives, boilers, iron and steel pipes, railway rolling stock, carriages of all classes, and iron work generally are made in the Colony. With the Federation of Australia, which must come in the near future, there will be free intercolonial trade; but if the present views of leading statesmen indicate the policy of the future, the Commonwealth of Australia will not open its ports to the markets and manufactories of the world without some protective duties.

{Page 379}



[VOL. II. p. 142.]

THE necessity for skilled and scientific knowledge to the successful prosecution of agriculture in a new country is, of course, very obvious. To afford the necessary means for practical study, experiment, and culture, the Parliament, in the year 1882, placed a sum upon the estimates for the purchase of a farm and the erection of a College. After careful examination of many sites, an area of 828 acres was purchased, about three miles from the Roseworthy railway station. In some respects the selection was unfortunate, as the rainfall is rather light; the soil is below the average of the agricultural districts—it lacks variety, and it has no permanent or flowing water to test the effect of irrigation. On this site a handsome but somewhat inconvenient two-storied College has been erected, capable of housing thirty-six students, with laboratory attached. The objects of the institution are—(1) To train young men for the scientific practice of agriculture and rural economy; (2) to conduct experiments with a view to the advancement of agriculture. The course of study extends over two years of two sessions each, and may be extended to a third year. The syllabus of lectures consists of—(1) Agriculture—the soil, manures, implements and machines, crops, silage, live stock, food stuffs, irrigation, diseases of field crops, farm buildings, and farm equipment. (2) Chemistry, theoretical and practical. (3) Botany. (4) Geology. (5) Physics and mechanics—heat, mechanics, and hydrostatics. (6) Mensuration and surveying. (7) Comparative anatomy and physiology. (8) Veterinary science. (9) Book-keeping. (10) Forestry. No diploma is issued to any student who has not resided in an Agricultural College for two years, the latter in the Agricultural College at Roseworthy.* Students are required to take part in the manual work on the farm. The first Principal appointed was Mr. J.B. Custance, B.Sc. The present Principal is Mr. W. Lowrie, M.A., B.Sc.

[* A gold medal is awarded annually to the student in the senior division who obtains the highest number of marks in the examination for the diploma of the College, and a silver medal for the dux in the junior division. These medals are the gift of the Hon. J.H. Angas, M.S.C., and are eagerly competed for.]

{Page 380}



[VOL. II. p. 142.]

THIS society, which has exercised a most valuable influence in developing the pastoral, agricultural, horticultural, and manufacturing interests of the Colony, was founded in the year 1840, under the title of the South Australian Agricultural Society. From the foundation to 1858 the following gentlemen were elected Chairmen: J. Morphett, M.L.C., Captain Bagot, M.L.C., John Baker, M.L.C., John Hart, M.P., Dr. Wyatt E. Stephens, J.P., and A.H. Davis. From 1859 to 1893 the Presidents have been Sir G.S. Kingston, Sir W. Milne, Sir S. Davenport, K.C.M.G., Sir R.D. Ross, G.C. Hawker, M.P., J. Baker, M.L.C., A.B. Murray, M.L.C., J.H. Angas, M.L.C., J.L. Stirling, M.L.C., E.W. Andrews, J.P., G. McEwin, J.P., J. Robertson, J.P. Under the revised rules adopted in 1891 no retiring President is eligible for re-election for more than three years in succession. The General Committee consists of sixty-seven members. There are six sub-committees—(1) Agriculture; (2) Pastoral and wool; (3) Horticulture and floriculture; (4) Wine; (5) Manufactures and miscellaneous; and (6) Horses. The Autumn Show is held in the month of March in the Society's grounds and buildings, Adelaide, and consists of agricultural produce, machinery and implements, wool, blood horses, dogs. South Australian industries and manufactures, fruits, flowers, vegetables, and horses in action. The Live Stock Show is held in the month of September, and consists of cattle, sheep, fat stock, horses, pigs, poultry, dairy produce, agricultural machines and implements, vegetables, fruits, flowers, and horses in action. Wine shows arc also held at the Society's cellars, Jubilee Exhibition Building. Trials of reapers with twine binders, and other agricultural implements, are held from time to time.

{Page 381}


[The Index is not linked to the text. Please use the site Search Box instead]


Aborigines in South Australia
difficulties with
affray with
Mr. Eyre and schools for children in Adelaide
rights of
Archdeacon Hale and
decrease of
Aborigines' Friends Association
A'Court, Captain
Acts—to establish a Constitution
to grant a Civil List
for the Transfer of Real Property
re Crown Lands
for extending the jurisdiction of the Local Courts
See also BILLS
Adam Bay
Adamson, A.
Adelaide, site of
in early days
religious communities in
in 1837
police force
emigrants' quarters
Government House
in 1841
policy of retrenchment
hard times in
ecclesiastical affairs in
a free port
arrival of Captain Sturt
exodus from, for the gold-fields
in 1856
Duke of Edinburgh at
see also Appendix; Bushmen's Home and other Institutions
industries in
gold claims in the Northern Territory
prosperity in
visit of the Prince of Wales's sons to
Exhibition at
Lord Kintore at
Adelaide Dedissa Ale Company
——Morning Chronicle
——Observer, the
Waterworks and Drainage Act
Admella, s.s., wreck of the
Administrators of South Australia. See GOVERNORS
Adventures of a gold escort
Africaine, ship
Agricultural Bureau
——College, Roseworthy
——Crown Land Act
Agriculturists of the Northern district
Albany, Eyre's arrival at
Albert Victor, Prince, in South Australia
Alexandrina Lake
Alice Springs
Alligator, H.M.S.
Althorpe Islands
Amadeus Lake
America, wool importation
Anderson, Mr.
Angas, Mr. G.F., and South Australian Company
and Captain Hindmarsh
and Rev. T.Q. Stow
and education
and German emigrants
Governor Gawler and
and the financial crisis of 1841
Captain Grey's letter to
and Captain Sturt
and Captain Grey
and Bill to promote the Building of Churches
letters to Earl Grey
arrival at Adelaide
annuity for Captain Sturt
member of first Parliament
and Mr. Justice Boothby
and Aborigines' Friends Association
letter to, from Sir R. Macdonnell
retirement of
and the annexation of the Northern Territory
and the Bushmen's Club
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition
Angas, Hon. J.H., and the Bushmen's Club
and Adelaide University
visit of the Prince of Wales's sons to
and the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition
Annuities to Government officials
Antechamber Bay
Anthony, Mr.
Anti-Transportation League
Ascendant, vessel
Assay Office at Adelaide
Assessment of Stock Act
Auld, Mr. Patrick
vineyard of
Australia, discovery of
a naval station
Austria and Sardinia in 1859
Ayers, Sir Henry
and import duty on corn
Ayers Rock



Babbage, B. H
explorations of
Bacchante, s.s.
Backstair Passage
Bacon, Major
——, Lady C
Bagot. C.H., member of first Parliament
——, Captain
son of
Bagot, Captain J.T.
and Mr. Angas
Bagster, Mr. J.H.
Baker, Mr. Alfred
and Mr. Angas
——, Mr. John
ministry of
——, Hon. R.C.
——, T., member of first Parliament
Ballot Association
Bank of South Australia
Banks' Islands
Baptist church, the first, in South Australia
Barker, Captain C., discoveries of
Barker's Knoll
Barnard, Mr. E.
Barrier ranges, mineral resources of
Barrow, Hon. J.H.
Bass, George
"Battle of the Areas"
Baudin, Captain N.
Baxter, John
Bayliffe, E.E.
Beare, Mr. T.H.
Bell, Mr., and the Ferdinand River
Bernard, Mr. R.
Bible, the, in South Australian
Board Schools
Bickford, A.M., and Sons
Bills—to erect South Australia into a British Province
and aborigines
early, passed by the Council
for better Government of South Australia
passed by Council in 1843
for Repeal of Tonnage, Pilotage, etc.
regulating sale of Waste Lands
fixing Payment of Teachers
to promote the Building of Churches
to establish Corporation of the City of Adelaide
for the better Government of her Majesty's Australian Colonies
to establish the Legislative Council of South Australia
for recovery of Debts
for granting a Civil List
for constituting a Parliament
to appoint District Councils
City and Port Railway
Adelaide and Port Gawler Railway
Adelaide Waterworks and Drainage
relating to Public Works
for the Transfer of Real Property
for the Union of the Colonies
passed in 1857
for levying assessment on stock
to annex the Northern Territory to South Australia
for providing for destitute persons
for disposal of land in Northern Territory
for Land Reform
introduced in 1871 session
introduced in seventh Parliament
for the regulation of precedence
Northern Territory Supreme Court
Gold Mining
for the formation of a railway to Port Darwin
Public Works
Stamp Duties
others passed in 1875
passed during Session of 1877
of 1878
of 1882
passed in relation to the Northern Territory
session of 1885
session of 1886
Billiatt, J.
Blanchewater Lake
Blinkinsopp, Captain
Blunden, Mr.
Blyth, Sir Arthur
Bonney, Mr. Chas.
retirement of
—— Lake
Bonney's Bluff
Boothby, Justice, and Real Property Act
Border duties
Boston Island
Bottle Hill
Boucaut, Mr. J.P.
Bowman, Mr. E.
——, Mr. T.R.
Brassey, Lord
Bray, Mr. J.C. Ministry of
Bridge over the Murray River
Bridgewater, ship
Bright, Mr. H.E.
British Australian Telegraph Company
Broken Hill
Bromley, Captain
Brooks, Mr.
Brown, Mr. H.Y.L.
——, John
——, Robert
Bryan, Mr.
Bucknall, Mr.
Buffalo, H.M.S.
Building operations in South Australia
buildings erected by the South Australian Company
Bullion Hill, the
Bundey, Mr. W.H.
Burdett-Coutts, Baroness
Burford, W.H.
Burgoyne and Co.
Burke, Robert
Burr, Mr.
Burra Burra Mine
Burra Burra, s.s.
Bush fires
Bushmen's Club, the
Bushrangers near Adelaide
Butt, Mr.


Cadell, Captain F.
Cairns, Sir W.W., administration of
California, gold in
Campbell, M.
——, Major N.
Canada, corn from
Cannan, Mr. John
Cape Bridgewater
—— Catastrophe
—— Donnington
—— Jervis
—— Northumberland
—— Spencer
—— Willoughby
Carmichael, Mr.
Carnarvon, Lord, and Sir W.W.
Carpentaria, Gulf of
Carr, Mr.
Carrington, Lord
Catt, A.
Cattle, overland route for
Census of 1881 in South Australia
Centennial Exhibition, Melbourne
Central Mount Stuart
Chaffey Brothers
Chambers' Creek
Chambers, Mr.
Charlick, Mr. H.
Chess Congress at Adelaide
Chinese, in Australia
in the Northern Territory
Church and State
—— at McLaren Vale
questions in South Australia
Cigar manufacture
Civil List
—— service in South Australia
retrenchment in
Claughton, Mr. G.
Clearings, the farmers and
Cleland, Dr.
Climate of South Australia
Clint, Mr. Robert
Coates, Mr. E.
Cock, Mr.
Cockburn, Dr. J.A.
Coffin Bay
Cole, J.W.
Coleridge and colonization
Coles, Corporal
——, Mr. J.
Colonial and Indian Exhibition, South Australia in
—— Commissioners, labours of
—— Federation
—— Labour Office
Colonization, Mr. Wakefield and
Colonel Torrens and
Coleridge and
—— Society, the
—— Commissioners
and expenditure
during 1838
Colton, Hon. J.H., Cabinet of
Commercial Bank, failure of
Commission to inquire into the grievances of the squatters
Conference for the discontinuance of transportation
Congregationalists in Adelaide
Conigrave, J.F.
Constitution, a new, for South Australia
—— Bill, a
—— Act Amendment Bill
Convicts escaped from New South Wales and Tasmania
Cook, Captain
Coolies, importation of, into the Northern Territory
Cooper, Judge
——, Sir Charles, house of
Cooper's Creek
Copper market, 1889
Cordials, manufacture of
Corn, import duty on
Cotter, Dr.
Cotton in South Australia
Coulthard, W.
Council of 1851, members of
Courier, steamer
Cox, Rev. F.W., "Jubilee Record of Congregationalism"
Crime in South Australia
Crops, the farmers' first
Crown Lands Consolidation Bill
Crown Lands Department
Cultivation of native industries
Cumberland, cutter named
Currie, Mr. Raikes
Cust, Mr. A.
Cygnet, ship


Dalton, Rev. J.N.
Dalwood, Mr.
Daly, Sir Dominick, administration of
—— Waters
Dancing, aborigines and
Darke, Mr., explorations of
Darling, Governor
——, Mr. J.
—— River, Captain Sturt and the
Darwent, Mr.
Dashwood, Mr. G.F.
Davenport, Mr. R.
——, Sir Samuel
member of first Parliament
testimony to Mr. Angas
and silk culture
Davey, Dr.
Davidson, J.
Davies, Dr. C.
Davis, Dr.
Davy, Dr.
Dawes, W.R.
Dean, H.
Defence of South Australia, the
of the Northern Territory
Denial Bay
Denison Range
Depression in South Australia in 1886
De Quiros
Derby, Lord, and the Northern Territory
Dilke, Sir Charles, "Problems of Greater Britain"
Dillon, Captain
Distillation Act
District Councils, establishment of
Douglas, Captain B.
Downer, Sir J.W.
Drescher, Dr.
Drought in the Northern district of South Australia
Drunkenness in South Australia
Duff, Captain
Duffield, W.
Duke of York, ship
Duncan, J.
Dunn, J.
Duties on various articles increased
Dutton, Mr. F.H.
ministry of
——, Mr. F.S.
"South Australia and its Mines"
——, Mr., station of


Echunga, gold-field at
Edinburgh, Duke of, at Adelaide
second visit
Education, Bill fixing payment of teachers
———— Bills
————, free, in South Australia
Education in South Australia, first report
Elder, Mr. A.L.
————, Sir Thos.
Electioneering in South Australia
Elections for the first Parliament
Elective Franchise Association
Electoral Act
Eliot, Lord
Elizabeth Hill
Ellis, Mr. J.
Ellen Lewis, ship
Elphinstone, ship
Emigration to Adelaide
Emigrants, accommodation for
from Germany
orphans from Ireland
Emma, ship
Encounter Bay
England and France in 1841
—— and United States in 1862
English mail service
Escape Cliffs
Evans, Mrs.
Events, chronological summary of, from the foundation of the colony
Everard, Dr. C.G.
Ewart, J.H.
Exhibition at Adelaide in 1881
Explorations, early, in Australia
undertaken by the South Australian Government
—— during Sir J. Fergusson's administration
under Sir A. Musgrave
in the Northern Territory
in South Australia
Eyre, Mr. E.J.
explorations of
and the aborigines
—— Lake


Falcon, H.M.'s sloop
Fanny, ship
Farmers, the first, in South Australia
Farrrell, Rev. Jas.
Favenc, Mr.
Federation of the Colonies
Ferdinand River
Fergusson, Sir James, administration of
——, Major
Field, Lieutenant
Financial crisis in South Australia
Finke, Mr.
—— River
Finniss, Mr. B.T.
and District Councils
and the Militia Bill
acting Governor
Government Resident of the Northern Territory
Fisher, Hon. J.H.
Fishery operations of the South Australian Company
Fitzalan, Lord
Fitzroy, Sir C.A.
Flinders, Matthew, explorations of
Flinders' Island
Flour, proposal to tax
Forrest, Mr. Alexander
Forrest, Sir John, explorations of
Forster, Mr. Anthony
on the wines of South Australia
Fortnum, Mr.
Foundation Day
in 1857
Founders of South Australia
Fowler, Lieutenant
Fowler's Bay
France and England in 1841
Australian distrust of
Franklin, Sir John
Fraser, Mr. Hugh
——, Sir Arthur
Frome, Captain
Fruit, export of South Australian
Fruits grown in South Australia
Furner, Mr. L.L.


Galatea, steam frigate
Gawler, Colonel
administration of
recall of
and the aborigines
—— Agricultural Society
—— Plain
—— River
General assembly of South Australia, the
George, Prince, in South Australia
German immigration in South Australia
Germein, Mr.
Gilber, Mr. Thos.
Giles, Mr. Ernest, explorations of
Giles, Mr. W.
Gilles, Mr. Osmond
—— Plain
Gisborne, Mr.
Gladstone, Mr. W.E.
and Major Robe
gum tree at
—— Plains
—— River, Captain Grey and
Glen Osmond
Glyde, Hon. L.
budget of
Goderich, Lord, and colonization
Gold, in California
in Victoria and New South Wales
reefs in the Northern Territory
at Teetulpa
industry in South Australia
Goolwa, the
Gosse, W.C. explorations of
Gothenberg, s.s., wreck of the
Gouger, Mr. Robert, and colonization schemes
and South Australian Company
Governors of South Australia
Goyder, Mr.
Graham, Mr.
Grainger, Mr. J.
Great Australian Bight
Grenfell, Mr. P. St. Leger
Grey, Captain George (afterwards Sir)
arrival of
administration of
"Life and Times of"
and grand juries
——, Earl, and colonization
letters to
and salary of
and Irish orphan emigrants
and the Parliament Bill
Grindal Island
Grote, Mr. George
Guichen Bay
Gwynne, E.C.


Hack, Mr. Stephen
Hagan, Jacob
Hale, Archdeacon
and the aborigines
Hall, Mr. G.
Hallett, J.
Hamley, Lieut.-Colonel F.G.
interim administration of
Hammond, Dr. O.
Hannaford, Mr.
Hanson, Mr. R.D.
Harcus, Mr., and transfer of real property
work on "South Australia"
Hardy, Mr. Alfred
——, T.
Hare, Mr. C.S.
Hargreaves, Mr.
Harris, Mr.
Hart, Captain John
Ministry of
Harvest of 1888
Harvey, J.
Hawdon, Mr. Joseph
Hawker, Hon. G.C.
Hay, A.
Head, B.
Heaton, J.H., "Australian Dictionary of Dates"
Hector, J.
Henry Ellis, ship
Hill, Sir Rowland
——, Richard T.
——, Mr. W.
Hindley, Mr. Charles
Hindmarsh, Admiral Sir John, early career of
arrival at Holdfast Bay
administration of
recall of
—— Lake
Holdfast Bay, camp at
Hope, Mr. George
Hopkins Island
Horrocks, Mr. J.A.
Horticultural Society of South Australia
Horticulture, the South Australian Company
House of Assembly in first Parliament
Howard, Rev. C.B.
Howe, Mr. J.H.
Howick, Lord (see GREY, EARL)
Howitt, Mr., explorations of
Hughes, J.B.
——, Sir W.W.
Hugo, William M., and the bushmen
Hummock, Mount
"Hundreds of the Murray
Hunter, Captain John
Hutt, Mr. John
Hutt, Mr. W.
Hutton. W.S.M.
Hurtle Vale
Hyde, Mr. James


female, from Ireland
Immigration Act, Indian
——, discontinuance of free
free and assisted
in South Australia
—— Question, the
Import duty on corn
Income and Property Tax Bill
Indian coolies for the Northern Territory
Industries in South Australia
Inman, Mr., attack on
Institutes, opening of, on Sundays
Intercolonial Conference
Free Trade Bill
International Exhibition at Adelaide, 1887
Invention, an era of
Investigator, ship
Investigator's Group
—— Straits
Irish female immigrants
Iron ores in South Australia
Irrigation colonies
—— colony on the banks of the Murray River


Jacob, Mr. William
Jamieson, Mr.
Jeffcott, Sir John W.
Jefferies, Rev. James
Jervois, Sir William, administration of
Jickling, Mr. H.
John Pirie, ship
loss of
Johnson, J.C.F.
Jones, Captain
Jones, Mr. J.W.
Joubert, Mr. J.
Jubilee Exhibition Bill
—— of South Australia
Judge, Mr. T.K. Pater
Judges, provision for retiring allowances to
Juries, abolition of grand


Kadina town
Kangaroo Island
Kapunda Copper Mine
Kavel, Rev. Augustus
Kaye, Sir J.W., and Mr. Daly
Keith-Falconer, A.H.T. See KINTORE, LORD
Kekwick, Mr. W.
Kelly, Dr.
Kent, Mr.
King, Mr. S.
Kingscote, Mr. Henry
——, settlement at
Kingston, Sir G.S.
——, Sir George S.
——, Mr. C.C.
Kimberley, Lord
and Overland Telegraph
Kintore, Lord
Klemzig, town of
Klose, Mr. F.
Krichauff, F.E.


Labour market in South Australia
Lacepede Bay
Lachlan River
Lady Mary Pelham, ship
—— Nelson, ship
Lake Alexandrina
Land in Northern Territory
—— Bill of 1883
—— booms in South Australia
—— and Property Bill
—— Reform
—— waste, Major Robe and
Landsborough, explorations of
Lands Consolidation Act, Northern Territory
Lansdowne, Lord
La Pérouse
Lawley, Hon. Mr.
Lawrence, A.J.
League for Maintenance of Religions
Leake, R.R.
Lefevre, J. Shaw
Le Géographe, French ship
Legislative Council, opening of
and the Bullion Bill
reform of the
Le Naturaliste, French ship
Lewis, Mr., explorations of
Licensed victuallers
—— Victuallers' Act
Light, Colonel William
description of
explorations and surveys of
and Captain Hindmarsh
death of
Lincoln, Port. See PORT Lincolnshire names given to places, etc., by Flinders
Lindesay River
Lindsay, A.F.
Lipson, Captain T.
Lipson's Cove
Liquor in South Australia
Loan Bills
Loans by South Australian Banking Company
Local Option
Loch, Sir Henry
Lofty, Mount
Longbottom, Rev. William
Lutheran Missionary Society
Lyall, J.
Lyndoch Valley


MacDermott, M.
Macdonnell, Sir Richard G.
and volunteer movement
—— Creek
Macfarlane, Mr. D.
McGorrerey, J.
McKinlay, Mr., explorations of
Mackinnon, Mr. W.A.
McLaren, Mr. D.
—— Vale
—— Wharf, Adelaide
MacLeay, Sir George
McMinn, Mr. W.
Magill Orphanage
Mahon, Lord
Mail service, the
Malcolm, Mr., ostrich farm of
Mann, Mr. Charles
Manton, J.F.
Manufactures, Chamber of
Maria, wreck of the
Marks, M.
Marriage Bill
Marsden Point
Masters, W.
Mauritius, Captain Flinders at
Mead, S.
Meat-preserving industry in South Australia
Medical Congress
Melbourne Centennial Exhibition
Melmenrura tribe
Memory Cove
Mengé, "Professor"
Methodists at Adelaide
Meyer, Mr. H.A.C.
Mildred, H.
Mildura, Irrigation Colony at
Militia Bills
Millner, Dr.
Mills, Mr. S.
——, Mr. W. Whiffield
Milne, W.
Minchin, Mr.
Mineral wealth of South Australia
Mineralogy in South Australia
Minerals, proposed royalty on
Mining Companies Act
—— discoveries on Yorke's Peninsula
—— on Private Property Act
Mitchell, Sir Thomas
Mitford, E.R.
Molesworth, Sir William
Monart, Queen
Montacute Mine
Montague, Corporal
Monteagle, Lord
Montefiore, Jacob
Montgomery, James
Moonta Mine
Moorhouse, Mr.
Moran, Cardinal
Morgan, Captain
——, Hon. W.H., Ministry of
Morphett, Sir John
Morrunda police-station
Mount Barker
—— Cone, iron ores in neighbourhood of
—— Hopeless
—— Lofty
—— Stuart
Mountains named by Flinders
discovered by Captain Sturt
Muecke, H.C.E.
Mueller, Baron von
Municipal corporations
Mundy, Mr. A.M.
Murchison River
Murphy, Patrick (bushranger)
——, Dr.
Murray, Hon. D.
—— River. Captain Sturt and the opening up of the
bridging the
Murray River, scene in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition
—— —— Railway scheme
—— Steam Navigation Company
Murrumbidgee River
Musgrave, Sir Anthony, administration of


Napier, Colonel C.J.
Nash, H.
Natives of South Australia. See ABORIGINES
Neale, Mr.
Neales, Mr. J.B.
Nelson, Major
Nepean Bay
New, J.F.
Newcastle, Duke of
petition to
and the Northern Territory of South Australia
—— Waters
Newenham, Mr.
Newland, Mr. S.
New South Wales
gold discovery in
sheep and cattle from
convicts from
Newspapers in South Australia
Nicholls, Mr.
Nicholson, Sir Charles, and Northern Territory
"Nobs", the, and Burra Mine
Nonconformists in South Australia
North Australian Land Company
Northern Territory of South Australia
Stuart and
South Australia and
land of
telegraph kid through
gold reefs in the
Supreme Court Bill
affairs of


Oakover River
Ocean postal question
O'Farrell's attempt to assassinate the Duke of Edinburgh
O'Halloran, Major T.S.
——, Captain W.L.
Old Colonists' Association
Onkaparinga River
Opening of Institutes on Sunday
Oratory, specimen of, in South Australia
Osborn, Commissioner Noel
——, Captain Sherard
Osborne, Mr.
Ostrich farming
Overland telegraph in South Australia


Pages Islands
Palmer, Mr. G., jun.
Palmerston, township
Parker, Mr. J.
Parliament, the first, in South Australia
the second
under Sir D. Daly
and the Northern Territory
the fifth
under Sir James Fergusson
dissolution of
question of payment of members
under Sir A. Musgrave
session of 1880
of 1881
of 1883
See also BILLS
Parsons, Mr. J.L.
Pastoral Land Act
—— Leases Bill
—— pursuits of the South Australian Company
Patterson, R.C.
Payment for members of Parliament
of Ministers
Peacock, Mr. W.
Peake, E.J.
Pearce Point
Pearl-shell in Port Darwin Harbour
Peel, Sir R., and Captain Grey
Pelham, Mr. Lionel
Pelicans on Kangaroo Island
Pelorus, H.M.S.
Penny, Dr.
Pensions to Government officials
Pernatty lagoon
Peron, Monsieur
Peters, Mr. Otto
Pettitt, Mr.
Phillip, Captain
Phillip Hon. Lake
Pirie, John
Place-seeking in South Australia
Playford, Mr. T.
Point MacLeay
—— Sturt
Police force in Adelaide
Political Associations in South Australia
Poll-tax, Chinese
Polygamy, aborigines and
Poole, Mr., death of
Porpoise, ship
Port Adelaide
—— Darwin
overland telegraph to
a free port
—— Elliot
—— Jackson
—— Lincoln
monument to Flinders at
—— —— Herald
Postal irregularities in South Australia
Post-office Act
Poulden, Mr.
Powys, Mr.
Preceptors' Association
Prescott, Mr. W.
Prince Alfred's Sailors' Home, Adelaide
—— George, German emigrants in
Princess Royal Mine
Princep's "Letters from Van Diemen's Land"
Privilege question
Proclamation Day at Adelaide
Property tax of 1878
Proprietary mines in Barrier district
Protector of Aborigines
Public Health Act
—— Trustee Act
—— Works Bill
Pullen, Mr.
——, Admiral


Queensland and the Northern
Territory of South Australia
and the overland telegraph
Queenslander, the


Rabbit Bill
Rabbits, pest of
Railway Bills, City and Port Adelaide
in 1878
Railways, Sir Henrv Young and
to Port Darwin
proposed, to connect River Murray with Adelaide
in the Northern Territory
in 1891
Ramsay, Hon. J.G.
Randell, Mr. W.B.
Rapid, brig
—— Bay
Rayner, Mr.
Real Property Act
Reaping machine invented by John Ridley
Reedbeds Lagoons
Rees, Mr. R.
Rees' "Life and Times of Sir George Grey"
Reform of the Legislative Council
Reid, Rev. M.
Reliance, ship named
Religion, State aid to
Religious institutions in South Australia
Renmark, Irrigation Colony at
Representative Council, end of
Reynell, Mr. John
Reynolds, Archbishop
——, Hon. T.
Rice, Mr. Spring. See MONTEAGLE, LORD
Richman, Miss Olive
Riddoch, Messrs. G. and J.
Ridley, John, reaping machine
Rifle Companies Act
Riley Point
Road Bill, a
Roads in South Australia
Robe, Major, administration of
Roberts, Mr. Josiah
Robinson, Sir Wm. C.F., administration of
Rochfort, captain of the Admella
Rocke, Colonel Jas. H.
Roper River
Roseworthy Agricultural College
Ross, Mr. John
——, Hon. Sir R.D.
Rounsevell, Mr. W.B.
Rowe, Mr.
"Royal Colonial Institute, Proceedings of the" and Irish female emigrants
and the Transcontinental telegraph
Royalty on minerals
Rufus River
Rundle, Mr. John
Rusden, Mr.
Russell, Lord John, and the Colonial Commissioners
Mr. Angas's letter to
Captain Grey's despatch to
and Captain Grey
and Waste Lands Bill
and Constitution Bill
Ryan, shepherd named
Rymill, F.


Sabine, C.
St. Vincent, Gulf of
Salaries of Ministers
Savings Bank Department
Scamell, L.
Schomburgk, Dr.
School, first, in South Australia
Schürmann, Mr. C.W.
Scott, Mr.
——, A.
————, Mr. Geo. B.
Scratchley, Colonel G.
Select Committee of Inquiry
Committees appointed in 1855-6
and the union of the Colonies
Settled Estates Act
Settlers, Sir H. Ayers and the early
aborigines and
Sheep stations round Adelaide
Shepherdson, Mr. J.B.
Shingle Expedition, the
Shoebridge, William
Short, Bishop
——, Dr.
Silk culture
Silver in South Australia
in the Barrier Ranges
Simpson, A.M.
Slater, Dr.
Sleaford Bay
Smart, Mr. S.
Smedley, C.
Smillie, Mr. W:
Smith, Mr. E.T., Mayor of Adelaide
——, Mr. Thos.
——, Vernon
Smoky Bay
"Snobs", the, and Burra Mine
Snow, Mr. S.C.
Soil of the Glenelg plains
Solomon, J.M.
Sorcery, aborigines and
Sotheron, Mr.
South Australia, founders of
a British province
land booms in
religious institutions in
aborigines in
crime in
drunkenness in
police force
early settlers in
explorations in
Germans in
Church Question in
fruits and vegetables in
Financial crisis in
a Crown Colony
insolvency of
policy of retrenchment in
an era of invention
mineralogy in
ecclesiastical affairs
a new Constitution for
gold fever in
defences of
trade depression in 1855
the first Parliament in
attains its majority
defence of
wine trade of
annexation of the Northern Territory
volunteer movement in
financial position of, in 1871
and the Overland Telegraph
industry in
defences of
financial affairs of, in 1879
census in 1881
under Sir Win. Robinson's administration
in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition
Jubilee of
wool exports from
mineral wealth of
wine trade in
water conservation and irrigation
forestry of
fruit production
ostrich farming in
the future of
chronological summary of events in, from the foundation of
South Australian, ship, loss of
—— ——, steamer
—— —— Act
—— —— Association
—— —— Banking Company
—— —— Church Building Society
—— —— Company, formation of and objects of the fleet of
and Kangaroo Island
some early operations of the
and McLaren Wharf
and losses by bushrangers
action against Major Robe
and vine cultivation
South Australian Gazette and Register
and Constitution Bill
and parties in 1860
and Sir D. Daly's administration
—— —— Record
—— —— Iron and Steel Company
—— —— lands, sale of
—— —— Militia Force
—— —— Mining Association
—— —— National Rifle Association
—— —— Ostrich Company
—— —— Philanthropic Association
—— —— Political Associations
—— —— School Society
—— —— Society
Southern Australian
Spalding Cove
Spence, Mr. J.B.
Spencer's Gulf
Squatting question, the
Stagg, Joseph, case of
Stamp Duties Bill
Stanley, Lord
and Waste Lands Bill
——, Mr. E.G.
Stephens, Mr. Edward
speech of
and Irish female immigrants
——, Mr. John, and South Australia
——, Mr. G.M., administration of
Stephens, Samuel
Stevenson, Mr. George
Stirling, E.
Stock, question of raising
Stow, Justice
——, R.I.
Stow, Rev. T.Q.
Strangways, Hon. H.B.T.
Ministry of
Streaky Bay
Struthers, Mr.
Stuart, J. McDouall, explorations of
Sturt, Captain Charles, discoveries of
annuity for
—— River
Sturt's Plains
Sugar Cultivation Act
Summary of Events from the Foundation of the Colony
Superstition, aborigines and
Sutherland, Captain
Sutherland's Act
Swan River Settlement
aborigines at
Swinden, C.
Sydney, Captain Sturt at
Bishop or, and Adelaide
—— Monitor
Symonds, Mr. R.G.


Taplin, Mr. G.
Tariff question, the
convicts from
Tate, Professor
Taxation scheme of 1883
Taylor Brothers' wool-washing machine
——, Dr.
—— (midshipman)
—— Island
Teetulpa, gold discoveries at
Teichelmann, Mr. C.G.
Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company
——, the overland
Tenkinyra tribe
The Times and the first Parliament
Thistle, Mr.
—— Cove
—— Island
Thomas and Co.
——, J.A.
——, Mr. Robert
Thomson, D.
Thring, F.W.
Tinline, Mr. George
"Tintara" vineyard
Tipara mineral claims
Tobacco, manufacture of
Todd, Mr. C., and the Overland Telegraph
——, James R.
Tolmer, Mr. A., "Reminiscences of an Adventurous and Chequered Career"
Toora tribe
Torrens, Colonel, and colonization
——, Sir R.R.
Real Property Act of
Torrens, Lake
—— River
Torres Straits
Townsend, William
Trades Union Act
Transcontinental Railway
—— Telegraph, the
Transportation, Conference for the discontinuance of
Trial by jury in South Australia
Troubridge Shoal
lighthouse on
Twopenny, Mr. R.E.N.


Union College, Adelaide
United States and England in 1862
University at Adelaide


Van Diemen's Land. See TASMANIA
Vegetables grown in South Australia
Vermin Destruction Act
Verco, Dr.
Viceregal Mansion, Adelaide
Victoria, Queen, accession of
——, gold-fields in
—— Lake
—— Square, Adelaide
Ville de Bordeaux, vessel
Vine cultivation in South Australia
See also WINE
Volunteer Force Bill
—— movement in South Australia


Wages, rate of, in South Australia
Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, and colonization
Walker, "Governor"
Wall, J.
Wallaroo Copper Mine
Warburton, Major, explorations of
Ward, Mr.
Wark, D.
Waste Lands Bills
Water conservation and irrigation
Waterhouse, G.M.
——, J.W.
Way, Justice, interim administration of
Waymouth, Henry
Wearing, Judge
Wellington, Duke of, and Soath Australia Act
Wells, Mr. Richard
Wesleyans in Adelaide
Westall, William
Western Australia in 1829
Mr. Eyre and
Captain Grey and
convicts in
West-Erskine, Mr.
Whale fishery at Kangaroo Island
Wheal Gawler Silver and Lead Mine
—— Watkins Lead Mine
Wheat in South Australia
export of, in 1889
Whitby, Mr. J.J.
Whitmore, Mr. W.W.
William IV, death of
Williams, Mr. T.
Williams, Mr. W.
—— Island
Wills, W.J.
Wine trade of South Australia
Winnecke, Mr. Charles
Witchcraft, aborigines and
Wood, Mr. G.W.
Woodforde, Dr. J.
Wool production in South Australia
—— washing machine
Working classes in South Australia
Wreck of the s.s. Gothenburg
See also s.s. Admella
Wright, Mr. E.
Wyatt, William
Wylie, native boy


Yatala, schooner
Yattagolinga Mine
Yorke's Peninsula
mining discoveries on
Young, Sir H.E.F.
administration of
Young, T.
Younghusband, William

1855 AND JUNE 1892




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